Commons:Al rodiu les llicencies

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This page is a translated version of a page Commons:Licensing and the translation is 34% complete. Changes to the translation template, respectively the source language can be submitted through Commons:Licensing and have to be approved by a translation administrator.

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For the country by country licensing rules, please see Commons:Copyright rules by territory.

La páxina Commons:Al rodiu les llicencies val pa echar un gabitu, incluso pa los que nun saben de llei, con un tutorial enllenu d'exemplos p'algamar una visión xeneral al rodiu la complexa llexislación de drechos d'autor y pa saber decidir si pueden subir una imaxen o ficheru determinau a Wikimedia Commons.

Wikimedia Commons only accepts free content, that is, images and other media files that are not subject to copyright restrictions which would prevent them being used by anyone, anytime, for any purpose. The use may however be restricted by issues not related to copyright, though, see Commons:Non-copyright restrictions, and the license may demand some special measures. There is also certain material, the copyrights of which have expired in one country while still applying in another. Some of the details are explained below. Wikimedia Commons tries to ensure that any such restrictions are mentioned on the image description page; however, it is the responsibility of reusers to ensure that the use of the media is according to the license and violates no applicable law.

Wikimedia Commons only accepts media

  • that are explicitly freely licensed, or
  • that are in the public domain in at least the United States and in the source country of the work.

Wikimedia Commons does not accept fair use justifications: see Commons:fair use. Media licensed under non-commercial only licenses are not accepted either.

La llicencia que tien una imaxen o ficheru tien qu'indicase de mena clara na páxina de descripción de la imaxe usando una marca de drechos d'autor. Tola información necesitada pola llicencia tien que dase na páxina de descripción. La información de la páxina tien que ser suficiente pa permitir a los demás comprobar la llicencia. Lo meyor ye facer esto de secute nel mesmu campu resumen del formulariu de xubida.

If you request permission from a copyright holder, please use the email template to do so.

A quick introduction

Llicencies aceptables[edit]

A copyright license is a formal permission stating who may use a copyrighted work and how they may use it. A license can only be granted by the copyright holder, which is usually the author (photographer, painter or similar).

This cartoon explains why Commons does not accept "noncommercial" licenses. Click to view the full-size image.

All copyrighted material on Commons (not in the public domain) must be licensed under a free license that specifically and irrevocably allows anyone to use the material for any purpose; simply writing that "the material may be used freely by anyone" or similar isn't sufficient. In particular, the license must meet the following conditions:

  • L'espublización y redistribución tien de permitise.
  • L'espublización d'obres derivaes tien de permitise.
  • L'usu comercial de la obra tien de permitise.
  • El reconocimientu de tolos autores/collaboradores d'una obra pue desixise.
  • L'espublización d'obres derivaes embaxu la mesma llicencia pue desixise.
  • L'usu de formatos abiertos llibres de sistemes d'alministración de drechos dixitales (DRM) pue desixise.

Sometimes, authors wish to release a lower quality or lower resolution version of an image or video under a free license, while applying stricter terms to higher quality versions. It is unclear whether such a distinction is legally enforceable, but Commons's policy is to respect the copyright holder's intentions by hosting only the lower quality version.

The following restrictions must not apply to the image or other media file:

  • Use by Wikimedia only (the only non-free-licensed exceptions hosted here are Wikimedia logos and other designs which are copyrighted by the Wikimedia Foundation).[1]
  • Noncommercial/Educational use only.
  • Use under fair use only.
  • Notification of the creator required, rather than requested, for all or for some uses.

Específicamente, lo siguiente nun ta permitiu polo xeneral:

  • Captures de pantalla de software que nun te al tiempu embaxu una llicencia llibre. Les capturas de pantalla de software embaxu llicencia GPL o una llicencia llibre parecida considérense normalmente adecuaes.
  • Escaneos o semeyes d'obres d'arte con drechos d'autor, especialmente portaes de llibros y similares.
  • Símbolos, llogotipos y similares acutaos.

Lloxicamente Commons tamién aceuta toles obres a les que nun s'apliquen drechos d'autor (tan nel dominiu públicu). Por favor mira la estaya al rodiu'l dominiu públicu abaxu.

For an explanation of the justification for this licensing policy, see Commons:Licensing/Justifications.

