Commons:À propos des licences

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For the country by country licensing rules, please see Commons:Copyright rules by territory.

Cette page offre une vue d’ensemble des lois complexes sur les droits d’auteur au travers d’un guide à base d’exemples. Elle a pour but d’aider un contributeur à déterminer si des images ou d’autres médias peuvent être effectivement chargés dans Wikimedia Commons. Si vous êtes un réutilisateur, intéressé par comment utiliser le contenu de Wikimedia Commons dans vos créations, consultez Commons:Réutilisation de contenu hors de Wikimedia.

Wikimedia Commons accepte uniquement le contenu libre, c’est-à-dire les images et autres médias qui ne sont pas soumises à des restrictions liées au droit d’auteur qui empêcheraient leur réutilisation par tout un chacun, à tout moment, et pour tout motif. L’utilisation peut néanmoins être soumise à des restrictions autres, cf. Commons:Restrictions non-liées au droit d’auteur, et la licence peut avoir certaines conditions. Il y a également des œuvres dont le droit d’auteur a expiré dans un pays mais s’applique toujours dans un autre. Certains détails sont fournis ci-dessous. Wikimedia Commons fait de son mieux pour que de telles restrictions soient mentionnées sur la page de description de l’œuvre ; cependant c’est au réutilisateur qu’il incombe de vérifier que son utilisation de l’œuvre est conforme à la licence et ne viole aucune loi applicable.

Wikimedia Commons n’accepte que les fichiers multimédia :

Wikimedia Commons n’accepte pas le fair use, cf. Commons:fair use ; Commons n'accepte pas non plus les fichiers sous licences « non commerciales ».

La licence qui s’applique à une image ou autre média doit être clairement indiquée sur la page de description de l'image en sélectionnant un bandeau de licence. Toutes les informations requises par la licence doivent être sur la page de description. Elles doivent être suffisantes pour que d’autres utilisateurs puissent vérifier la validité de la licence. L’idéal est de saisir ces informations directement lors du téléversement, dans le champ résumé.

Pour demander à un auteur la permission d’utiliser son travail sur Commons, voir les modèles de courriels sur Commons ou sur Wikipédia.

Si vous souhaitez plus de renseignements sur les licences, voyez aussi cette page d'aide sur la Wikipédia en français.

Premiers pas

Licences acceptables[edit]

A copyright license is a formal permission stating who may use a copyrighted work and how they may use it. A license can only be granted by the copyright holder, which is usually the author (photographer, painter or similar).

Bande dessinée expliquant pourquoi Commons n'accepte pas les licences non commerciales.

Tous les fichiers sur Commons (autres que ceux du Domaine Public) doivent être publiés sous licence libre qui autorise n’importe qui à utiliser ces fichiers, pour n’importe quelle utilisation ; écrire que « N’importe qui peut réutiliser le travail » ou équivalent n’est pas suffisant. En particulier, la licence doit autoriser les conditions suivantes :

  • La republication et la distribution doivent être autorisées.
  • La publication de travaux dérivés doit être autorisée.
  • L’utilisation commerciale doit être autorisée.
  • La licence doit être perpétuelle (sans date d’expiration) et non-révocable.
  • La référence aux auteurs / contributeurs peut être requise.
  • La publication des travaux dérivés sous la même licence peut être requise.
  • L'utilisation de formats de fichier libres de restrictions numériques (DRM) peut être requise.

Sometimes, authors wish to release a lower quality or lower resolution version of an image or video under a free license, while applying stricter terms to higher quality versions. It is unclear whether such a distinction is legally enforceable, but Commons's policy is to respect the copyright holder's intentions by hosting only the lower quality version.

Les restrictions suivantes ne doivent pas s’appliquer aux images et autres médias :

  • Utilisation par Wikimedia seulement (à l'exception des logos et autres symboles qui sont les marques déposées, ou qui identifient les sites de la Fondation Wikimedia)[1]
  • Pas d’utilisation commerciale, ou utilisation à des fins éducatives seulement.
  • Utilisation selon le principe du fair use.
  • Obligation (plutôt que souhait) d’avertir l’auteur pour certaines ou toutes utilisations.

