The Intonarumori (noise intoners) were a family of musical instruments invented in 1913 by Italian Futurist painter and musical composer Luigi Russolo. They were devices for producing a broad spectrum of modulated, rhythmic sounds similar to those made by machines, but without imitating or reproducing them. Unfortunately, none of the original intonarumori survived World War II.
- Intonarumori: history, working and photographs of the Intonarumori (noise makers). (Thereminvox.com)
- Modern Intonarumori reproductions and acoustics
- UbuWeb Dada for Now, 1985, UK featuring Russolo's Veglio di una città.
- The Futurist Moment: Howlers, Exploders, Crumplers, Hissers, and Scrapers by Kenneth Goldsmith