User:Stav/WorldTravel2006

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Summary[edit]

stav and zoshi are planning on travelling around the world in the year 2006 and here are their plans:

late March:

  • meet in Africa: either in Egypt and go East thru Turkey & Greece, or in Morocco and go West thru Spain and France

April:

  • Egypt (Alexandria, Giza), Israel, Lebanon, Syria, Cyprus, Turkey; or ferry from Nuwayba to Jordan and skip Israel
  • Morocco, Spain, France

May:

  • Mike's wedding
  • Greece, Albania, Italy

June:

  • Germany (München, Köln) –- Netherlands (visit Violetta, Amsterdam) -– Germany (see Ewa in Hannover, Berlin)

July:

  • Czech Republic (Prag) –- hiking Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland -– Poland (visit Grzegorz; ecofest at Ananda Putta Bhumi: 15-20.07.2006; Kraków, Zakopane, Kasia in Katowice) : Accomodation in Zakopane (20zl per person + 18 zl for vegetarian breakfast & dinner)

August:

  • Russian Federation: trans-siberian railway (Lake Baikal, Mongolia), Japan

September / October / November / December:

  • south-east Asia (LP): Burma -- Laos -- Thailand (contact Oom from SLI interns) -- Vietnam -- Cambodia -- Malaysia -- Indonesia

Countries[edit]

A list of the countries we want to visit and the entry requirements and other useful local information can be found at: User:Stav/WorldTravel2006/lands

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What to Bring[edit]

  • passport
  • copy of passport
  • good (!) mosquito repellent for Asia (the local ones like e.g. the Indian “Odomos” are useless; our solar powered beeping wonder doesn’t scare them as well)
  • Long-sleeved shirt, long pants, and a hat to wear whenever possible while outside, to prevent illnesses carried by insects
  • Iodine tablets and portable water filters to purify water if bottled water is not available
  • Sunblock, sunglasses, and a hat for protection from harmful effects of UV sun rays
  • over-the-counter antidiarrheal medication (e.g., bismuth subsalicylate, loperamide)
  • a general antibiotic would be cool

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Deals[edit]

  • £1 bus tickets in the UK
  • Germany's excellent Happy Weekend rail pass

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Personal Health & Safety[edit]

Cautions (East)[edit]

  1. Do not eat food purchased from street vendors or food that is not well cooked to reduce risk of infection (i.e., hepatitis A and typhoid fever).
  2. Do not drink beverages with ice.
  3. Avoid dairy products, unless you know they have been pasteurized.
  4. Do not swim in fresh water to avoid exposure to certain water-borne diseases such as schistosomiasis. (For more information, please see Swimming and Recreational Water Precautions.)
  5. Do not handle animals, especially monkeys, dogs, and cats, to avoid bites and serious diseases (including rabies and plague). Consider pre-exposure rabies vaccination if you might have extensive unprotected outdoor exposure in rural areas. For more information, please see Animal-Associated Hazards.
  6. Do not share needles for tattoos, body piercing or injections to prevent infections such as HIV and hepatitis B.

http://www.cdc.gov/travel/mideast.htm#stayhealthy

Diseases[edit]

