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- cittern - Hamburger waldzither. ATLAS of Plucked Instruments. "Around 1915 the Hamburger instrumentmaker C.H. Böhm developed a waldzither from the Portuguese guitarra, with the watch-key tuning mechanism and even with the curl at the end of the peghead. Soon this curl was left out, resulting in a very typical compact tuning head. Soon also other makers around Hamburg made quite similar models (like GEWA, Becker, Sampo), and so this type of waldzither is known as the Hamburger waldzither, or the Böhm waldzither. Böhm also made similar looking instruments with 8 strings to use as mandolines or mandolas, which he called "Waldolines"."