Atlas of European history

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The introductions of the country, dependency and region entries are in the native languages and in English. The other introductions are in English.


Atlas of European history
English Europe
Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. Physically and geologically, Europe is the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, west of Asia. Europe is bounded to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the west by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Mediterranean Sea, and to the southeast by the waterways adjoining the Mediterranean to and including the Black Sea and the Caucasus Mountains. On the east, Europe is divided from Asia by the water divide of the Ural Mountains and by the Caspian Sea. Europe is the world's second-smallest continent in terms of area, covering about 10,400,000 square kilometres (4,010,000 sq mi) or 2.0% of the Earth's surface. The only continent smaller than Europe is Australia. In terms of population, it is the third-largest continent (after Asia and Africa) with a population of some 710,000,000 or about 11% of the world's population. However, the term continent can refer to a cultural and political distinction or a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europe's precise borders, area, and population.
Population 710,000,000 inhabitants
Area 10,400,000 km²
Major language(s)
Major religion(s)
More information Europe, Geography of Europe, History of Europe and Politics of Europe
More images Europe - Europe (Category).

History maps

This section holds a short summary of the history of the area of present-day Europe, illustrated with maps, including historical maps of former countries and empires that included present-day Europe.


Map of Palaeolithic Art.png Palaeolithic art, as early as 40 000 BC to 10 000 BC
Neolítico en Europa.png Neolithicum in Europe 5th millennium BCE
Cardial map.png Cardium Pottery, 5000 BC
European Middle Neolithic.gif Europe in the Middle Neolithic, ca. 4500 BC-4000 BC
European Late Neolithic.gif Europe in the Late Neolithic, ca. 4000 BC-3500 BC
Old Europe.png Simple map of the major late 4th millennium BC "Old European" cultures. Green is the Funnelbeaker culture (TRB). Blue is the Linear Ceramic culture (LBK). Orange is the Lengyel culture, purple the Vincha culture, red the Cucuteni culture and yellow the western part of the Yamna culture
Corded Ware culture.png Corded Ware culture and neighbourhood (Yamna culture, Baden culture), ca. 3200 BC/2900 BC to ca. 2300 BC/1800 BC
Bellbeaker map europe.jpg Centers of the Beaker culture (ca. 2800 BC1900 BC)
Beaker culture.png Extent of the Beaker culture (ca. 2800 BC1900 BC)
Cultures, 1200 BC.PNG A simplified map, ca. 1200 BC, showing the central Urnfield culture (red), the northern Urnfield culture (orange), the Knoviz culture (blue-gray), the Lusatian culture (purple), the Danubian culture (brown), the Terramare culture (blue), the West European Bronze Age (green) and the Nordic Bronze Age (yellow).
Distribution of Celts in Europe.png Celts in Europe. This is a rough estimate from several sources. Blue: extent of Celtic influence 1500 BCE - 1000 BCE. Purple: extent of Celtic influence 400 BCE
La Tène Culture.jpg La Tène Culture area, Celts' urheimat, V century BC
Celts in III century BC.jpg Celts spread in III century BC, according to Francisco Villar's Los Indoeuropeos y los orígenes de Europa, Italian version, p. 446
Celts 800-400BC.PNG Celts in Europe 800 - 400 BC. The green area suggests a possible extent of (proto-)Celtic influence around 1000 BC
Celts in Europe.png Celts in Europe
Celtes-carte.PNG Celts in Europe
Hallstatt LaTene.png Celts: Hallstatt (yellow) and La Tène (green) cultures


Germanic tribes (750BC-1AD).png Germanic tribes (750 BCE-1)
Thraciae-veteris-typvs.jpg ancient Thrace,map made in 1585
West Mediterranean Areas 509 BC.png West Mediterranean Areas 509 BCE
West Mediterranean Areas 348 BC.png West Mediterranean Areas 348 BCE
West Mediterranean Areas 306 BC.png West Mediterranean Areas 306 BCE
West Mediterranean Areas 279 BC.png West Mediterranean Areas 279 BCE
Europe map 220BC.PNG Europe in 220 BCE
Roman expansion 264 BC Shepherd.jpg Territorial development of the Roman Empire 264 BC-192
Map of Rome and Carthage at the start of the Second Punic War.svg The Roman Republic and Carthage in 218, just prior to the Second Punic War
Cimbrians and Teutons invasions.svg The migrations of the Cimbri and the Teutons
Expansion of Rome, 2nd century BC.gif Roman Republic 100 BCE
Roman Empire in 50 BC.png Map of the Roman Empire in 50
Roman Empire.png The extent of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire;
  133 BC
  44 BC (late Republic, after conquests by republican generals)
  AD 14 (death of Augustus)
  117 (maximum extension)
Romana Res Publica (provinciae).PNG Map of the Roman republic, with provinces
Europa60AD.jpeg Europe in 60
Romia Imperio.png Map of the Roman Empire in 116
RomanEmpire 117.svg Roman Empire in 117
Theodosius I's empire.png The division of the Empire after the death of Theodosius I, ca.395 AD superimposed on modern borders.
Extent of Western Roman Empire 395.png Western Roman Empire 395
Karte völkerwanderung.jpg Invasions of the Roman Empire 100-500
Rome406.jpeg Division of the Roman Empire in 406
Roman empire 395.jpg Europe in 395
Invasions of the Roman Empire 1.png The Germanic migrations of the fifth century were triggered by the destruction of the Gothic kingdoms by the Huns in 372-375. The city of Rome was captured and looted by the Visigoths in 410 and by the Vandals in 455.
Europa400AD.JPG Europe in 400
Europe map 450.PNG Europe in 450
Huns empire.png The Huns Empire. By the end of 454, it will have collapsed.
Vandals 455.jpg Vandals in 455
476eur.jpg Europe in 476

Middle Ages

[[|border|251x400px]] Europe in 526
Europe 526-600.jpg Europe in 526-600
[[|border|251x400px]] Austrasia and Neustria
Frankenreich 768-811.jpg The Frankish Empire
Europe 814.svg Europe in 814
Growth of Frankish Power, 481-814 Edit.jpeg The growth of Frankish power, 481–814, showing Francia as it originally was after the crumbling of the Western Roman Empire
Europe 814.jpg Until his death in 814, Charlemagne ruled an empire which included modern Catalonia, France, western Germany, the Low Countries, and northern Italy.
Partage de l'Empire carolingien au Traité de Verdun en 843.JPG Final division of the Frankish Empire in the Treaty of Verdun
Old Saxony1 in western empire 843.jpg Divisions after 843
843-870 Europe.jpg Europe in 843-870
Western Empire-Europe870.JPG Divisions in 870
HRR 10Jh.jpg Under Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, the Holy Roman Empire included Germany, northern Italy, Austria, and the Netherlands
Vikings-Voyages.png Voyages of the Vikings
Viking expansion.png Map showing Scandinavian settlement in the eighth (dark red), ninth (red), tenth (orange) and eleventh (yellow) centuries. Areas denoted in green are those affected by frequent viking incursions but with little or no Scandinavian settlement.
Europe map 998.PNG Europe in 998
Ivar.png Kingdom of Ivar Vidfamne
Cnut 1014 1035.jpg Empire of Cnut 1014-1035
Europe map 1092.PNG Europe in 1092
Europe mediterranean 1097.jpg Europe in 1097
First.Crusade.Map.jpg Crusades around 1097
Normans possessions 12century-fr.png Norman possessions in the 12th century
Europe 1142.jpg Europe in 1142
Europe mediterranean 1190.jpg Europe 1190
Premongol.png Eurasia in 1200
Europe in 1328.png Europe in 1328
Diffusion de la peste noire en europe 1347-1351.png Black Death 1347-1351
Europe 1360.jpg Europe in 1360
Western schism 1378-1417.svg the Western Schism 1378-1417

Caution: this map is highly inaccurate in some regions and borders, see its talk page.}}

Spatmittelalter.jpg German map of Europe around 1395
Europa 1400.jpg Europe in 1400
Europe in 1430.PNG Europe in 1430
Europe in 1470.PNG Europe in 1470
Europa 1477.JPG Europe in 1477
[[|border|251x400px]] Europe in 1490

Early modern period

Europa 1519.JPG Europe in 1519
Habsburg Map 1547.jpg Habsburg dominions 1547
Charles I and V empire.png Empire of Charles V:
Habsburg Map 1547.jpg The (Habsburg) Empire of Charles I/V
Europe 1550.jpg Europe in 1550
Europe religions 1560.jpg European religions in 1560
Habsburg Map 1547.jpg Habsburg Empire in 1547
Spain1580.gif Area ruled by the Habsburg king around 1580 on a map showing modern-day state borders
Map Thirty Years War fr.png Thirty Years War map
Europe map 1648.PNG Europe in 1648
Western Europe 1700.jpg Europe in 1700
Europe 1740.jpg Europe in 1740

Late modern period

French Revolution and Napoleonic Period
Map of Western Europe in 1791 by Reilly 0006.jpg Western and Southern Europe (1791)
Map of Northern and Eastern Europe in 1791 by Reilly 0004.jpg Northern and Eastern Europe (1791)
1794 D'Anville Two Panel Wall Map of Europe - Geographicus - Europe-anville-1794.jpg Europe (1794)
Peace of Basel.png Central Europe after the Peace of Basel and the Treaty of Campo Formio (1797)
1799 Clement Cruttwell Map of Europe - Geographicus - Europe-cruttwell-1799.jpg Europe (1799)
D062- N° 435. Les républiques sœurs. - Liv3-Ch16.png France and its sister republics (1799)
Saint Empire après 1801.svg Europe after the Treaty of Lunéville (1801)
Strategic Situation of Europe 1801.jpg Strategic situation of Europe (1801)
AtHistEur1811.jpg Europe in 1811
1french-empire1811.jpg The French Empire in 1811
Europe map Napoleon 1811.png The French Empire and satellite states (1811)
First French Empire 1812.svg The French Empire and satellite states (1812)
Europe 1812 map en.png Europe in 1812
Europe 1815 map en.png Europe in 1815
1815 – 1939
Europe 1848 map en.png Europe in 1848
Europe 1867 map en.png Europe in 1867
Europe 1871 map en.png Europe in 1871
Europe 1878 map en.png Europe in 1878
Europa 1890.jpg Europe in 1890
Europe 1911.jpg Europe in 1911
Europe 1914 Shepherd.jpg Europe in 1914
Europe 1914.jpg Europe in 1914
Europe in 1914.jpg Europe in 1914
Europe 1914 and 1924.png Europe in 1914-24
EUROPE 1919-1929 POLITICAL 01.png Europe in 1929-1939
Second world war europe 1935-1939 map de.png Europe 1935-1939
World War II
Second world war europe animation large de.gif Animated map World War II in Europe
Second world war europe 1939 map de.png Europe 1939
Second world war europe 1940 map de.png Europe 1940
Second world war europe 1941 map de.png Europe 1941
Second world war europe 1941-1942 map en.png Europe 1941-1942
Atlantic wall may 1944 de.png Atlantic wall may 1944
Second world war europe 1943-1945 map de.png europe 1943-1945
Ww2-europe-overview.gif World War II in Europe 1939-1945
1940-Fall Gelb.jpg Western front 1940 I
4June-12June1940-Fall Rot.jpg Western Front 1940 II
1940FaguoLiuYue.jpg Western front 1940 III
Second world war europe 1941-1942 map en.png Europe in 1941/42
Eastern Front 1941-06 to 1941-09.png Eastern Front 1941-I
Eastern Front 1941-06 to 1941-12.png Eastern Front 1941-II
Eastern Front 1941-12 to 1942-05.png Eastern Front 1942
Eastern Front 1942-11 to 1943-03.png Eastern Front 1943 I
Eastern Front 1943-02 to 1943-08.png Eastern Front 1943 II
Eastern Front 1943-08 to 1944-12.png Eastern Front 1944
Eastern Front 1945-01 to 1945-05.png Eastern Front 1945
Post-War Europe
Iron Curtain Final.svg Divided Europe 1945-1990
Cold war europe economic alliances map en.png Cold War economic alliances
Cold war europe military alliances map en.png Cold War military alliances
NATO vs Warsaw (1949-1990)edit.png NATO versus Warsaw Pact 1949-1960
Marshall Plan.png Marshall Plan
Europe countries map en 1993-2006.png Europe in 1993-2006