Llicencias múltiples[edit]

File:BD-propagande colour.jpg
This cartoon demonstrates the utility of including a Creative Commons license. Click to view the full-size image.
Exemplu d'una "imaxen propia" llibre d'un llugar públicu, llicenciada pol so autor embaxu la GFDL y la CC-BY-SA (ver la páxina del ficheru pa más información)

Pueden aplicase tantes llicencies pa un ficheru como se quiera siempres que polo menos una d'elles cumpla colos criterios anteriores.

Multi-Licensing with restrictive licenses may be desirable for compatibility with the licensing scheme of other projects; also, multi-licensing allows people who create derivative work to release that work under a restrictive license only, if they wish—that is, it gives creators of derivative works more freedom with regards to which license they may use for their work. See Commons:Multi-licensing.

Llicencies conocies[edit]

Les siguientes llicencies conocíes prefiérense pal material en Commons::

Again, works in the public domain are also accepted (see below). See Commons:Copyright tags for more licenses.

Atención: La GFDL ye poco práutica pa imáxenes y testos curtios, porque desixe qu'el testu dafechu de la llicencia seya espublizáu xunto con ellos. Esto ye prohibitivu pa los medios emprentaos, pa poder usar una única imaxe habría qu'emprentar una páxina entera col testu de la GFDL. Polo que prefierse aplicar una llicencia doble, amestando a la GFDL una llicencia Creative Commons equivalente (como CC-by-sa-2.5).

Works which are not available under a license which meets the Definition of Free Cultural Works are explicitly not allowed. See the Wikimedia Foundation board resolution on licensing for more information.

Les siguientes llicencies tan mui difundíes, pero explícitamente prohibies (exceutu si, por supuestu, el ficheru ta tamién disponible embaxu una llicencia llibre):

  • Llicencies Creative Commons NunComercial (-NC)
  • Llicencies Creative Commons EnsinObraDerivada (-ND)
  • Material embaxu'l supuestu d'usu llexítimu (fair use) u daqué parecíu (ver les razones abaxu)

Non-permitted licenses may only be used on Commons if the work is multi-licensed under at least one permitted license.

Información de llicencia[edit]

Exemplu d'imaxen cola descripción d'imaxen detallada destacada (ver la su páxina de descripción)

Fokus páxines de descripción en Commons tienen qu'indicar nidiamente embaxu qué llicencia s'asoleyaron los conteníos, tienen d'incluyise la información desixida pola llicencia (autor, etc) y tamién la información necesaria pa que otros puedan comprobar la llicencia (enllace a la fonte).

Específicamente, la siguiente información tien de dase siempres na páxina de descripción, magar que la llicencia nun lo requiera:

  • La fonte del conteníu, preferiblemente un enllaz web o una cita. De xuru, esto nun pue aplicase si'l conteníu s'espubliza per primer vegada en Commons y la persona que lo xube ye'l so autor, pero esto hay de conseñalo explícitamente.
  • The Author/Creator of the image or media file. For media that are considered to be in the public domain because the copyright has expired, the date of death of the author may also be crucial (see the section about public domain material below). A generic license template which implies that the uploader is the copyright holder (e.g. {{PD-self}}) is no substitution for this requirement. The only exceptions to this is if the author wishes to remain anonymous or in certain cases where the author is unknown but enough information exists to show the work is truly in the public domain (such as the date of creation/publication).

Magar que nun ye tan importante, tamién tien de facilitse si ta disponible:

  • La descripción del calteníu de la imaxe o el ficheru. Descripción de la imaxe: ¿Ú, qué, quién? Esto ye perimportante pa tol mundu sepa lo que ta güeyando/oyendo, especialmente nel casu de datos científicos, por exemplu, imáxenes con color falsu.
  • La fecha y llugar de creación. Pa conteníu que considerese nel dominiu públicu porque los sos drechos d'autor caducaren, la fecha de creación ye perimportante (ver la estaya al rodiu'l dominiu públicu abaxu).

Estos puntos de la descripción pueden facese cómodamente usando la plantilla Information. Pa deprender l'usu d'esta plantilla ver Commons:Criteriu pa enxertar.

Alcance de la llicencia[edit]

Date cuenta que en dalgunos casos, un documentu (ficheru) puede tener munchos aspeutos que pueden y tienen que ser llicenciaos: cada persona que contribuyó una parte importante de la obra tien drechos al rodiu los resultaos, y todos tienen que facer su contribución disponible embaxu una llicencia llibre. De toes menes les distinciones nun son mui nidies y pueden camudar d'un país a otru. Ponemos exemplos para aclariar:

  • Pa una grabación d'un canciu, tien que tenese en cuenta los siguientes aspeutos, cada un de los cuales tien que tar embaxu una llicencia llibre (o nel dominiu públicu):
    • La partitura de la música (drechos del compositor)
    • La lletra del canciu (drechos del escritor)
    • La interpretación (drechos de los músicos, cantantes, etcétera)
    • La grabación (drechos del personal téunico / discográfica)
  • Pa una semeya d'una obra d'arte (y tamién portaes de llibros y similares) ye asemeyau:
    • El creador de la obra de arte orixinal tien drechos al rodiu los resultaos.
    • El foteru tien drechos alrodiu la semeya.
  • Pa una semeya del interior d'un edificiu, date cuenta que'l arquiteutu puede tener dalgunos drechos si s'amuesen rasgos característicos distintivos (esto pasa polo menos n'Alemania). Pa una semeya del exterior d'un edificiu, date cuenta que'l arquiteutu puede tener dalgunos drechos. En dalgunos países, esto namás aplicase si la semeya se fizo dende un llugar que nun seya públicu (Alemania, Austria), pero en dalgunos otros esto aplicase con independencia del llugar dende'l que se tomase la semeya (Francia).

Esto ye munches vegaes problemáticu, si la obra d'arte nun ye'l calteníu principal de la imaxen o nun reconozse clariamente: nesi casu, normalmente namás el creador de la imaxen (grabación, etc) resultante tien drechos d'autor al rodiu la mesma. Por exemplu, cuando se fai una semeya d'un grupu de xente nun museu, n'ella pueden salir tamién dalgunos cuadros nes muries. Nesi casu los drechos d'autor de los cuadros no tienen que tenese en cuenta. De toes menes la distinción no ye mui claria.

Date cuenta que la llicencia pa tolos aspeutos tien que determinase y mencionase explícitamente. Date cuenta tamién que les reproducciones nun suelen tar cubiertes por drechos d'autor: el creador del escaneo d'un cuadru nun tien drechos d'autor sobre la imaxen dixital, polo que nun se necesita llicencia pal escaneu. Esto tamién aplicase a les captures de pantalla (ver la estaya al rodiu les captures abaxu).

Material nel dominiu públicu[edit]

Material released under a license like CC-0 is considered the equivalent of public domain material; works that lack originality and edicts are in the public domain; a few governments around the world, including the US Federal, California, and Florida governments place most of their works, including most of their public records in the public domain; the English Wikipedia's guideline on public domain material more precisely defines these many exceptions.

Commons accepts material that is in the public domain, that is, documents allowed by the above exception, or that are not eligible to copyright, or for which the copyright has expired. But the "public domain" is complicated; copyright laws vary between countries, and thus a work may be in the public domain in one country, but still be copyrighted in another country. There are international treaties such as the Berne Convention that set some minimum standards, but individual countries are free to go beyond these minimums. A general rule of thumb is that if the creator of a work has been deceased for more than 70 years, their works are in the public domain in the country the creator was a citizen of and in the country where the work was first published. If the work is anonymous or a collaborative work (e.g. an encyclopedia), it is typically in the public domain 70 years after the date of the first publication.

Many countries use such a copyright term of 70 years. A notable exception is the U.S. Due to historical circumstances, the U.S. has more complex rules. In the United States, copyright generally lasts:

  • for works first published 1978 or later: until 70 years after the author's death. Anonymous works or work made for hire: until the shorter of 95 years since the first publication or 120 years since the creation of the work
  • for works first published before 1978: until 95 years after the first publication
  • for works first published before 1964, copyright lasts 28 years after publication (and is therefore currently expired) unless the owner filed for renewal (during the window between 27 and 28 years after publication) — the large majority of works published before 1964 have passed into the public domain, but it is imperative to determine—which can be done through an online search at the Copyright Office for works published since 1951—that copyright was not renewed
  • Works published before 1923 are in the public domain.

For works created before 1978 but only published 1978 or later, there are some special rules. These terms apply in the U.S. also for foreign works.