Plus spécifiquement, les cas suivants ne sont en général pas autorisés :

  • Les copies d'écran de logiciels qui ne sont pas eux-mêmes sous licence libre. Les copies d'écran de logiciel sous licence GPL ou similaire sont généralement considérées comme acceptables. Voir Commons:Screenshots.
  • Les captures d'écrans de films, télévision, etc. Voir Commons:Screenshots.
  • Les numérisations ou reproductions (photos) d'œuvres copyrightées, comme des couvertures de livres... Voir Commons:Derivative works.
  • Les logos, symboles, etc. d'une marque déposée.
  • Les maquettes, figurines, masques, jouets, etc. représentant une œuvre copyrightée, par exemple un personnage dessin animé ou de bande dessinée. Voir Commons:Derivative works.

Commons accepte bien sûr tous les travaux qui ne sont pas soumis au copyright (c'est-à-dire dans le domaine public). Cependant, certains pays ont des législations différentes en ce qui concerne le domaine public (voir plus bas)

For an explanation of the justification for this licensing policy, see Commons:Licensing/Justifications.

Licences multiples[edit]

De l’utilité de l’utilisation d’une licence Creative Commons.
Exemple d'une image libre "personnelle" d'un lieu public. Mis en licence double par l'auteur, GFDL et CC-BY-SA (voir la page de description)

Vous pouvez mettre autant de licences que vous voulez sur un fichier, du moment que au moins l'une d'entre elles remplit les conditions ci-dessus. Par exemple, une image peut posséder une licence « non commerciale », mais elle doit obligatoirement avoir aussi une licence compatible avec les principes ci-dessus.

La mise sous licence multiple peut être justifiée pour la compatibilité avec différents projets, ou pour donner davantage de liberté aux auteurs pour libérer des droits sur leur œuvre. Voir Commons:Multi-licensing.

Licences courantes[edit]

Les licences suivantes sont assez courantes, et sont à utiliser de préférence pour les fichiers de Commons :

Tous les travaux dans le domaine public (voir plus bas). Consultez Commons:Bandeaux de licence pour davantage de licences.

Note : La GFDL est assez peu pratique pour les images et les textes courts, en particulier pour les médias imprimés, puisqu’elle impose d’imprimer le texte complet de la GFDL avec les images ou le texte. Dans ce cas, il est préférable d'y ajouter une deuxième licence pour autoriser une utilisation plus souple, comme une Creative Commons. De plus, n’utilisez pas la GPL ou la LGPL comme unique licence pour vos œuvres si possible, puisqu’elles ne sont pas vraiment adaptées à autre chose que du logiciel.

Works which are not available under a license which meets the Definition of Free Cultural Works are explicitly not allowed. See the Wikimedia Foundation board resolution on licensing for more information.

Some examples of licensing statuses commonly found on the Internet, but forbidden on Commons, include:

  • Creative Commons Non-Commercial Only (-NC) licenses
  • Creative Commons No-Derivatives (-ND) licenses
  • Unlicensed material only usable under fair use, fair dealing, or other similar legal exceptions (see below for the reasons)

Non-permitted licenses may only be used on Commons if the work is multi-licensed under at least one permitted license.

Informations de licence[edit]

Example image with the recommended detailed image description (see image page)

All description pages on Commons must indicate clearly under which license the materials were published, and must contain the information required by the license (author, etc.) and should also contain information sufficient for others to verify the license status even when not required by the license itself or by copyright laws.