  • Yellow fever is a viral illness which is spread by the bite of a mosquito. The species of mosquito that is responsible for spreading yellow fever is Aedes Aegypti and is a different species from the anopheles mosquito that transmits malaria. [1]
  • Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver. Several different viruses cause viral hepatitis. They are named the hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E viruses. [2]
  • Japanese B encephalitis is a rare but serious insect borne disease that occurs in most of the Far East and South East Asia. [3]
  • Malaria is a serious and sometimes fatal disease which is widespread in many tropical and subtropical countries. It is caught by being bitten by an infected mosquito that is carrying the malaria parasites in its saliva. [4]
  • Typhoid fever is a life-threatening illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi. It belongs to the Salmonella group which contains nearly 2,000 different types causing mild diseases such as food poisoning, through to the more serious disease of typhoid fever. Paratyphoid fever is a similar but less severe variant. [5]
  • Tetanus is a potentially fatal disease which is caused by an infection of the bacterium Clostridium Tetani spores which are present in soil worldwide and may be introduced into the body during injury through a puncture wound, burn or trivial, unnoticed wounds where they grow and produce a powerful toxin which circulates in the blood and causes muscular rigidity and painful muscle contractions. [6]
  • Poliomyelitis (polio), is caused by a virus which is spread from person-to-person primarily through faecal contamination of food and water although it can also be spread by droplet transfer. [7]
  • Meningitis is an infection that causes inflamation of the membranes and fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. It can be caused by a viral or bacterial infection. High fever, headache, and stiff neck and a blotchy rash are common symptoms. These can develop over several hours, or they may take 1 to 2 days. Other symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, discomfort with bright lights, confusion, and sleepiness. As the disease progresses, patients may develop seizures before going into a coma. [8]
  • Cholera is a bacterial infection of the gastro-intestinal tract caused by the bacterium Vibrio Cholerae. These bacteria are typically ingested by drinking water contaminated by improper sanitation or by eating improperly cooked fish, especially shell fish. Symptoms range from the mild to the severe which may be fatal and include; diarrhoea, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, and dehydration. [9]
  • Rabies is a viral infection that is acquired from the saliva of an infected or rabid animal, usually a dog or cat. In most cases infection results from a bite but even a lick on an open cut or sore may be enough. Symptoms start with itching and tingling at the site of the healed bite and then rapidly progresses to include headache, fever, spreading paralysis, confusion, aggression and hydrophobia (fear of water). [10]
  • Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is one of the leading causes of all adult deaths worldwide. The disease is usually spread through infected sputum but there is a form spread through milk from infected cows. Symptoms of TB include cough, blood in the sputum, weight loss, fatigue and night sweats. The bacteria can spread to the blood in individuals who have weak immune systems (especially when caused by alcohol). [11]

Also see the Travellers Diseases page at The Travel Doctor for even more things that can kill you in North Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia.

Vaccinations and Preventive Medications[edit]