However, the year and location of publication is essential. In several countries, material published before a certain year is in the public domain. In the U.S. this date is January 1, 1923. In some countries, all government-published material is public domain, while in others governments claim some copyright (see Commons:Copyright rules by territory).

In the US, the copyright situation for sound recordings (including those published before 1923) is a complicated special case. Recordings fixed prior to February 15, 1972 may be copyrighted under common law and/or state laws which do not always have the same formalities and limitations as US federal copyright. More details are available at the {{PD-US-record}} talk page and this Wikilegal report.

In some jurisdictions (like the United States), one can also explicitly donate work one has created oneself to the public domain. In other places (like the European Union) this is technically not possible; instead, one can grant the right to use the picture freely with, for example, the Creative Commons Zero Waiver, which waives all rights granted by copyright, but the waiver might not be legally binding in the full extent of what is normally understood as “public domain” (e.g. regarding author’s moral rights).

The Hirtle chart is a tool for helping to determine if something is in the public domain in the United States. Commons:International copyright quick reference guide helps to determine if a work first published outside the United States can be uploaded.

Interaction of US and non-US copyright law[edit]

Every faithful reproduction of Mona Lisa is considered by Commons to be public domain. See "Exception" in text for details.

Commons is an international project, but its servers are located in the U.S., and its content should be maximally reusable. Uploads of non-U.S. works are normally allowed only if the work is either in the public domain or covered by a valid free license in both the U.S. and the country of origin of the work. The "country of origin" of a work is generally the country where the work was first published.

When uploading material from a country outside the U.S., the copyright laws of that country and the U.S. normally apply. If material that has been saved from a third-party website is uploaded to Commons, the copyright laws of the U.S., the country of residence of the uploader, and the country of location of the web servers of the website apply. Thus, any licence to use the material should apply in all relevant jurisdictions; if the material is in the public domain, it must normally be in the public domain in all these jurisdictions (plus in the country of origin of the work) for it to be allowable on Commons.

For example, if a person in the UK uploads a picture that has been saved off a French website to the Commons server, the upload must be covered by UK, French and US copyright law. For a photograph to be acceptable for upload to Commons, it must be public domain in France, the UK and the US, or there must be an acceptable copyright license for the photograph that covers the UK, US and France.

Exception: Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional works of art, such as paintings, which are in the public domain are an exception to this rule. In July 2008, following a statement clarifying WMF policy, Commons voted to the effect that all such photographs are accepted as public domain regardless of country of origin, and tagged with a warning. For details, see Commons:Policy on photographs of old pictures.

Uruguay Round Agreements Act[edit]

Main page: Commons:URAA-restored copyrights

The Uruguay Round Agreements Act or URAA is a US law that restored copyrights in the U.S. on foreign works if that work was still copyrighted in the foreign source country on the URAA date. This URAA date was January 1, 1996 for most countries. This means that foreign works became copyrighted in the U.S. even if they had been in the public domain in the U.S. before the URAA date. See also Wikipedia:Non-U.S. copyrights.

Because the constitutionality of this law was challenged in court, Commons initially permitted users to upload images that would have been public domain in the U.S. but for the URAA. However, the constitutionality of the URAA was upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court in Golan v. Holder. After discussion, it was determined that the affected files would not be deleted en masse but reviewed individually. There was further discussion about the best method for review of affected files, resulting in the creation of Commons:WikiProject Public Domain.

Files affected by the URAA should be tagged with {{Not-PD-US-URAA}}.

Files nominated for deletion due to the URAA should be evaluated carefully, as should be their copyright status under US and local laws. A mere allegation that the URAA applies to a file cannot be the sole reason for deletion. If the end result of copyright evaluation is that there is significant doubt about the freedom of a file under US or local law, the file must be deleted in line with the precautionary principle.

Nun s'acepta material embaxu'l supuestu d'usu llexítimu[edit]

Wikimedia Commons nun acepta calteníu embaxu'l supuestu d'usu llexítimu (fair use), porque les lleis al rodiu l'usu llexítimu camuden d'un país a otru, entos el calteníu puede ser aceptable, por exemplu, embaxu los supuestos d'usu llexítimu estaosxunienses (que son munchos) pero nun val na mayoría de los demás países.