Specifically, the following information must be given on the description page, regardless if the license requires it or not:

  • The License that applies to the material. This should be done using a copyright tag.
  • The Source of the material. If the uploader is the author, this should be stated explicitly. (e.g. "Created by uploader", "Self-made", "Own work", etc.) Otherwise, please include a web link or a complete citation if possible. Note: Things like "Transferred from Wikipedia" are generally not considered a valid source unless that is where it was originally published. The primary source should be provided.
  • The Author/Creator of the image or media file. For media that are considered to be in the public domain because the copyright has expired, the date of death of the author may also be crucial (see the section about public domain material below). A generic license template which implies that the uploader is the copyright holder (e.g. {{PD-self}}) is no substitution for this requirement. The only exceptions to this is if the author wishes to remain anonymous or in certain cases where the author is unknown but enough information exists to show the work is truly in the public domain (such as the date of creation/publication).

Of less importance, but should always be provided if possible:

  • The Description of the image or media file. What is it of? How was it created?
  • The Date and place of creation. For media that are considered to be in the public domain because the copyright has expired, the date of creation may be crucial (see the section about public domain material below).

These points of the description can be done at best using the Information template. For usage of this template see Commons:First steps/Quality and description.

Étendue de la licence[edit]

In some cases, a document (media file) may have multiple aspects that can and have to be licensed: Every person that contributed a critical part of the work has rights to the results, and all have to make their contribution available under a free license—see derivative work. However, the distinctions are unclear and may differ from country to country. Here are a few examples to clarify:

  • For a music recording, the following aspects must be taken into account, and each must be under a free license (or in the public domain):
    • The score of the music (rights by the composer)
    • The lyrics of the song (rights by the writer)
    • The performance (rights by the performers)
    • The recording (rights by the technical personnel / recording company)
  • For a picture of artwork (also book covers and the like), it is similar:
    • The creator of the original artwork has rights to any reproductions and derivative work.
    • The photographer has rights to the image, if it is not a plain reproduction of the original.
  • For a picture of a building, note that the architect may hold some rights if distinct architectural features are shown, but see also Commons:Freedom of panorama.

This is often problematic, if the artwork is not the primary content of the image or is not clearly recognizable: in that case, usually only the creator of the resulting picture (recording, etc.) holds a copyright. For instance, when taking a photograph of a group of people in a museum, the photo may also show some paintings on the walls. In that case the copyright of those paintings does not have to be taken into account. The distinction however is not very clear.

Note that the license for all aspects has to be determined and mentioned explicitly. Also note that reproductions usually may not be copyrighted; the creator of an image of a picture owns no copyright to the resulting digital image. The only relevant copyright is that of the original picture. This also applies to Screenshots.

Travaux dans le domaine public[edit]

Material released under a license like CC-0 is considered the equivalent of public domain material; works that lack originality and edicts are in the public domain; a few governments around the world, including the US Federal, California, and Florida governments place most of their works, including most of their public records in the public domain; the English Wikipedia's guideline on public domain material more precisely defines these many exceptions.

Commons accepts material that is in the public domain, that is, documents allowed by the above exception, or that are not eligible to copyright, or for which the copyright has expired. But the "public domain" is complicated; copyright laws vary between countries, and thus a work may be in the public domain in one country, but still be copyrighted in another country. There are international treaties such as the Berne Convention that set some minimum standards, but individual countries are free to go beyond these minimums. A general rule of thumb is that if the creator of a work has been deceased for more than 70 years, their works are in the public domain in the country the creator was a citizen of and in the country where the work was first published. If the work is anonymous or a collaborative work (e.g. an encyclopedia), it is typically in the public domain 70 years after the date of the first publication.

Many countries use such a copyright term of 70 years. A notable exception is the U.S. Due to historical circumstances, the U.S. has more complex rules. In the United States, copyright generally lasts:

  • for works first published 1978 or later: until 70 years after the author's death. Anonymous works or work made for hire: until the shorter of 95 years since the first publication or 120 years since the creation of the work
  • for works first published before 1978: until 95 years after the first publication
  • for works first published before 1964, copyright lasts 28 years after publication (and is therefore currently expired) unless the owner filed for renewal (during the window between 27 and 28 years after publication) — the large majority of works published before 1964 have passed into the public domain, but it is imperative to determine—which can be done through an online search at the Copyright Office for works published since 1951—that copyright was not renewed
  • Works published before 1923 are in the public domain.

