Commons:A prepaus de las licéncias

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For the country by country licensing rules, please see Commons:Copyright rules by territory.

La pagina Commons:A prepaus de las licéncias ofrís un apercebut de las leis complèxas suls dreches d'autor per vos ajudar a determinar se d'imatges o d'autres mèdias pòdon èsser efièchament cargats dins Wikimedia Commons. Aquesta pagina constituís un guida e provesís d'exemples per vos ajudar a melhor mestresar lo subjècte (quitament se sètz pas jurista).

Wikimedia Commons only accepts free content, that is, images and other media files that are not subject to copyright restrictions which would prevent them being used by anyone, anytime, for any purpose. The use may however be restricted by issues not related to copyright, though, see Commons:Non-copyright restrictions, and the license may demand some special measures. There is also certain material, the copyrights of which have expired in one country while still applying in another. Some of the details are explained below. Wikimedia Commons tries to ensure that any such restrictions are mentioned on the image description page; however, it is the responsibility of reusers to ensure that the use of the media is according to the license and violates no applicable law.

Wikipèdia Commons accèpta pas que los fichièrs multimèdia :

Wikimedia Commons accèpta pas lo fair use, vejatz l'explicacion mai bas ; Commons accèpta pas tanpauc los fichièrs jos licéncias « non-comercialas. »

La licéncia que s'aplica a un imatge o autre mèdia deu èsser clarament indicada sus la pagina de descripcion de l'imatge en seleccionant un bendèl de licéncia (vejatz illustracion çaijós). Se volètz mai d'entresenhas sus las licéncias, vejatz aquesta pagina d'ajuda.

Per demandar a un autor la permission d'utilizar son trabalh sus Commons, vejatz los modèles d'e-mail sus Commons o sus Wikipèdia.

A quick introduction

Licéncias acceptablas[edit]

A copyright license is a formal permission stating who may use a copyrighted work and how they may use it. A license can only be granted by the copyright holder, which is usually the author (photographer, painter or similar).

Benda dessenhada qu'explica perqué Commons accèpta pas las licéncias non-comercialas.

All copyrighted material on Commons (not in the public domain) must be licensed under a free license that specifically and irrevocably allows anyone to use the material for any purpose; simply writing that "the material may be used freely by anyone" or similar isn't sufficient. In particular, the license must meet the following conditions:

  • La republication e la distribution devon èsser autorizadas.
  • La publication de trabalhs dérivés deu èsser autorizada.
  • L'utilizacion comerciala deu èsser autorizada.
  • La référence als autors / contributeurs peut èsser requesa.
  • La publication des trabalhs dérivés jos la meteissa licéncia peut èsser requesa.
  • L'utilizacion de formats de fichièr libres de restrictions numériques (DRM) peut èsser requesa.

Sometimes, authors wish to release a lower quality or lower resolution version of an image or video under a free license, while applying stricter terms to higher quality versions. It is unclear whether such a distinction is legally enforceable, but Commons's policy is to respect the copyright holder's intentions by hosting only the lower quality version.

The following restrictions must not apply to the image or other media file:

  • Use by Wikimedia only (the only non-free-licensed exceptions hosted here are Wikimedia logos and other designs which are copyrighted by the Wikimedia Foundation).[1]
  • Noncommercial/Educational use only.
  • Use under fair use only.
  • Notification of the creator required, rather than requested, for all or for some uses.

Plus spécifiquement, les cas seguents ne sont en général pas autorizats :

  • Les còpias d'ecran de logicials qui ne sont pas eux-mêmes jos licéncia liura. Les còpias d'ecran de logicial jos licéncia GPL o similaire sont généralement considérées coma acceptables.
  • Les captures d'ecrans de films, télévision, etc.
  • Les numérisations o reproductions (photos) d'òbras copyrightées, coma des couvertures de livres...
  • Les logos, symboles, etc. d'une marca depausada.
  • Les maquettes, figurines, masques, jouets, etc. représentant una òbra copyrightée, per exemple un personnage dessin animé o de bande dessinée.