Europe countries map en.png Europe in 2006 to date

Historical maps of the Balkans

Roman provinces of Illyricum, Macedonia, Dacia, Moesia, Pannonia and Thracia.jpg Roman Provinces in the Balkan
South East Europe 1340.gif Balkan 1340
Rascia Banat01.jpg Balkan 1518
North Turkey in Euopre 1726.jpg North Turkey in Europe 1726
Rumelia map.jpg Balkan 1801
Militargrenze, Wojwodowena und Banat.jpg Map of the Austrian Military Frontier (in German)
Post Roman Balkans.jpg Post-Roman Conquest Balkans,map made in 1849
Roman Empire Map AlexanderFindlay1849.png Roman era Balkans
Balkans-ethnic (1861).jpg Ethnographic map of European Turkey and the vassal states (1861)
Balkans1912.jpg Balkan 1912
Balkankrieg Besetzte Gebiete 1913.png Balkans in 1913
Balkan belligerants 1914.jpg Balkan belligerants 1914
Former Yugoslavia wartime.png Former Yugoslavia wartime (1990-)
Balkans05.png Western Balkan until 2006
Balkans2010.png Central Balkans in 2010 (de facto situation). Note: Serbia does not recognizing Independence of Kosovo.

Historical maps of the Caucasus

Map of Colchis, Iberia, Albania, and the neighbouring countries ca 1770.jpg Caucasus 1729
1842 map of Caucasus.jpg Caucasus 1842
Caucasus03.png Caucasus History Map
Caucasus countries.png Caucasus
Caucasus-ethnic en.svg Ethnic map of the Caucasus

Historical maps of the Iberian Peninsula

Mapa de Portugal tribos principais.png Pre-Roman tribes in western Iberia
Celts in Iberia.PNG Celts in Iberia (200 BC)
Ethnographic Iberia 200 BCE.PNG Ethnographic Iberia 200 BCE
Prehispanic languages.gif Prehispanic languages and tribes
Lenguas-prerromanas.jpg Prehispanic languages
Mapa escriptures paleohispàniques-cast.jpg Paleohispanic writing systems excluding proper Lusitanian
Hispania republicana.PNG Hispania under the Roman republic
Lusitania SPQR.png Lusitania in the Roman Empire (116)
Bellum-Asturicum-Cantabricum.png Astur-Cantabrian war
Hispania1.jpg Hispania under Octavio César Augusto (29-19 a. J. C.), after the Cantabrians Wars
Hispania2.JPG Hispania under Dioclecian, 293 AC
Hispania 2a division provincial.PNG Roman provinces in Iberia
Hispania 3a division provincial.PNG
REmpire-02 Hispania Lusitania.png Roman province of Lusitania
Lusitania-karte 3-1275x1575.png Roman Lusitania
Hispania 476 AD.PNG Iberian Peninsula Around 476 AC
Hispania3c.JPG Iberian Peninsula Around 560 AC
Hispania 560 AD.PNG Iberian Peninsula Around 560 AC
Hispania 565.png Iberian Peninsula in 565
Hispania 586 AD.PNG Iberian Peninsula Around 586 AC
Visigoth migrations.jpg Visigoths migrations
Reino de los visigodos-en.svg Kingdom of the Visigoths
Hispania3c.JPG Visigoths and Sueves
Reino de Galicia Suevos.png Kingdom of Suvean Galicia
Hispania 700 AD.PNG Iberian Peninsula in 700
Age of Caliphs.png Conquest by the Caliphs
Almoravid-empire-en.svg Empire of the Almoravides (in English)
Al-Andalus-de-910.jpg Emirate of Cordoba
File:Iberia 1031 (norsk).jpg Iberia in 1031
[[|border|251x400px]] Iberia in 1031
Taifa de Zaragoza.jpg Taifas in 1080
[[|border|251x400px]] Reconquista
Pt-Reconquista2.jpg Reconquista
[[|border|251x400px]] Conquest of Andalus
Almoravid map reconquest loc.jpg
Almohad map reconquest loc.jpg

Notes and references

General remarks:

  • The WIKIMEDIA COMMONS Atlas of the World is an organized and commented collection of geographical, political and historical maps available at Wikimedia Commons. The main page is therefore the portal to maps and cartography on Wikimedia. That page contains links to entries by country, continent and by topic as well as general notes and references.
  • Every entry has an introduction section in English. If other languages are native and/or official in an entity, introductions in other languages are added in separate sections. The text of the introduction(s) is based on the content of the Wikipedia encyclopedia. For sources of the introduction see therefore the Wikipedia entries linked to. The same goes for the texts in the history sections.
  • Historical maps are included in the continent, country and dependency entries.
  • The status of various entities is disputed. See the content for the entities concerned.
  • The maps of former countries that are more or less continued by a present-day country or had a territory included in only one or two countries are included in the atlas of the present-day country. For example the Ottoman Empire can be found in the Atlas of Turkey.

Entries available in the atlas

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Historical eras
Prehistory • Antiquity • Middle Ages • Rise of Islam • Early Modern Age • Early American Societies • Early Asian Societies • Age of Renaissance • Colonialism • Stielers Handatlas 1891 • 20th Century • World War I • World War II

Entities with undisputed sovereign status
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Entities with disputed sovereign status
Abkhazia • Artsakh • Kosovo • Northern Cyprus • Palestine • Pridnestrovie • Somaliland • South Ossetia • Taiwan • Tatarstan • Western Sahara

Dependencies and other overseas territories
Akrotiri and Dhekelia • Åland • American Samoa • Anguilla • Aruba • Ascension Island • Ashmore and Cartier Islands • Baker Island • Bermuda • Bouvet Island • British Indian Ocean Territory • British Virgin Islands • Cayman Islands • Christmas Island • Clipperton Island • Cocos (Keeling) Islands • Cook Islands • Coral Sea Islands • Curaçao • Faroe Islands • French Guiana • French Polynesia • French Southern and Antarctic Lands • Gibraltar • Greenland • Guadeloupe • Guam • Guantanamo Bay • Guernsey • Heard Island and McDonald Islands • Hong Kong • Howland Island • Isle of Man • Jan Mayen • Jarvis Island • Jersey • Johnston Atoll • Kingman Reef • Macau • Martinique • Mayotte • Midway Atoll • Montserrat • Navassa Island • New Caledonia • Niue • Norfolk Island • Northern Mariana Islands • Palmyra Atoll • Pitcairn Islands • Puerto Rico • Réunion • Saint Helena • Saint Martin (France) • Saint-Barthélemy • Saint-Pierre and Miquelon • Sint Maarten (Netherlands) • Svalbard • Tokelau • Tristan da Cunha • Turks and Caicos Islands • United States Virgin Islands • Wake Island • Wallis and Futuna

Disputed subnational entities and territories
Bajo Nuevo Bank • Crimea • Falkland Islands • Gilgit–Baltistan • Kurdistan (Syrian) • Kashmir • Ladakh • Paracel Islands • Serranilla Bank • South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands • Spratly Islands •

Subnational autonomous entities
Aceh • Adjara • Adygea • Altai • Andalusia • Aosta Valley • Aragon • Asturias • Athos • Azores • Balearic Islands • Bashkortostan • Basque Autonomous Community • Bonaire • Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federation of) • Bougainville • Brussels • Buryatia • Canary Islands • Catalonia • Chechnya • Chuvashia • Corsica • Dagestan • Easter Island • England • Extremadura • Flanders • Friuli-Venezia Giulia • Gagauzia • Galicia • Galápagos Islands • Gilgit–Baltistan • Gorno-Badakhshan • Guangxi • Ingushetia • Islamabad Capital Territory • Inner Mongolia • Kabardino-Balkaria • Kalmykia • Karachay-Cherkessia • Karakalpakstan • Karelia • Khakassia • Komi • Kurdistan (Iraqi) • Khyber Pakhtunkhwa • Madeira • Mari El • Muslim Mindanao • Mordovia • Nakhichevan • Navarre • Nevis • Ningxia • North Ossetia – Alania • Northern Ireland • Nunatsiavut • Quebec • Saba • Sakha • Sardinia • Scotland • Sicily • Sindh • Sint Eustatius • Srpska • Tibet • Tłı̨chǫ • Trentino-Alto Adige • Tuva • Udmurtia • Vojvodina • Wales • Wallonia • Xinjiang • Zanzibar

Other regions
Basque Country • Burzenland • Catalan Countries • Frisia • Kurdistan • Manchuria • Sápmi • Svenskfinland • Székely Land • Transylvania

Former sovereign nations
Austria-Hungary • Byzantine Empire • Caliphate • Czechoslovakia • Frankish Empire • Kingdom of Hawaiʻi • Inca Empire • Iroquois Confederacy • Macedonian Empire • Ottoman Empire • Prussia • Roman Empire • Soviet Union • Republic of Texas • Vermont Republic • Republic of West Florida • Yugoslavia

Former dependencies and overseas territories
Netherlands Antilles

Former disputed territories
Tamil Eelam Justin