For works created before 1978 but only published 1978 or later, there are some special rules. These terms apply in the U.S. also for foreign works.

However, the year and location of publication is essential. In several countries, material published before a certain year is in the public domain. In the U.S. this date is January 1, 1923. In some countries, all government-published material is public domain, while in others governments claim some copyright (see Commons:Copyright rules by territory).

In the US, the copyright situation for sound recordings (including those published before 1923) is a complicated special case. Recordings fixed prior to February 15, 1972 may be copyrighted under common law and/or state laws which do not always have the same formalities and limitations as US federal copyright. More details are available at the {{PD-US-record}} talk page and this Wikilegal report.

In some jurisdictions (like the United States), one can also explicitly donate work one has created oneself to the public domain. In other places (like the European Union) this is technically not possible; instead, one can grant the right to use the picture freely with, for example, the Creative Commons Zero Waiver, which waives all rights granted by copyright, but the waiver might not be legally binding in the full extent of what is normally understood as “public domain” (e.g. regarding author’s moral rights).

The Hirtle chart is a tool for helping to determine if something is in the public domain in the United States. Commons:International copyright quick reference guide helps to determine if a work first published outside the United States can be uploaded.

Interaction des lois sur le copyright US et non US[edit]

Every faithful reproduction of Mona Lisa is considered by Commons to be public domain. See "Exception" in text for details.

Commons is an international project, but its servers are located in the U.S., and its content should be maximally reusable. Uploads of non-U.S. works are normally allowed only if the work is either in the public domain or covered by a valid free license in both the U.S. and the country of origin of the work. The "country of origin" of a work is generally the country where the work was first published.

When uploading material from a country outside the U.S., the copyright laws of that country and the U.S. normally apply. If material that has been saved from a third-party website is uploaded to Commons, the copyright laws of the U.S., the country of residence of the uploader, and the country of location of the web servers of the website apply. Thus, any licence to use the material should apply in all relevant jurisdictions; if the material is in the public domain, it must normally be in the public domain in all these jurisdictions (plus in the country of origin of the work) for it to be allowable on Commons.

For example, if a person in the UK uploads a picture that has been saved off a French website to the Commons server, the upload must be covered by UK, French and US copyright law. For a photograph to be acceptable for upload to Commons, it must be public domain in France, the UK and the US, or there must be an acceptable copyright license for the photograph that covers the UK, US and France.

Exception: Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional works of art, such as paintings, which are in the public domain are an exception to this rule. In July 2008, following a statement clarifying WMF policy, Commons voted to the effect that all such photographs are accepted as public domain regardless of country of origin, and tagged with a warning. For details, see Commons:Policy on photographs of old pictures.

Uruguay Round Agreements Act[edit]

Main page: Commons:URAA-restored copyrights

The Uruguay Round Agreements Act or URAA is a US law that restored copyrights in the U.S. on foreign works if that work was still copyrighted in the foreign source country on the URAA date. This URAA date was January 1, 1996 for most countries. This means that foreign works became copyrighted in the U.S. even if they had been in the public domain in the U.S. before the URAA date. See also Wikipedia:Non-U.S. copyrights.

Because the constitutionality of this law was challenged in court, Commons initially permitted users to upload images that would have been public domain in the U.S. but for the URAA. However, the constitutionality of the URAA was upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court in Golan v. Holder. After discussion, it was determined that the affected files would not be deleted en masse but reviewed individually. There was further discussion about the best method for review of affected files, resulting in the creation of Commons:WikiProject Public Domain.

Files affected by the URAA should be tagged with {{Not-PD-US-URAA}}.

Files nominated for deletion due to the URAA should be evaluated carefully, as should be their copyright status under US and local laws. A mere allegation that the URAA applies to a file cannot be the sole reason for deletion. If the end result of copyright evaluation is that there is significant doubt about the freedom of a file under US or local law, the file must be deleted in line with the precautionary principle.

Les travaux en fair use ne sont pas acceptés sur Commons[edit]

Wikimedia Commons does not accept fair use content. See Commons:Fair use.

Œuvres dérivées[edit]

This montage is an example of a derivative work. It combines various preexisting images that were released under the GFDL and other compatible free content licenses.

You want a picture of Mickey Mouse, but of course you can't just scan it in. Why not take a picture of a little action figure and then upload it? Don't. The reason why you can't upload photographs of such figures is that they are considered as derivative works. Such works can't be published without permission of the original creator.

The US Copyright Act of 1976, Section 101, says: "A derivative work is a work based upon one or more preexisting works, such as a translation, musical arrangement, dramatization, fictionalization, motion picture version, sound recording, art reproduction, abridgment, condensation, or any other form in which a work may be recast, transformed, or adapted. A work consisting of editorial revisions, annotations, elaborations, or other modifications which, as a whole, represent an original work of authorship, is a “derivative work”." A photograph of a copyrighted item is considered a derivative work in US jurisdiction. US Copyright Act of 1976, Section 106: "(...) The owner of copyright under this title has the exclusive rights to do and to authorize any of the following: (...) (2) to prepare derivative works based upon the copyrighted work;"

Therefore, "unauthorized" derivative works, like photographs of copyrighted action figures, toys, etc., must be deleted. For more information, see Commons:Derivative works.

Exception: So-called useful articles - objects with an intrinsic utilitarian function, even if commercial designs, are not subject to copyright protection in the US. Consequently, images thereof are not w:derivative works under US law. For details and applicability of this exception, see the Supreme Court’s decision in W:Mazer v. Stein, and {{Useful-object-US}}.

Design simple[edit]

Logo de Microsoft – {{PD-textlogo}}

Regarding trademarks (see also Commons:Image casebook#Trademarks): Most commercial items and products are protected by intellectual property laws in one way or another, but copyright is only one such protection. It is important to make the distinction between copyright, trademarks, and patents. Wikimedia Commons generally only enforces copyright restrictions, for these reasons:

  1. Almost anything can be trademarked, and it wouldn't make sense to forbid everything.
  2. Trademarks and industrial designs restrictions are pertinent to industrial reproduction, but photographs of such items can otherwise be freely reproduced.

→ For these reasons Commons accepts any trademark whose copyright has expired. Moreover, Commons accepts images of text in a general typeface and of simple geometric shapes, even if it happens to be a recent trademarked logo, on the grounds that such an image is not sufficiently creative to attract copyright protection.[2] Such images should be tagged with {{PD-ineligible}} or one of the list of more specific tags for this kind of works (e.g. {{PD-textlogo}} for simple logos).

Raster renderings (i.e. PNG images) of uncopyrighted simple designs can themselves be regarded as being uncopyrighted. For vector images (i.e. SVG files) of uncopyrighted simple designs, the question as to whether the vector representation has its own copyright is less clear; see the English Wikipedia copyright information about fonts and the {{PD-textlogo}} talk page for more information.

It is often very difficult to determine whether a design is protected by copyright or not, and images of these sorts are frequently nominated for deletion, with various results. See Commons:Threshold of originality and/or “Threshold of originality” (in Wikipedia) for some guidance.

Polices[edit]

The raster rendering of a font (or typeface) is not subject to copyright in the U.S., and therefore is in the public domain. It may be copyrighted in other countries (see intellectual property of typefaces on Wikipedia). You should use {{PD-font}} in this case.

Règles sur les droits d’auteur[edit]

Some guidance on applicable copyright rules can be found at

See also

Voir aussi[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. Ces exceptions ont été débattues sur Commons:Alter Wikimedia Commons policy to allow Wikimedia logos, conservée à des fins d’archives.
  2. See Ets-Hokin v. Skyy Spirits Inc where it was decided that the SKYY vodka bottle and logo were not copyrightable

Liens externes[edit]

Collections of laws:

Copyright treaties:

Other: