English: This video shows the life cycle of an irregular echinoderm, the sea biscuit Clypeaster subdepressus, depicting all developmental stages. Footage consist of: adults releasing gametes (eggs and sperm), fertilization of the egg, first embryonic cell divisions, gastrulation sequence, swimming blastulae and gastrulae, swimming pluteus larvae with 2/4/6/8 arms, developing juvenile rudiment inside larvae, settlement behavior of competent plutei, and complete metamorphosis into a juvenile.
|Author||Bruno C. Vellutini|
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We collected adults from sand beds of São Sebastião Channel (São Sebastião, SP, Brazil) and induced gamete release (eggs and sperm). We did the fertilization in vitro and followed the embryonic development in the laboratory, under light microscopy. Embryos become swimming larvae, approximately 0.2 mm wide, which we fed with microalgae until metamorphosis. A diminute sea biscuit grows inside the larva. When the minuscule podia and spines are formed the larva sinks and undergoes metamorphosis. The juvenile sea biscuit resorbs the larval tissue and begins to explore its new habitat, between sand grains.
The formal description was published in 2010: http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009654
We did the footage in the Marine Biology Center of University of São Paulo (CEBIMar-USP), located in São Sebastião, SP, Brazil, northern shore of State of São Paulo. http://www.usp.br/cbm
This work is part of my master's thesis project at the Biosciences Institute of University of São Paulo. http://ib.usp.br/
I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby publish it under the following license:
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|current||19:04, 4 August 2013||3 min 3 s, 640 × 480 (38.31 MB)||NeLaS||User created page with UploadWizard|
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