Amás, l'usu llexítimu depende del contestu nel que la imaxen (o otru mediu) seya usada. Talo ye, algo que puede usase nuna páxina embaxu'l supuestu d'usu llexítimu podría ser una violación de drechos d'autor n'otra. De fechu, el supuestu d'usu llexítimu nun permite recopilar y distribuir les imáxenes n'una base datos multimedia como la de Commons. Esto quier dicir que'l usu llexítimu simplemente nun s'aplica a Commons.

Estos problemes van a la escontra de la política de Commons de facilitar imáxenes que puedan usase por cualisquier persona, en cualisquier llugar, pa cualisquier fin.

Derivative works[edit]

This montage is an example of a derivative work. It combines various preexisting images that were released under the GFDL and other compatible free content licenses.

You want a picture of Mickey Mouse, but of course you can't just scan it in. Why not take a picture of a little action figure and then upload it? Don't. The reason why you can't upload photographs of such figures is that they are considered as derivative works. Such works can't be published without permission of the original creator.

The US Copyright Act of 1976, Section 101, says: "A derivative work is a work based upon one or more preexisting works, such as a translation, musical arrangement, dramatization, fictionalization, motion picture version, sound recording, art reproduction, abridgment, condensation, or any other form in which a work may be recast, transformed, or adapted. A work consisting of editorial revisions, annotations, elaborations, or other modifications which, as a whole, represent an original work of authorship, is a “derivative work”." A photograph of a copyrighted item is considered a derivative work in US jurisdiction. US Copyright Act of 1976, Section 106: "(...) The owner of copyright under this title has the exclusive rights to do and to authorize any of the following: (...) (2) to prepare derivative works based upon the copyrighted work;"

Therefore, "unauthorized" derivative works, like photographs of copyrighted action figures, toys, etc., must be deleted. For more information, see Commons:Derivative works.

Exception: So-called useful articles - objects with an intrinsic utilitarian function, even if commercial designs, are not subject to copyright protection in the US. Consequently, images thereof are not w:derivative works under US law. For details and applicability of this exception, see the Supreme Court’s decision in W:Mazer v. Stein, and {{Useful-object-US}}.

Simple design[edit]

Logo of Microsoft – {{PD-textlogo}}

Regarding trademarks (see also Commons:Image casebook#Trademarks): Most commercial items and products are protected by intellectual property laws in one way or another, but copyright is only one such protection. It is important to make the distinction between copyright, trademarks, and patents. Wikimedia Commons generally only enforces copyright restrictions, for these reasons:

  1. Almost anything can be trademarked, and it wouldn't make sense to forbid everything.
  2. Trademarks and industrial designs restrictions are pertinent to industrial reproduction, but photographs of such items can otherwise be freely reproduced.

→ For these reasons Commons accepts any trademark whose copyright has expired. Moreover, Commons accepts images of text in a general typeface and of simple geometric shapes, even if it happens to be a recent trademarked logo, on the grounds that such an image is not sufficiently creative to attract copyright protection.[2] Such images should be tagged with {{PD-ineligible}} or one of the list of more specific tags for this kind of works (e.g. {{PD-textlogo}} for simple logos).

Raster renderings (i.e. PNG images) of uncopyrighted simple designs can themselves be regarded as being uncopyrighted. For vector images (i.e. SVG files) of uncopyrighted simple designs, the question as to whether the vector representation has its own copyright is less clear; see the English Wikipedia copyright information about fonts and the {{PD-textlogo}} talk page for more information.

It is often very difficult to determine whether a design is protected by copyright or not, and images of these sorts are frequently nominated for deletion, with various results. See Commons:Threshold of originality and/or “Threshold of originality” (in Wikipedia) for some guidance.

Fonts[edit]

The raster rendering of a font (or typeface) is not subject to copyright in the U.S., and therefore is in the public domain. It may be copyrighted in other countries (see intellectual property of typefaces on Wikipedia). You should use {{PD-font}} in this case.

Copyright rules[edit]

Some guidance on applicable copyright rules can be found at

See also

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. Debate about these exceptions was discussed at Commons:Alter Wikimedia Commons policy to allow Wikimedia logos, which is now retained for historical reference.
  2. See Ets-Hokin v. Skyy Spirits Inc where it was decided that the SKYY vodka bottle and logo were not copyrightable

External links[edit]

Collections of laws:

Copyright treaties:

Other: