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See also category: Bandora (instrument).
- Lutes - orpharion. ATLAS of Plucked Instruments. "The orpharion is a delicate instrument, which seems like a combination of a cittern and a lute: the tuning of the lute and the metal ("wire") strings of the cittern. In fact it is a later version (and about 3/4 size) of a bandora (see under). ... It was designed in the second half of the 16th century. The orpharion was made like a guitar, with a flat or slightly rounded back, and with a beautiful wavy outline (which fits in the outline of a renaissance lute). ... The strings are made of metal and brass (the basses are twisted), usually in 6 to 9 double courses. ... The most interesting thing of the orpharion is the fact that the stringlength of the trebles is shorter than that of the basses. This results in the nut, frets and bridge being placed at an angle, demanding quite some accuracy from the instrument builder."