Қазақстан Республикасы — Еуразия құрылыпының қақ ортасында орналасқан мемлекет. Солтүстігінде Ресей Федерациясымен (6 467 км), оңтүстігінде Түрікменстан (380 км), Өзбекстан (2 300 км) және Қырғыз (980 км) республикаларымен, шығысында Қытаймен (1 460 км) шектеседі, батыста Каспий теңізімен, оңтүстікте Арал теңізімен шайылады. Жер көлемі — 2717,3 мың шаршы километр. Жұрт саны 15301,4 мың (2006 шілде 1). Оның 9 008,0 мың немесе 58,9 % қазақтар құрайды. Республикада 131 ұлт пен ұлыстың өкілдері тұрады. Елордасы — Астана қаласы.
Республика Казахстан — независимое государство, находящееся в Центральной Азии и Европе. Граничит на севере и западе с Россией, на востоке с Китаем, на юге с Киргизией, Туркменией и Узбекистаном. Омывается водами внутриконтинентальных Каспийского и Аральского морей.
Deutsch: Kasachstan ist ein Staat in Zentralasien und – betrachtet man den Fluss Ural als Grenze zwischen Europa und Asien – zu einem kleinen Teil (ca. 5,4 % der Landesfläche) im äußersten Osteuropa. In Kasachstan selber sieht man sich in erster Linie im Zentrum Eurasiens. Kasachstan grenzt im Norden und Westen an Russland, im Südosten an die Volksrepublik China, im Süden an Kirgisistan, Usbekistan und Turkmenistan und im Südwesten an das Kaspische Meer.
This section holds a short summary of the history of the area of present-day Kazakhstan, illustrated with maps, including historical maps of former countries and empires that included present-day Kazakhstan.
In present-day Kazakhstan is part of the Turk Khanate since the sixth century. This map shows the Western (purple) and Eastern (blue) GöktürkKhaganates at their height, ca. 600 CE. Lighter areas show direct rule; darker areas show spheres of influence. In the 10th century the state of the Ogusians is formed in the tenth century.
The area is conquered by the Mongols in the thirteenth century. This map shows the Empire of Genghis Khan at his death in 1227l
Map showing changes in borders of the Mongol Empire from founding by Genghis Khan in 1206, Genghis Khan's death in 1227 to the rule of Kublai Khan (1260–1294). (Uses modern day borders)
Following this conquest administrative districts are established, which eventually become the territories of the Kazakh Khanate. The Kazakhs emerge from a mixture of tribes living in the region in about the 15th century and by the middle of the 16th century had developed a common language, culture and economy. In the early 1600s, the Kazakh Khanate separates into the Senior, Middle and Junior Hordes, confederations based on extended family networks. Between 1652 and 1680 the khanate is under Dzungarian suzerainty. After the death of Khan Kaip I in 1718, several khans are elected in different parts of the Kazakh Khanate. This means the final disunification of the khanate.
Central Asia in 1900
At the disintegration of Russia in 1917 Kazakhstan proclaims independence. The area is invaded by Russian communists in 1920 and by 1925 Kazakhstan is under control of the Soviet Union. It is an autonomous republic within Russia since 1920 and it becomes a a seperate union member in 1936. For more maps see the Atlas of the Soviet Union.
Kazakhstan in the Soviet Union. Following the 1991 abortive coup attempt in Moscow and the subsequent dissolution of the USSR, Kazakhstan declared independence in 1991 as the Republic of Kazakhstan.
This section holds copies of original general maps more than 70 years old.
Map of Central Asia from Meyers Konversationslexikons (1885-1900), showing what is now Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and parts of Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and China
The map of Russian Turkestan and Khanates of Khiva and Bukhara, from Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (1890-1907). The area shown on the map includes the entire territory of today's Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, almost all of Uzbekistan, eastern part of Turkmenistan, and south-eastern Kazakhstan.
Notes and references
The WIKIMEDIA COMMONS Atlas of the World is an organized and commented collection of geographical, political and historical maps available at Wikimedia Commons. The main page is therefore the portal to maps and cartography on Wikimedia. That page contains links to entries by country, continent and by topic as well as general notes and references.
Every entry has an introduction section in English. If other languages are native and/or official in an entity, introductions in other languages are added in separate sections. The text of the introduction(s) is based on the content of the Wikipedia encyclopedia. For sources of the introduction see therefore the Wikipedia entries linked to. The same goes for the texts in the history sections.
Historical maps are included in the continent, country and dependency entries.
The status of various entities is disputed. See the content for the entities concerned.
The maps of former countries that are more or less continued by a present-day country or had a territory included in only one or two countries are included in the atlas of the present-day country. For example the Ottoman Empire can be found in the Atlas of Turkey.
↑Romanization of Kazakh: Qazaqstan - Qazaqstan Respublïkası
↑Romanization of Russian according to the BGN/PCGN standard: Kazakhstan - Respublika Kazakhstan. Another used romanization is the ISO 9 standard.