Ramon Llull (1232–1315) was a Majorcan writer and philosopher. He wrote the first major work of Catalan language literature. Recently surfaced manuscripts show him to have anticipated by several centuries prominent work on elections theory. He is sometimes considered a pioneer of computation theory, especially given his influence on Gottfried Leibniz.
Nicholas Oresme (c. 1323 - 1382) was one of the most famous and influential philosophers of the later Middle Ages. He was an economist, mathematician, physicist, astronomer, philosopher, psychologist, musicologist, theologian and Bishop of Lisieux, a competent translator, counselor of King Charles V of France, one of the principal founders and popularizers of modern sciences, and probably one of the most original thinkers of the 14th century.
Illustration of the Celestial spheres, 1377
A page from Tractatus de latitudinibus formarum, 1505
Cyclopaedia: A Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences (folio, 2 vols.) was an encyclopedia published by Ephraim Chambers in London in 1728, and reprinted in numerous editions in the 18th century. The Cyclopaedia was one of the first general encyclopedias to be produced in English.