Commons accepte bien sûr tous les trabalhs qui ne sont pas soumis al copyright (c'est-à-dire dins le domaine public). Cependant, certains pays ont des législations différentes en ce qui concerne le domaine public (vejatz plus bas)

For an explanation of the justification for this licensing policy, see Commons:Licensing/Justifications.

Licéncias multiples[edit]

File:BD-propagande colour.jpg
De l'utilitat de la licéncia dobla, clicatz per agrandir.
Example of a free "own image" of a public place. Dual licensed by its author under GFDL and CC-BY-SA (see description page)

Vous pouvez mettre autant de licéncias que vous voulez sus un fichièr, del moment que au moins l'une d'entre elles remplit les conditions ci-dessus. Per exemple, un imatge peut posséder una licéncia « non comerciala », mas elle deu obligatoirement aver tanben una licéncia compatible amb les principes ci-dessus.

La mise jos licéncia multiple peut èsser justifiée per la compatibilité amb différents projets, o per donner davantage de liberté als autors per libérer des droits sus leur òbra.

Licéncias correntas[edit]

Les licéncias seguentas sont assez correntas, e sont a utilizar de préférence per les fichièrs de Commons :

Again, works in the public domain are also accepted (see below). See Commons:Copyright tags for more licenses.

Note : La GFDL est assez peu pratique per les imatges e les textes courts, en particulier per les médias imprimés, puisqu'elle impose d'imprimer le texte complet de la GFDL amb los imatges o le texte. Dans ce cas, il est préférable d'y ajouter una deuxième licéncia per autoriser una utilizacion plus souple, coma una Creative Commons.

Works which are not available under a license which meets the Definition of Free Cultural Works are explicitly not allowed. See the Wikimedia Foundation board resolution on licensing for more information.

Bien qu'elles soient correntas sus Internet, les licéncias seguentas ne sont pas acceptées sus Commons, a moins que l'oeuvre ne se trouve en même temps jos al moins una autre licéncia, qui elle soit acceptable (vejatz la section licenses multiples ci-dessus) :

  • Creative Commons sans utilizacion comerciala (Non-Commercial Only, -NC)
  • Creative Commons sans trabalhs dérivés (Non-Derivatives, -ND)

Non-permitted licenses may only be used on Commons if the work is multi-licensed under at least one permitted license.

Informations de licéncia[edit]

Exemple d'imatge amb una description détaillée coma recommandé (vejatz la pagina de l'imatge)

Toutes les paginas de description de Commons devon indiquer clairement jos quelle licéncia le fichièr est publié, e deu contenir les informations demandées per aquesta licéncia (autor, etc.), de même que des informations suffisantes per vérifier la licéncia (lien vers la source).

En particulier, les informations seguentas devraient toujours èsser données sus la pagina de description, que la licéncia le demande o non :

  • La licéncia qui s'applique al fichièr, en utilisant un bandeau de licéncia.
  • La source des trabalhs, de préférence un lien Web o una citation. Ceci ne s'applique bien sûr pas si vous êtes l'autor del fichièr o si la première source est Commons, mas ceci deu alors èsser écrit explicitement.
  • The Author/Creator of the image or media file. For media that are considered to be in the public domain because the copyright has expired, the date of death of the author may also be crucial (see the section about public domain material below). A generic license template which implies that the uploader is the copyright holder (e.g. {{PD-self}}) is no substitution for this requirement. The only exceptions to this is if the author wishes to remain anonymous or in certain cases where the author is unknown but enough information exists to show the work is truly in the public domain (such as the date of creation/publication).

Détails de moindre importance, mas qui devraient èsser fournis si possible :

  • Une description del contenu de l'imatge o del media (qui, quoi, où...) : c'est important per que tout le monde puisse saver ce que l'on peut voir o entendre. Ca l'est encore plus per les données scientifiques coma des imatges en fausses couleurs per exemple.
  • La date e le lieu de création. Per les fichièrs dins le domaine public per expiration de copyright, la date de création peut èsser cruciale (vejatz plus bas).

Un modèle peut èsser utilisé per compléter ces informations : le modèle "Information". Per un exemple d'utilizacion, vejatz Commons:Critères d'inclusion

Étendue de la licéncia[edit]

Notez que, dins certains cas, un document peut aver plusieurs aspects qui peuvent (et devon) aver una licéncia. Chaque personne qui a apporté una contribution importante a l'òbra a des droits sus l'òbra finale, e dins ce cas tous devon décider de mettre leur òbra jos una licéncia liura. Les distinctions ne sont cependant pas toujours claires e varient segon les pays. Quelques exemples per clarifier :

  • Per l'enregistrement d'une chanson, les aspects seguents devon èsser pris en compte, e chacun deu èsser soumis a una licéncia liura (ou dins le domaine public) :
    • Les partitions de la musique (droits del compositeur)
    • Les paroles de la chanson (droits de l'autor)
    • L'interprétation (droits des musiciens, chanteurs...)
    • L'enregistrement (droits del personnel technique, de la société d'enregistrement...).
  • Per una image d'art (mais tanben les couvertures de livres...), les aspects sont similaires :
    • Lo créateur de l'òbra originale a des droits sus le résultat.
    • Lo photographe possède des droits sus l'imatge.
  • Per un imatge de l'intérieur d'un bâtiment, l'architecte peut détenir certains droits si certains détails architecturaux sont visibles (du moins en Allemagne).
  • Per l'extérieur d'un bâtiment, l'architecte peut détenir certains droits ; dins certains pays, ceci s'applique uniquement si la photo a été prise d'un lieu non public (Allemagne, Autriche), mas dins d'autres ceci s'applique indépendamment de l'endroit où la photo a été prise (France).

Ceci peut devenir problématique si l'òbra d'art n'est pas le sujet principal de l'imatge, o si elle n'est pas reconnaissable distinctement. Dans ce cas, c'est habituellement seul le créateur de l'imatge résultante (ou enregistrement...) qui détient le copyright. Per exemple, en prenant una photo d'un groupe de personnes dins un musée, la photo peut également montrer certaines peintures sus les murs. Dans ce cas, le copyright des peintures n'a pas a èsser pris en compte. Cependant, aquesta distinction reste floue.

Notez que la licéncia per tous les aspects deu èsser déterminée e mentionnée explicitement. Notez également que les reproductions ne donnent en général pas de droit al copyright : le créateur d'une numérisation ne détient aucun copyright sus l'imatge numérisée. Dans ce cas, la seule licéncia a prendre en compte est celle de l'imatge d'origine.

Trabalhs dins le domaine public[edit]

Material released under a license like CC-0 is considered the equivalent of public domain material; works that lack originality and edicts are in the public domain; a few governments around the world, including the US Federal, California, and Florida governments place most of their works, including most of their public records in the public domain; the English Wikipedia's guideline on public domain material more precisely defines these many exceptions.

Commons accepts material that is in the public domain, that is, documents allowed by the above exception, or that are not eligible to copyright, or for which the copyright has expired. But the "public domain" is complicated; copyright laws vary between countries, and thus a work may be in the public domain in one country, but still be copyrighted in another country. There are international treaties such as the Berne Convention that set some minimum standards, but individual countries are free to go beyond these minimums. A general rule of thumb is that if the creator of a work has been deceased for more than 70 years, their works are in the public domain in the country the creator was a citizen of and in the country where the work was first published. If the work is anonymous or a collaborative work (e.g. an encyclopedia), it is typically in the public domain 70 years after the date of the first publication.

