Tortoise stelae in the Temples of Confucius and Yan Hui in Qufu

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English: Twenty-five stone tortoises (bixi) with stelae in the Temple of Confucius (21)and Temple of Yan Hui (4) in Qufu. They have been installed over 800 years, during five dynasties - from the early Song until mid-Qing - and carry tablets commemorating periodic rebuildings and renovations of the temples, and conferral of the honorary titles on the Great Sage and his favorite disciple. The text on the tablets is in Chinese, Mongol (Phags-ps script) and Manchu, depending on the dynasty. The images below are arranged chronologically; the stelae are in the Temple of Confucius (Kong Miao) unless otherwise indicated.
Русский: 25 стел на черепахах-биси в Храме Конфуция (21) и Храме Янь Хуэя (4) в г. Цюйфу. Установлены на протяжение 5 династий, от Сун до Цин, c X по XVIII вв.
中文: 在曲阜孔庙、颜庙立的25幢螭首龟趺碑。其中21幢在孔庙,4幢在颜庙。
Song Dynasty
Taiping Xingguo 8 (983) Thirteen Stele Pavilions - south row, 3rd from the east - western turtle - P1050600.JPG Thirteen Stele Pavilions - south row, 3rd from the east - western stele - top - P1050603.JPG
Jin (Jurchen) Dynasty
Cheng'an 8 (1197) Thirteen Stele Pavilions - south row, 3rd from the east - seen from E - turtle head - P1050627.JPG Thirteen Stele Pavilions - south row, 3rd from the east - eastern stele - top - P1050604.JPG
Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty
Dade 5 (1301) Thirteen Stele Pavilions - south row, 5th from the east - P1050680.JPG Thirteen Stele Pavilions - south row, 5th from the east - P1050682.JPG
Dade era (1297-1307) (left);
Dade 11 (1307) (right);
Late Zhiyuan 5 (1339) (center)
Thirteen Stele Pavilions - south row, 4th from the east - P1050588.JPG Thirteen Stele Pavilions - south row, 4th from the east - western stele - P1050590.JPG
Zhishun 2 (1331)
(Temple of Yan Hui)

Granting Yan Hui the title of
Fusheng (Continuator of the Sage),
Duke of Yanguo.
Bilingual (Mongol and Chinese).
元至顺年(1331年)大元加封兖国复圣公制词碑

Yan MIao - Zhishun Year 2 Stele - P1050498.JPG Yan MIao - Hall of Fusheng - Zhishun Year 2 Stele - P1050487.JPG
Zhizheng 9 (1349)
Rebuilding the Temple of Yan Hui.
Yan Miao - northern courtyard - Zhizheng 9 - P1050465.JPG Yan Miao - northern courtyard - Zhizheng 9 - P1050466.JPG
Ming Dynasty
Hongwu 4 (1371) Kong Miao - 1371 - Hongwu Year 4 Geographical Deities Designation Stele - P1050561.JPG Kong Miao - 1371 - Hongwu Year 4 Geographical Deities Designation Stele - back - P1050567.JPG
Yongle 15 (1417) Kong Miao - 1417 - Yongle Year 15 Temple Repair Stele - turtle head - P1050579.JPG Kong Miao - 1417 - Yongle Year 15 Temple Repair Stele - seen from the west - P1050585.JPG
Zhengtong 6 (1441)
Rebuilding the Temple of Yan Hui
Yan Miao - eastern stele pavilion - Zhengtong 6 - seen from W - P1050439.JPG Yan Miao - eastern stele pavilion - Zhengtong 6 - seen from S - P1050444.JPG
Chenghua 4 (1468) Kong Miao - 1468 - Chenghua Year 4 Stele - P1050545.JPG Kong Miao - 1468 - Chenghua Year 4 Stele - P1050544.JPG
Hongzhi 17 (1504) Kong Miao - 1504 - Hongzhi Year 17 Temple Repair Stele - P1050572.JPG Kong Miao - 1504 - Hongzhi Year 17 Temple Repair Stele - P1050571.JPG
Zhengde 4 (1509)
Rebuilding the Temple of Yan Hui
Yan Miao - western stele pavilion - Zhengde 4 - seen from E - P1050433.JPG Yan Miao - western stele pavilion - Zhengde 4 - P1050413.JPG
Qing (Manchu) Dynasty
Shunzhi 8 (1651) Thirteen Stele Pavilions - south row, 7th from the east - eastern turtle, Shunzhi 8 - P1050676.JPG Thirteen Stele Pavilions - south row, 7th from the east - P1050675.JPG
Kangxi 7 (1668) Thirteen Stele Pavilions - south row, 7th from the east - western turtle, Kangxi 7 - P1050677.JPG
Kangxi 15 (1676; right),
Kangxi 21 (1682; left)
Thirteen Stele Pavilions - south row, 8th from the east - P1050678.JPG Thirteen Stele Pavilions - south row, 8th from the east - P1050679.JPG
Kangxi 22 (1683) Thirteen Stele Pavilions - north row, 4th from the east - P1050668.JPG Thirteen Stele Pavilions - north row, 4th from the east - P1050669.JPG
Kangxi 25 (1686) Thirteen Stele Pavilions - north row, 3rd from the east - seen from E - P1050657.JPG Thirteen Stele Pavilions - north row, 3rd from the east - seen from S - P1050659.JPG
Yongzheng 8 (1730) Thirteen Stele Pavilions - north row, 2nd from the east - seen from E - P1050649.JPG Thirteen Stele Pavilions - north row, 2nd from the east - seen from E - P1050646.JPG
Yongzheng 8 (1730) Thirteen Stele Pavilions - north row, 5th from the east - P1050671.JPG Thirteen Stele Pavilions - north row, 5th from the east - back - P1050672.JPG
Yongzheng 8 (1730)
雍正元年册封至圣先师五代王碑,
雍正八年重建先师孔子庙碑
Thirteen Stele Pavilions - south row, 2nd from the east - P1050609.JPG Thirteen Stele Pavilions - south row, 2nd from the east - back - detail - P1050616.JPG
Qianlong 13 (1748)
Thirteen Stele Pavilions - north row, 1st from the east - P1050636.JPG Thirteen Stele Pavilions - north row, 1st from the east - back - P1050641.JPG