American Romanian Academy of Arts and Sciences

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Historical Buildings, Art Museums, Monuments and Old Documents--Artefacts in Romania and Moldavia, including Greater Romania[edit]

Gallery of Ancient artefacts of Romania and Important Romanian documents[edit]

|Scriptor= Demetrius Cantemir |OperaeWikiPagina= Descriptio Moldaviae |Annus= 1714





Descriptio Moldavie document in Latin

"Istoria ieroglifică", ancient book by Prince Dimitrie Cantemir

Gallery for Putna Monastery[edit]

Gallery: Images of important Romanian Kings, Rulers and Princes (Voievodes/Voievozi, Domnitori)[edit]

The following gallery presents authentic images of the most important rulers of Romania and its Principates from ancient (e.g., 82 BC) to modern times (1947 AD). These Romanian domnitori and kings are renowned for their major contributions to maintaining an independent Romania, or Romanian Principates, in spite of numerically superior foreign forces, be they Turkish-Ottoman, Russian, Mongolian, Polish or Hungarian.

Romanian Heraldry[edit]

File:UAIC_logo.png |Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iaşi

Historical Principalities[edit]

Principality of Romania (1862 - 1866)[edit]

Until 1866, there was no official design of the coat of arms.

Coat of arms of counties[edit]

County seats[edit]

See also Coat of arms used in Romania

Romanian and Roman poets[edit]

Publius Ovidius Naso[edit]

Ovid's statue at Tomis--Constantza in Romania where he lies buried

Exiled from Rome by the Emperror to Pontus Euxinus, at Tomis, during Roman antiquity.

    • <Tristia 3. : ,,Hic ego qui iaceo tenerorum lusor amorum /

Ingenio perii Naso poeta meo; / At tibi qui transis ne sit graue quisquis amasti Ddicere "Nasonis molliter ossa cubent" .>

  • Translation in English by Peter Green, The Poems of Exile: Tristia and the Black Sea Letters (University of California Press, 2005), p. 46:
    • < I who lie here, sweet Ovid, poet of tender passions,

fell victim to my own sharp wit. Passer-by, if you've ever been in love, don't grudge me the traditional prayer: 'May Ovid's bones lie soft!' >

In Romanian:

    • < Sub astă piatră zace Ovidiu cântărețul

Iubirilor gingașe răpus de al său talent. O, tu ce treci pe aicea și dacă ai iubit vreodată Te roagă pentru dânsul "să-i fie somnul lin!" >

Mihail Eminescu[edit]


  • Domnitor, derived from latin word Dominus (Lord, or The Lord)
  • Neacşu's letter
  • The Letter of Neacşu from Câmpulung (1521): "The letter contained a secret of great importance, warning the Mayor of Braşov city, Johannes Benkner, about a Turkish invasion, prepared (by Mahamet beg) in the south of the Danube, to be directed against Transylvania and Wallachia."The spoken text of Neacşu's letter is little different from the nowadays spoken Romanian language, with only minor variations of some Romanian words being in their archaic 16th century form. The letter of the boyar Neacşu was discovered by the renown historian-scholar Nicolae Iorga in the beginning of 20th century, in the Braşov City Archives.

Further reading[edit]

The Column of Roman Emperor Trajan:

  • Claridge, Amanda (1993), "Hadrian's Column of Trajan", Journal of Roman Archaeology 6: 5–22.
  • Davies, Penelope J. E. (1997),, American Journal of Archaeology (Archaeological Institute of America) 101(1): 41–65, doi:10.2307/506249
  • Lepper, Frank & Frere, Sheppard (1988), "Trajan's Column. A New Edition of the Cichorius Plates. Introduction, Commentary and Notes", Gloucester: Alan Sutton Publishing, ISBN 0-86299-467-5 Lepper, Frank & Frere, Sheppard (1988).

The Roman Poet Ovidius:

  • Ovid Renewed: Ovidian Influences on Literature and Art from the Middle Ages to the Twentieth Century. Ed. Charles Martindale. Cambridge, 1988.
  • Johnson, Patricia J. Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses. (Wisconsin Studies in Classics). Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press, 2008. Pp. x, 184.
  • Richard A. Dwyer "Ovid in the Middle Ages" in Dictionary of the Middle Ages, 1989, pp. 312–14
  • Federica Bessone. P. Ovidii Nasonis Heroidum Epistula XII: Medea Iasoni. Florence: Felice Le Monnier, 1997. Pp. 324.
  • R. A. Smith. Poetic Allusion and Poetic Embrace in Ovid and Virgil. Ann Arbor; The University of Michigan Press, 1997. Pp.ix+ 226.
  • Michael Simpson, The Metamorphoses of Ovid. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2001. Pp. 498.
  • Philip Hardie (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Ovid. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Pp. xvi, 408.
  • Ovid's Fasti: Historical Readings at its Bimillennium. Edited by Geraldine Herbert-Brown. Oxford, OUP, 2002, 327 pp.
  • Heather van Tress, Poetic Memory. Allusion in the Poetry of Callimachus and the Metamorphoses of Ovid. Mnemosyne, Supplementa 258. Leiden: Brill, 2004. Pp. ix, 215.
  • Ziolkowski, Theodore, Ovid and the Moderns. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2005. Pp. 262.
  • Rimell, Victoria, Ovid's Lovers: Desire, Difference, and the Poetic Imagination. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. Pp. 235.
  • Montuschi, Claudia, Il tempo in Ovidio. Funzioni, meccanismi, strutture. Accademia la colombaria studi, 226. Firenze: Leo S. Olschki, 2005. Pp. 463.
  • Pasco-Pranger, Molly, Founding the Year: Ovid's Fasti and the Poetics of the Roman Calendar. Mnemosyne Suppl., 276. Leiden: Brill, 2006. Pp. 326.
  • P. J. Davis, Ovid & Augustus: A political reading of Ovid's erotic poems. London: Duckworth, 2006. Pp. 183.
  • Peter E. Knox (ed.), Oxford Readings in Ovid. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. Pp. 541.
  • Andreas N. Michalopoulos, Ovid Heroides 16 and 17. Introduction, text and commentary. (ARCA: Classical and Medieval Texts, Papers and Monographs, 47). Cambridge: Francis Cairns, 2006. Pp. x, 409.
  • R. Gibson, S. Green, S. Sharrock, The Art of Love: Bimillennial Essays on Ovid's Ars Amatoria and Remedia Amoris. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. Pp. 375.

External sources[edit]

  • Beckmann, Martin (2002). The 'Columnae Coc(h)lides' of Trajan and Marcus Aurelius 348–357.
  • Bennett, Julian () Trajan. Optimus Princeps, Routledge ISBN: 9780415165242.
  • Cichorius, Conrad (1896) Die Reliefs der Traianssäule. Erster Tafelband: "Die Reliefs des Ersten Dakischen Krieges", Tafeln 1-57, Berlin: Verlag von Georg Reimer
  • Cichorius, Conrad (1900) Die Reliefs der Traianssäule. Zweiter Tafelband: "Die Reliefs des Zweiten Dakischen Krieges", Tafeln 58-113, Berlin: Verlag von Georg Reimer
  • Jones, Mark Wilson (1993), “One Hundred Feet and a Spiral Stair: The Problem of Designing Trajan's Column”, in Journal of Roman Archaeology, volume 6, pages 23–38
  • Jones, Mark Wilson (2000) Principles of Roman Architecture, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-08138-3
  • Lancaster, Lynne (1999). "Building Trajan's Column". American Journal of Archaeology 103 (3): 419–439. Archaeological Institute of America. DOI:10.2307/506969.
  • Paoletti, John T.; Radke, Gary M. (2005) Art in Renaissance Italy, 3rd edition, Laurence King Publishing, ISBN 9781856694391
  • Platner, Samuel Ball (1929). A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome. LacusCurtius. Retrieved on 2009-03-06.
  • Förtsch, Reinhard (2007). Die Trajanssäule. Retrieved on 2009-09-30.

External links[edit]