Many countries use such a copyright term of 70 years. A notable exception is the U.S. Due to historical circumstances, the U.S. has more complex rules. In the United States, copyright generally lasts:

  • for works first published 1978 or later: until 70 years after the author's death. Anonymous works or work made for hire: until the shorter of 95 years since the first publication or 120 years since the creation of the work
  • for works first published before 1978: until 95 years after the first publication
  • for works first published before 1964, copyright lasts 28 years after publication (and is therefore currently expired) unless the owner filed for renewal (during the window between 27 and 28 years after publication) — the large majority of works published before 1964 have passed into the public domain, but it is imperative to determine—which can be done through an online search at the Copyright Office for works published since 1951—that copyright was not renewed
  • Works published before 1923 are in the public domain.

For works created before 1978 but only published 1978 or later, there are some special rules. These terms apply in the U.S. also for foreign works.

However, the year and location of publication is essential. In several countries, material published before a certain year is in the public domain. In the U.S. this date is January 1, 1923. In some countries, all government-published material is public domain, while in others governments claim some copyright (see Commons:Copyright rules by territory).

In the US, the copyright situation for sound recordings (including those published before 1923) is a complicated special case. Recordings fixed prior to February 15, 1972 may be copyrighted under common law and/or state laws which do not always have the same formalities and limitations as US federal copyright. More details are available at the {{PD-US-record}} talk page and this Wikilegal report.

In some jurisdictions (like the United States), one can also explicitly donate work one has created oneself to the public domain. In other places (like the European Union) this is technically not possible; instead, one can grant the right to use the picture freely with, for example, the Creative Commons Zero Waiver, which waives all rights granted by copyright, but the waiver might not be legally binding in the full extent of what is normally understood as “public domain” (e.g. regarding author’s moral rights).

The Hirtle chart is a tool for helping to determine if something is in the public domain in the United States. Commons:International copyright quick reference guide helps to determine if a work first published outside the United States can be uploaded.

Interaction of US and non-US copyright law[edit]

Every faithful reproduction of Mona Lisa is considered by Commons to be public domain. See "Exception" in text for details.

Commons is an international project, but its servers are located in the U.S., and its content should be maximally reusable. Uploads of non-U.S. works are normally allowed only if the work is either in the public domain or covered by a valid free license in both the U.S. and the country of origin of the work. The "country of origin" of a work is generally the country where the work was first published.

When uploading material from a country outside the U.S., the copyright laws of that country and the U.S. normally apply. If material that has been saved from a third-party website is uploaded to Commons, the copyright laws of the U.S., the country of residence of the uploader, and the country of location of the web servers of the website apply. Thus, any licence to use the material should apply in all relevant jurisdictions; if the material is in the public domain, it must normally be in the public domain in all these jurisdictions (plus in the country of origin of the work) for it to be allowable on Commons.

For example, if a person in the UK uploads a picture that has been saved off a French website to the Commons server, the upload must be covered by UK, French and US copyright law. For a photograph to be acceptable for upload to Commons, it must be public domain in France, the UK and the US, or there must be an acceptable copyright license for the photograph that covers the UK, US and France.

Exception: Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional works of art, such as paintings, which are in the public domain are an exception to this rule. In July 2008, following a statement clarifying WMF policy, Commons voted to the effect that all such photographs are accepted as public domain regardless of country of origin, and tagged with a warning. For details, see Commons:Policy on photographs of old pictures.

Uruguay Round Agreements Act[edit]

Main page: Commons:URAA-restored copyrights

The Uruguay Round Agreements Act or URAA is a US law that restored copyrights in the U.S. on foreign works if that work was still copyrighted in the foreign source country on the URAA date. This URAA date was January 1, 1996 for most countries. This means that foreign works became copyrighted in the U.S. even if they had been in the public domain in the U.S. before the URAA date. See also Wikipedia:Non-U.S. copyrights.

Because the constitutionality of this law was challenged in court, Commons initially permitted users to upload images that would have been public domain in the U.S. but for the URAA. However, the constitutionality of the URAA was upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court in Golan v. Holder. After discussion, it was determined that the affected files would not be deleted en masse but reviewed individually. There was further discussion about the best method for review of affected files, resulting in the creation of Commons:WikiProject Public Domain.

Files affected by the URAA should be tagged with {{Not-PD-US-URAA}}.

Files nominated for deletion due to the URAA should be evaluated carefully, as should be their copyright status under US and local laws. A mere allegation that the URAA applies to a file cannot be the sole reason for deletion. If the end result of copyright evaluation is that there is significant doubt about the freedom of a file under US or local law, the file must be deleted in line with the precautionary principle.

Les trabalhs en fair use ne sont pas acceptés sus Commons[edit]

Les oeuvres utilisables seulement segon le fair use o autre disposition similaire ne sont pas acceptées sus Commons ( vejatz l'explication plus bas).

Œuvres dérivées[edit]

Ce montage est un exemple de travail dérivé. Il combine différentes images jos licéncia GFDL o autres licéncias libres.

Vous voudriez importer un imatge de Mickey, mas vous ne pouvez bien sûr pas en scanner une. Pourquoi ne pas prendre una photo d'une figurine, puis l'importer ? Ce n'est pas acceptable car il s'agit d'une òbra dérivée, qui ne peut èsser importée sans l'accord del créateur.

Lo US Copyright Act de 1976, section 101 définit una òbra dérivée, e la section 106 précise qu'une photographie d'un objet jos copyright est una òbra dérivée (vejatz Commons:Œuvre dérivée per les détails).

De tellos imatges seront supprimées sus Commons.

For more information, see Commons:Derivative works.

Exception: So-called useful articles - objects with an intrinsic utilitarian function, even if commercial designs, are not subject to copyright protection in the US. Consequently, images thereof are not w:derivative works under US law. For details and applicability of this exception, see the Supreme Court’s decision in W:Mazer v. Stein, and {{Useful-object-US}}.

Simple design[edit]

Logo of Microsoft – {{PD-textlogo}}

Regarding trademarks (see also Commons:Image casebook#Trademarks): Most commercial items and products are protected by intellectual property laws in one way or another, but copyright is only one such protection. It is important to make the distinction between copyright, trademarks, and patents. Wikimedia Commons generally only enforces copyright restrictions, for these reasons:

  1. Almost anything can be trademarked, and it wouldn't make sense to forbid everything.
  2. Trademarks and industrial designs restrictions are pertinent to industrial reproduction, but photographs of such items can otherwise be freely reproduced.

→ For these reasons Commons accepts any trademark whose copyright has expired. Moreover, Commons accepts images of text in a general typeface and of simple geometric shapes, even if it happens to be a recent trademarked logo, on the grounds that such an image is not sufficiently creative to attract copyright protection.[2] Such images should be tagged with {{PD-ineligible}} or one of the list of more specific tags for this kind of works (e.g. {{PD-textlogo}} for simple logos).

Raster renderings (i.e. PNG images) of uncopyrighted simple designs can themselves be regarded as being uncopyrighted. For vector images (i.e. SVG files) of uncopyrighted simple designs, the question as to whether the vector representation has its own copyright is less clear; see the English Wikipedia copyright information about fonts and the {{PD-textlogo}} talk page for more information.

It is often very difficult to determine whether a design is protected by copyright or not, and images of these sorts are frequently nominated for deletion, with various results. See Commons:Threshold of originality and/or “Threshold of originality” (in Wikipedia) for some guidance.

Fonts[edit]

The raster rendering of a font (or typeface) is not subject to copyright in the U.S., and therefore is in the public domain. It may be copyrighted in other countries (see intellectual property of typefaces on Wikipedia). You should use {{PD-font}} in this case.

Copyright rules[edit]

Some guidance on applicable copyright rules can be found at

See also

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. Debate about these exceptions was discussed at Commons:Alter Wikimedia Commons policy to allow Wikimedia logos, which is now retained for historical reference.
  2. See Ets-Hokin v. Skyy Spirits Inc where it was decided that the SKYY vodka bottle and logo were not copyrightable

External links[edit]

Collections of laws:

Copyright treaties:

Other: