This work is in the public domain in Russia according to article 6 of Law No. 231-FZ of the Russian Federation of December 18, 2006; the Implementation Act for Book IV of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation.
The author of this work died before January 1, 1944, did not work during the Great Patriotic War and did not participate in it.
This work was originally published anonymously or under a pseudonym before January 1, 1943 and the name of the author did not become known during 50 years after publication.
This work was originally published anonymously or under the pseudonym between January 1, 1943 and January 1, 1944, and the name of the author did not become known during 70 years after publication.
Corporate body copyright has expired since the last 70 years from the publication of the work, and if the work was not published, - from the date of its creation. This applied to
a) non-amateur cinema or television film or television broadcast (or shots of them, including separate frames), which was first shown more than 70 years ago (before January 1, 1944).
b) radio records (or their fragments), which was first broadcasted more than 70 years ago (before January 1, 1944).
The copyright to this product discontinued, as was part of the escheat of property (Art. 1151 of Civil Code). The product must also be in the public domain in the United States.
Attention! If the author of this work was subjected to repression and rehabilitated posthumously, countdown of copyright protection began not from the death date, but from the rehabilitation date. If the work was first published posthumously, the copyright term is counted from the date of that first publication, unless the author was later rehabilitated, in which case it runs again from that later rehabilitation date.