  • Meningitis (A&C) : Meningitis vaccine is recommended for travellers to areas where the disease is endemic such as most of Sub-Saharan Africa. Saudi Arabia requires vaccination of pilgrims to Mecca during the Hajj. 0.5ml of inactivated vaccine is given by deep subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. Immunity lasts up to three years. [12]
  • Polio : Poliomyelitis vaccine is recommended for long term travellers to areas which have a high incidence of the disease such as developing countries. Live oral vaccine is generally used. Three drops of the vaccine constitutes a single dose. Initially three doses are given at intervals of at least four weeks. Those who have been fully immunised in the past will only need a single booster dose every ten years if they intend to travel. [13]
  • Diphtheria : Low dose boosters of diphtheria vaccine are advised for travellers to countries of the former USSR and for long stay expatriates in developing countries. A dose of 0.1ml of the childrens' monovalent diphtheria vaccine is given by subcutaneous injection on a named patient basis. Protection begins ten to fourteen days after administration. [14]
  • Tetanus / Diphtheria : The Department of Health advised in 2002 that tetanus vaccine is to be replaced by the combined tetanus/low dose diphtheria vaccine for adults and adolescents for routine use and for travel vaccination. Stocks of single tetanus vaccine are now exhausted and companies are no longer supplying this product. The Department of Health also recommends administration of reinforcing (booster) doses at ten year intervals, with the administration of further doses in the event of injuries that may give rise to tetanus. [15]
  • Hepatitis A vaccination : two doses of 1440 ELISA units (1.0 mL) each six months apart [16] [17]
    • the new hepatitis A vaccine (Havrix) is very effective. It induces protective titres of anti-bodies in greater than 95%, and 99% of people after the first and second doses, respectively. If time does not permit two doses six months apart, then a single Havrix-1440 (double strength) dose may be given. The first dose of the vaccine probably requires at least three weeks to induce significant antibodies, so those travellers who did not have the foresight to have the first dose administered at least three weeks before departure to a high-endemic area should also have standard gammaglobulin to assure protection. Protective antibody titres to the vaccine last at least three years. At this time the need for booster doses is unclear, but it's likely that, similar to hepatitis B, they will be unnecessary. The vaccine should be administered as an IM injection into the deltoid. Children can be given half-strength (0.5 mL) doses.
    • Hepatitis A is associated with poor hygiene and sanitation. Havrix Monodose is an inactivated vaccine prepared from the hepatitis A virus. A single 1ml dose is given intramuscularly to give immunity up to one year. To obtain immunity up to ten years a second booster dose is given between six and twelve months of the original.
    • Human Normal Immunoglobulin (HNIG) contains antibodies to Hepatitis A and will give protection for up to three months. 2ml of vaccine is administered by deep intramuscular injection.
  • Hepatitis B vaccination : three doses of (two examples follow): (note- There should be at least 1 month between the first and second doses, at least 2 months between the second and third doses, and at least 4 months between the first and third doses) [18] [19]
    • 10 µg (1.0 mL) Recombinant vaccine: Recombivax HB, Manufactured by Merck & Company
    • 20 µg (1.0 mL) Recombinant vaccine: Energix-B, Manufactured by SmithKline Beecham Biologicals
    • Hepatitis B vaccination is recommended for those travelling to areas of high prevalence who plan to remain there for lengthy periods such as voluntary workers, who may be at risk from medical or dental procedures carried out in those countries. Short term travellers are not generally at risk but may place themselves at risk by their sexual behaviour. It is given as a course of three 1ml intra-muscular injections, the second 28 days after the first and the third 6 months after the second.
  • vaccination combination for both hepatitis A and hepatitis B : three doses of 720 ELISA units (Havrix) and 20 µg (Engerix-B) (1.0 mL total) from 0, 1, and 6 to 12 months
  • Hepatitis C is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Although there is no cure for hepatitis C, much has been learned about the disease in the last 10 years. Today, there are effective treatments available for chronic hepatitis C. [20]
  • Typhoid : Original typhoid vaccine is given in two doses at intervals of four to six weeks and gives immunity for up to three years. 0.5ml is given by subcutaneous or intramuscular injection or 0.1ml by intradermal injection. This vaccine induces a mild form of the illness which can be very unpleasant in certain cases.
    • Typhim Vi is a single dose vaccine where 0.5ml is given by deep subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. Immunity lasts for approximately three years.
    • Vivotif is a live oral vaccine contained in an enteric coated capsule. The vaccine is taken as three doses of one capsule on alternate days. The capsules should be stored in a refrigerator between doses. Protection begins seven to ten days after the last dose.
  • Yellow fever is required for parts of Africa, South America and Asia. This is given as a live vaccine (0.5ml subcutaneously) at designated yellow fever centres where an international certificate of vaccination will be issued and is valid for ten years, from ten days after vaccination. The certificate may be required for entry into certain countries particularly in East Africa. It is recommended that the traveller carries the certificate along with his or her passport when travelling to countries at risk. [21]
  • Japanese B encephalitis : This is a rare but serious insect borne disease that occurs in most of the Far East and South East Asia. Vaccination is recommended for stays of longer than one month in rural areas during and just after the rainy season. The vaccine is issued on a named patient basis and is given as 1ml subcutaneously for immunity up to four years. [22]
  • Rabies : Prophylactic immunisation against rabies is recommended for travellers to endemic areas on long journeys to remote locations out of reach of immediate medical attention. For travellers who are not animal handlers, two 1ml doses given by deep subcutaneous injection 28 days apart is regarded as sufficient cover. [23]
  • Cholera : The old type cholera vaccine which was given by injection offers poor protection against the disease and is no longer recommended for use by the Department of Health or the World Health Organisation. However, in May 2004 a new vaccine (Dukoral) was licensed in the UK for immunisation against cholera for people travelling to highly endemic or epidemic areas, particularly emergency relief and health workers in refugee situations. [24]

    The vaccine may be considered for the following:

    • People working in areas where there are known cholera outbreaks (e.g. aid workers).
    • Travellers staying for long periods in known high risk areas and/or where close contact with locals is likely, and who do not have access to medical care.
    • Travellers to risk areas who have an underlying gastro-intestinal disease or immune suppression.
  • Miscellaneous
    • Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) Vaccine (susceptible adults)
    • Malaria: Chloroquine is the recommended antimalarial drug for Iraq, Syria, and Turkey.
    • Rabies, pre-exposure vaccination, if you might have extensive unprotected outdoor exposure in rural areas, such as might occur during camping, hiking, or bicycling, or engaging in certain occupational activities.

[25]

Immunity Information table at the bottom of the Vaccine Information page at The Travel Doctor

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Links[edit]

  1. Countries
  2. Trans-Siberian Express
  3. Zofi's 2005 travels in India
  4. Worldwide Petrol prices

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Books[edit]

Europe on a Shoestring, Lonely Planet Publications
Classic Overland Route Guides - Istanbul to Kathmandu, Lonely Planet Publications
Classic Overland Route Guides - Istanbul to Cairo, Lonely Planet Publications

Burning Man[edit]

burning man 2005 black rock city: image gallery

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