The tomb of Stephen the Great and his last wife, Maria Voichiţa, Putna Monastery. Prince Stephen the Great(known also as : Stephen III of Moldavia or Stephen III (c. 1432 – July 2, 1504)) was sanctified--or canonized-- as "Stephen the Great"--Ştefan cel Mare şi Sfânt-- "Stephen the Great and Holy" (canonized on July 12, 1992, in Bucharest, Romania, by the Romanian Orthodox Church).
Map of the principate of Moldova in Romania, drawn in the first Romanian book written in 1714 and printed in Latin "Description Modlaviae" by Prince Dimitrie Cantemir:"CAPUT XI - DE LEGIBUS MOLDAVIAE PROVINCIALIBUS. Quae antiquitus Daciae leges fuerint, scire prohibet historicorum iis de rebus silentium: voluntatem tamen principum, naturaeque iura legis scriptae vim et autoritatem habuisse coniicere licet, e simili reliquarum gentium barbararum consuetudine. Posteaquam vero ab Ulpio Traiano Imper. victo Decebalo ..." CHAPTER 11. ON THE LAWS OF THE PROVINCE OF MOLDAVIA":The province of Moldavia is part of the ancient teritory of Dacia conquered by the Roman Empire of Trajanus (Trajan) as shown on Trajan's column- Ulpio Traiano, and has inherited the ancient laws of Dacia and Rome.
The first Romanian post stamp in Moldavia issued in 1847, representing the head of the "zimbru"-- a rare species of bison now extinct from the Carpathian forests that is also depicted on the Coat of Arms of ancient Romania's province of Moldavia; the writing at the top of the stamp with cyrillic letters reads: "Porto scrisori"--Letter stamp.
The Unification of Bessarabaia and Romania Document in 1918--"Actul Unirii": ACTUL UNIRII VOTAT DE SFATUL ȚĂRII LA 27 MARTIE ST.V. 1918- ÎN NUMELE POPORULUI BASARABIEI SFATUL ȚĂRII DECLARĂ REPUBLICA DEMOCRATICĂ MOLDOVENEASCĂ (BASARABIA) ÎN HOTARELE EI DINTRE PRUT,NISTRU,DUNĂRE, MAREA NEAGRĂ ȘI VECHILE GRANIȚE CU AUSTRIA, RUPTĂ DE RUSIA ACUM O SUTĂ ȘI MAI BINE DE ANI DIN TRUPUL MOLDOVEI ÎN PUTEREA DREPTULUI ISTORIC ȘI DREPTULUI DE NEAM...DE AZI ÎNAINTE ȘI PENTRU TOTDEAUNA SE UNEȘTE CU MAMA SA ROMÂNIA. TRĂIASCĂ UNIREA BASARABIEI CU ROMÂNIA
Gallery for Putna Monastery
Gallery: Images of important Romanian Kings, Rulers and Princes (Voievodes/Voievozi, Domnitori)
The following gallery presents authentic images of the most important rulers of Romania and its Principates from ancient (e.g., 82 BC) to modern times (1947 AD). These Romanian domnitori and kings are renowned for their major contributions to maintaining an independent Romania, or Romanian Principates, in spite of numerically superior foreign forces, be they Turkish-Ottoman, Russian, Mongolian, Polish or Hungarian.
Statue in Orashtie (Roum.-Orăștie) of ancient King Burebista--"(Ancient Greek: "Βοιρεβίστας") was a king of the Getae and Dacians, who unified for the first time their tribes and ruled them between 82 BC and 44 BC."
Fresco from the Church at Argesh (Roum.-Argeș) of Basarab I the Founder (Roum. "Basarab Întemeietorul"), the first Voievode or Ruler of Wallachia(c. 1310/1319–1352); he lent his name to the Romanian province of Bessarabia (Roum. -Basarabia--meaning "The Country of Basarab") re-occupied by the soviet armies in 1943.
Michael Valachiae Transalpinae Voivoda, Sacrae Caesareae Regiae Majestatis Consiliarius per Transylvaniam Locumtenens, cis transylvaniam partium eius super exercitu Generalis Capitaneus". ("Michael, Voivode of Wallachia, the councillor of His Majesty the Emperor and the King, his deputy in Transylvania and General Captain of his troops from Transylvania.")
Russian general Pavel Kiseleff (Pavel Kiselyov), appointed by the tzar of Russia to command the Russian occupying troops in Wallachia and Moldavia during the Russo–Turkish War of 1828–1829;"Prior to that, the Russian commander-in-chief, Prince Peter Wittgenstein, had moved into Wallachia and took Brăila and Bucharest without difficulty....Under his (Kisselef's) administration, the two states got their first constitutions, the Regulamentul Organic ("Organic Statute", French: Règlement organique)...introduced in Wallachia in 1831 and in Moldavia in 1832, which remained valid until the 1859 union of the principalities"... by Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza.
Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza, Ruler of Romania between 1860 and 1865, at first as Prince of Moldavia and Prince of Wallachia until the Romanian unfication of 1862 when he became Domnitor of both, recognized by the Ottoman Porte, Russia and the Western powers, but not by all of his boyars (Roumanian nobles and landowners).
Principality of Romania (1862 - 1866)
Until 1866, there was no official design of the coat of arms.
See also Coat of arms used in Romania
Romanian and Roman poets
Publius Ovidius Naso
Exiled from Rome by the Emperror to Pontus Euxinus, at Tomis, during Roman antiquity.
- <Tristia 3. : ,,Hic ego qui iaceo tenerorum lusor amorum /
Ingenio perii Naso poeta meo; / At tibi qui transis ne sit graue quisquis amasti Ddicere "Nasonis molliter ossa cubent" .>
- Translation in English by Peter Green, The Poems of Exile: Tristia and the Black Sea Letters (University of California Press, 2005), p. 46:
- < I who lie here, sweet Ovid, poet of tender passions,
fell victim to my own sharp wit. Passer-by, if you've ever been in love, don't grudge me the traditional prayer: 'May Ovid's bones lie soft!' >
- < Sub astă piatră zace Ovidiu cântărețul
Iubirilor gingașe răpus de al său talent. O, tu ce treci pe aicea și dacă ai iubit vreodată Te roagă pentru dânsul "să-i fie somnul lin!" >
- Domnitor, derived from latin word Dominus (Lord, or The Lord)
- Neacşu's letter
- The Letter of Neacşu from Câmpulung (1521): "The letter contained a secret of great importance, warning the Mayor of Braşov city, Johannes Benkner, about a Turkish invasion, prepared (by Mahamet beg) in the south of the Danube, to be directed against Transylvania and Wallachia."The spoken text of Neacşu's letter is little different from the nowadays spoken Romanian language, with only minor variations of some Romanian words being in their archaic 16th century form. The letter of the boyar Neacşu was discovered by the renown historian-scholar Nicolae Iorga in the beginning of 20th century, in the Braşov City Archives.
The Column of Roman Emperor Trajan:
- Claridge, Amanda (1993), "Hadrian's Column of Trajan", Journal of Roman Archaeology 6: 5–22.
- Davies, Penelope J. E. (1997), jstor.org, American Journal of Archaeology (Archaeological Institute of America) 101(1): 41–65, doi:10.2307/506249
- Lepper, Frank & Frere, Sheppard (1988), "Trajan's Column. A New Edition of the Cichorius Plates. Introduction, Commentary and Notes", Gloucester: Alan Sutton Publishing, ISBN 0-86299-467-5 Lepper, Frank & Frere, Sheppard (1988).
The Roman Poet Ovidius:
- Ovid Renewed: Ovidian Influences on Literature and Art from the Middle Ages to the Twentieth Century. Ed. Charles Martindale. Cambridge, 1988.
- Johnson, Patricia J. Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses. (Wisconsin Studies in Classics). Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press, 2008. Pp. x, 184.
- Richard A. Dwyer "Ovid in the Middle Ages" in Dictionary of the Middle Ages, 1989, pp. 312–14
- Federica Bessone. P. Ovidii Nasonis Heroidum Epistula XII: Medea Iasoni. Florence: Felice Le Monnier, 1997. Pp. 324.
- R. A. Smith. Poetic Allusion and Poetic Embrace in Ovid and Virgil. Ann Arbor; The University of Michigan Press, 1997. Pp.ix+ 226.
- Michael Simpson, The Metamorphoses of Ovid. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2001. Pp. 498.
- Philip Hardie (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Ovid. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Pp. xvi, 408.
- Ovid's Fasti: Historical Readings at its Bimillennium. Edited by Geraldine Herbert-Brown. Oxford, OUP, 2002, 327 pp.
- Heather van Tress, Poetic Memory. Allusion in the Poetry of Callimachus and the Metamorphoses of Ovid. Mnemosyne, Supplementa 258. Leiden: Brill, 2004. Pp. ix, 215.
- Ziolkowski, Theodore, Ovid and the Moderns. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2005. Pp. 262.
- Rimell, Victoria, Ovid's Lovers: Desire, Difference, and the Poetic Imagination. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. Pp. 235.
- Montuschi, Claudia, Il tempo in Ovidio. Funzioni, meccanismi, strutture. Accademia la colombaria studi, 226. Firenze: Leo S. Olschki, 2005. Pp. 463.
- Pasco-Pranger, Molly, Founding the Year: Ovid's Fasti and the Poetics of the Roman Calendar. Mnemosyne Suppl., 276. Leiden: Brill, 2006. Pp. 326.
- P. J. Davis, Ovid & Augustus: A political reading of Ovid's erotic poems. London: Duckworth, 2006. Pp. 183.
- Peter E. Knox (ed.), Oxford Readings in Ovid. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. Pp. 541.
- Andreas N. Michalopoulos, Ovid Heroides 16 and 17. Introduction, text and commentary. (ARCA: Classical and Medieval Texts, Papers and Monographs, 47). Cambridge: Francis Cairns, 2006. Pp. x, 409.
- R. Gibson, S. Green, S. Sharrock, The Art of Love: Bimillennial Essays on Ovid's Ars Amatoria and Remedia Amoris. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. Pp. 375.
- Beckmann, Martin (2002). The 'Columnae Coc(h)lides' of Trajan and Marcus Aurelius 348–357.
- Bennett, Julian () Trajan. Optimus Princeps, Routledge ISBN: 9780415165242.
- Cichorius, Conrad (1896) Die Reliefs der Traianssäule. Erster Tafelband: "Die Reliefs des Ersten Dakischen Krieges", Tafeln 1-57, Berlin: Verlag von Georg Reimer
- Cichorius, Conrad (1900) Die Reliefs der Traianssäule. Zweiter Tafelband: "Die Reliefs des Zweiten Dakischen Krieges", Tafeln 58-113, Berlin: Verlag von Georg Reimer
- Jones, Mark Wilson (1993), “One Hundred Feet and a Spiral Stair: The Problem of Designing Trajan's Column”, in Journal of Roman Archaeology, volume 6, pages 23–38
- Jones, Mark Wilson (2000) Principles of Roman Architecture, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-08138-3
- Lancaster, Lynne (1999). "Building Trajan's Column". American Journal of Archaeology 103 (3): 419–439. Archaeological Institute of America. DOI:10.2307/506969.
- Paoletti, John T.; Radke, Gary M. (2005) Art in Renaissance Italy, 3rd edition, Laurence King Publishing, ISBN 9781856694391
- Platner, Samuel Ball (1929). A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome. LacusCurtius. Retrieved on 2009-03-06.
- Förtsch, Reinhard (2007). Die Trajanssäule. Retrieved on 2009-09-30.
- American Romanian Academy of Arts and Sciences
- The Home of the American Romanian Academy of Arts and Sciences website
- Carol I National Defense University
- Home of the Carol I National Defence University (Universitatea Națională de Apărare "Carol I").
- Religious Assistance/Christianity
- The 34th ARA Congress: Scientific Research - Security -Sustainable Development- Connections
- Romanian website of Putna Monastery
- List of Romanian Orthodox monasteries
- Romanian Christian Orthodox monasteries
- Romanian Architecture from the province of Moldavia
- Extensive database of images and explanations
- Complete set of images of the column, with Italian text
- Biography of the Roman poet Ovidius (Ovid)