Atlas of languages

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Internet-web-browser.svg Wikimedia Commons Atlas of the World

The Wikimedia Atlas of the World is an organized and commented collection of geographical, political and historical maps available at Wikimedia Commons.
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The introductions of the country, dependency and region entries are in the native languages and in English. The other introductions are in English.
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Atlas of languages
English: A language is a system, used for communication, comprising a finite set of arbitrary symbols and a set of rules (or grammar) by which the manipulation of these symbols is governed. These symbols can be combined productively to convey new information, distinguishing languages from other forms of communication. The word language (without an article) can also refer to the use of such systems as a phenomenon.

Français: Le langage est la faculté de mettre en œuvre un système de signes linguistiques (qui constituent la langue) permettant la communication et l'expression de la pensée, ce qui est privatif des humains, et des sentiments, ce qui est commun aux animaux. La linguistique est l'étude scientifique du langage.

Español: Como concepto general, el lenguaje engloba a distintos medios utilizados para sostener la comunicación. El lenguaje verbal emplea signos que transmiten significados y que pueden articularse formando estructuras complejas que adquieren nuevas capacidades de significación (morfemas, palabras, oraciones, párrafos, textos). Filósofos como Martin Heidegger consideran que el lenguaje propiamente dicho es sólo privativo del hombre. Es famosa su tesis según la cual el lenguaje es la casa del ser (Haus des Seins) y la morada de la esencia del hombre.

العربية: اللغة نسق من الإشارات والرموز، يشكل أداة في المعرفة، وتعتبر اللغة أهم أدوات التفاهم والاحتكاك بين أفراد المجتمع في جميع ميادين الحياة. وبدون اللغة يتعذر نشاط الناس المعرفي. وترتبط اللغة بالتفكير ارتباطاً وثيقاً. فأفكار الإنسان تصاغ دوماً في قالب لغوي، حتى في حال تفكيره الباطني. فقط في اللغة تحصل الفكرة على وجودها الواقعي. واللغة ترمز إلى الأشياء المنعكسة فيها.

中文: 正常的人类都具有讲话的能力,但是任何人都必须通过学习才能获得语言能力。对于语言这个非常复杂、重要的概念,是很难被清楚定义的。然而大部分人都会同意,语言是一套通过表示方法和合乎逻辑的语法构成的进行沟通和推理的系统。许多语言通过手势、声音、符号和文字来传递,目的是交流观念、意见、思想和含义等。语言学就是我们在尝试区分語言間的異同而發展出來的。

Русский: Язы́к — система знаков, предназначенная для фиксации, переработки и передачи сведений от одного субъекта к другому.

Maps of languages[edit]

Human Language Families (wikicolors).png
English: Current distribution of Human Language Families
Français : Distribution actuelle de familles linquistique
Español: Distribución actual de las familias lingüísticas
English: Language groups
Français : Familles linguistiques
Español: Familias lingüísticas
Sprachen der Welt.png
Deutsch: Karte auf Deutsch
English: Map in German
Français : Carte en allemand
Español: Mapa en alemán
Mapa Lenguas del Mundo.png
Español: Idiomas del mundo
English: Languages of the world (map in Spanish)
English: Writing systems of the world
Français : Systèmes d'écriture du monde
Español: Los sistemas de escritura del mundo
Writing systems worldwide.svg
English: Writing systems of the world
Français : Systèmes d'écriture du monde
Español: Los sistemas de escritura del mundo
IE countries.png
English: Orange: countries with a majority of speakers of Indo-European languages, Yellow: countries with an IE minority language with official status
Map-Francophone World.svg
Français : Le monde francophone
English: Francophone world
Español: El mundo francófono
Map-Hispanophone World 2000.png
Español: Mundo hispanohablante. Ver la leyenda para obtener una lista detallada de las fuentes utilizadas para generar el mapa.
English: Hispanophone world. See the legend for a detailed list of sources used to make the map
Français : Le monde hispanophone
English: Countries traditionally considered the Core of the Hispanidad. (Note that this is not the same as the Hispanophone.) See the legend for a detailed list of countries.
Anglospeak (subnational version).svg
English: Countries where English is an official language.
Español: Países donde el Inglés es un idioma oficial.
हिन्दी: देश जहाँ अंग्रेज़ी एक आधिकारिक भाषा है.
Legal status of German in the world.svg
Deutsch: Deutschsprachige länder
English: German speaking countries
Detailed SVG map of the Lusophone world.svg
English: Portuguese speaking countries
Português: Países lusófonos
Map of the Dutch World.svg
English: International position of Dutch


IE5500BP.png Indo-European languages 3500 BCE
IE4500BP.png Indo-European languages 2500 BCE
IE3500BP.png Indo-European languages 1500 BCE
IE2500BP.png Indo-European languages 500 BCE
Indo-European isoglosses.png The Indo-European language groups as of 500 B.C.E, along with selected isoglosses.
IE1500BP.png Indo-European languages 500 CE
[[|border|251x400px]] Indo-European languages 1500 CE
[[|border|251x400px]] Indo-European Languages


Europe germanic-languages 2.PNG

Germaanse talen
Germanska språk
Germanske sprog
Germönsk tungumál

Crymean Tatar lang.png Crymean Tatar Language
Idioma bielorruso.png

беларуская мова
Belarusian Language

Ukrainian lang.png

украї́нська мо́ва
Ukrainian Language


Russian language status and proficiency in the World.svg

Русский язык
Russian Language

Uralic-Yukaghir.png Geographical distribution of Samoyedic, Finnic, Ugric and Yukaghir languages


Languages of Africa map.svg

Languages of Africa
Carte linguistique
Tale van Afrika

African language families en.svg

Map of African language families
Carte de langues africaines


Lugha za Kibantu
Bantu expansion


لغات أفروآسيوية
Afro-Asiatic languages

Nilo-Saharan.png Nilo-Saharan languages

Lokótá ya Nizer-Kongo
Langues nigéro-congolaises
Niger-Congo languages

Khoi-San.png Khoi San languages
Gbe languages.png Gbe languages
Tuareg area.png

Kel Tamasheq


Eskimo-Aleut langs.png Eskimo-Aleut languages
Na-Dene langs.png Na-Dené languages
Quechua (subgrupos).svg

Qhichwa simi
Lenguas quechuas


Austroasiatic-en.svg Austro-Asiatic languages
Sino-Tibetan languages.png Sino-Tibetan languages
Japanese language extension.PNG Japanese language

Notes and references[edit]

General remarks:

  • The WIKIMEDIA COMMONS Atlas of the World is an organized and commented collection of geographical, political and historical maps available at Wikimedia Commons. The main page is therefore the portal to maps and cartography on Wikimedia. That page contains links to entries by country, continent and by topic as well as general notes and references.
  • Every entry has an introduction section in English. If other languages are native and/or official in an entity, introductions in other languages are added in separate sections. The text of the introduction(s) is based on the content of the Wikipedia encyclopedia. For sources of the introduction see therefore the Wikipedia entries linked to. The same goes for the texts in the history sections.
  • Historical maps are included in the continent, country and dependency entries.
  • The status of various entities is disputed. See the content for the entities concerned.
  • The maps of former countries that are more or less continued by a present-day country or had a territory included in only one or two countries are included in the atlas of the present-day country. For example the Ottoman Empire can be found in the Atlas of Turkey.

Entries available in the atlas[edit]

General pages
Atlas   ■ Historical atlas   ■ Index of the Atlas   ■ Names in native languages

The world and its continents and oceans
Quick reference   ■ Historical maps of the world   ■ Old maps
Physical and topographical   ■ Political   ■ Geological   ■ People   ■ Time and time zones   ■ Projections of the globe
Africa   ■ North and South America   ■ Antarctica   ■ Asia   ■ Europe

(History, European Union)   ■ Oceania   ■ Oceans

Administrative divisions   ■ International organizations   ■ Languages   ■ Religions

Historical eras
Prehistory   ■ Antiquity   ■ Middle Ages   ■ Rise of Islam   ■ Early Modern Age   ■ Early American Societies   ■ Early Asian Societies   ■ Age of Renaissance   ■ Colonialism   ■ Stielers Handatlas 1891   ■ 20th Century   ■ World War I   ■ World War II

Entities with undisputed sovereign status
Afghanistan   ■ Albania   ■ Algeria   ■ Andorra   ■ Angola   ■ Antigua and Barbuda   ■ Argentina   ■ Armenia   ■ Australia   ■ Austria   ■ Azerbaijan   ■ Bahamas   ■ Bahrain   ■ Bangladesh   ■ Barbados   ■ Belarus   ■ Belgium   ■ Belize   ■ Benin   ■ Bhutan   ■ Bolivia   ■ Bosnia and Herzegovina   ■ Botswana   ■ Brazil   ■ Brunei   ■ Bulgaria   ■ Burkina Faso   ■ Burundi   ■ Cambodia   ■ Cameroon   ■ Canada   ■ Cape Verde   ■ Central African Republic   ■ Chad   ■ Chile   ■ China   ■ Colombia   ■ Comoros   ■ Congo (Democratic Republic)   ■ Congo (Republic)   ■ Costa Rica   ■ Côte d’Ivoire   ■ Croatia   ■ Cuba   ■ Cyprus   ■ Czech Republic   ■ Denmark   ■ Djibouti   ■ Dominica   ■ Dominican Republic   ■ East Timor   ■ Ecuador   ■ Egypt   ■ El Salvador   ■ Equatorial Guinea   ■ Eritrea   ■ Estonia   ■ Eswatini   ■ Ethiopia   ■ Fiji   ■ Finland   ■ France   ■ Gabon   ■ Gambia   ■ Georgia   ■ Germany   ■ Ghana   ■ Greece   ■ Grenada   ■ Guatemala   ■ Guinea   ■ Guinea-Bissau   ■ Guyana   ■ Haiti   ■ Honduras   ■ Hungary   ■ Iceland   ■ India   ■ Indonesia   ■ Iran   ■ Iraq   ■ Ireland   ■ Israel   ■ Italy   ■ Jamaica   ■ Japan   ■ Jordan   ■ Kazakhstan   ■ Kenya   ■ Kiribati   ■ Korea (Democratic People’s Republic)   ■ Korea (Republic)   ■ Kuwait   ■ Kyrgyzstan   ■ Laos   ■ Latvia   ■ Lebanon   ■ Lesotho   ■ Liberia   ■ Libya   ■ Liechtenstein   ■ Lithuania   ■ Luxembourg   ■ Madagascar   ■ Malawi   ■ Malaysia   ■ Maldives   ■ Mali   ■ Malta   ■ Marshall Islands   ■ Mauritania   ■ Mauritius   ■ Mexico   ■ Micronesia (Federated States)   ■ Moldova   ■ Monaco   ■ Mongolia   ■ Montenegro   ■ Morocco   ■ Mozambique   ■ Myanmar   ■ Namibia   ■ Nauru   ■ Nepal   ■ Netherlands   ■ New Zealand   ■ Nicaragua   ■ Niger   ■ Nigeria   ■ North Macedonia   ■ Norway   ■ Oman   ■ Pakistan   ■ Palau   ■ Panama   ■ Papua New Guinea   ■ Paraguay   ■ Peru   ■ Philippines   ■ Poland   ■ Portugal   ■ Qatar   ■ Romania   ■ Russia   ■ Rwanda   ■ Saint Kitts and Nevis   ■ Saint Lucia   ■ Saint Vincent and the Grenadines   ■ Samoa   ■ San Marino   ■ São Tomé and Príncipe   ■ Saudi Arabia   ■ Senegal   ■ Serbia   ■ Seychelles   ■ Sierra Leone   ■ Singapore   ■ Slovakia   ■ Slovenia   ■ Solomon Islands   ■ Somalia   ■ South Africa   ■ South Sudan   ■ Spain   ■ Sri Lanka   ■ Sudan   ■ Suriname   ■ Sweden   ■ Switzerland   ■ Syria   ■ Tajikistan   ■ Tanzania   ■ Thailand   ■ Togo   ■ Tonga   ■ Trinidad and Tobago   ■ Tunisia   ■ Turkey   ■ Turkmenistan   ■ Tuvalu   ■ Uganda   ■ Ukraine   ■ United Arab Emirates   ■ United Kingdom   ■ United States   ■ Uruguay   ■ Uzbekistan   ■ Vanuatu   ■ Vatican City   ■ Venezuela   ■ Vietnam   ■ Yemen   ■ Zambia   ■ Zimbabwe

Entities with disputed sovereign status
Abkhazia   ■ Artsakh   ■ Kosovo   ■ Northern Cyprus   ■ Palestine   ■ Somaliland   ■ South Ossetia   ■ Taiwan   ■ Tatarstan   ■ Transnistria   ■ Western Sahara

Dependencies and other overseas territories
Akrotiri and Dhekelia   ■ Åland   ■ American Samoa   ■ Anguilla   ■ Aruba   ■ Ascension Island   ■ Ashmore and Cartier Islands   ■ Baker Island   ■ Bermuda   ■ Bouvet Island   ■ British Indian Ocean Territory   ■ British Virgin Islands   ■ Cayman Islands   ■ Christmas Island   ■ Clipperton Island   ■ Cocos (Keeling) Islands   ■ Cook Islands   ■ Coral Sea Islands   ■ Curaçao   ■ Faroe Islands   ■ French Guiana   ■ French Polynesia   ■ French Southern and Antarctic Lands   ■ Gibraltar   ■ Greenland   ■ Guadeloupe   ■ Guam   ■ Guantanamo Bay   ■ Guernsey   ■ Heard Island and McDonald Islands   ■ Hong Kong   ■ Howland Island   ■ Isle of Man   ■ Jan Mayen   ■ Jarvis Island   ■ Jersey   ■ Johnston Atoll   ■ Kingman Reef   ■ Macau   ■ Martinique   ■ Mayotte   ■ Midway Atoll   ■ Montserrat   ■ Navassa Island   ■ New Caledonia   ■ Niue   ■ Norfolk Island   ■ Northern Mariana Islands   ■ Palmyra Atoll   ■ Pitcairn Islands   ■ Puerto Rico   ■ Réunion   ■ Saint Helena   ■ Saint Martin (France)   ■ Saint-Barthélemy   ■ Saint-Pierre and Miquelon   ■ Sint Maarten (Netherlands)   ■ Svalbard   ■ Tokelau   ■ Tristan da Cunha   ■ Turks and Caicos Islands   ■ United States Virgin Islands   ■ Wake Island   ■ Wallis and Futuna

Disputed subnational entities and territories
Bajo Nuevo Bank   ■ Crimea   ■ Falkland Islands   ■ Gilgit–Baltistan   ■ Kurdistan (Syrian)   ■ Kashmir   ■ Ladakh   ■ Paracel Islands   ■ Serranilla Bank   ■ South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands   ■ Spratly Islands   ■

Subnational autonomous entities
Aceh   ■ Adjara   ■ Adygea   ■ Altai   ■ Andalusia   ■ Aosta Valley   ■ Aragon   ■ Asturias   ■ Athos   ■ Azores   ■ Balearic Islands   ■ Bashkortostan   ■ Basque Autonomous Community   ■ Bonaire   ■ Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federation of)   ■ Bougainville   ■ Brussels   ■ Buryatia   ■ Canary Islands   ■ Catalonia   ■ Chechnya   ■ Chuvashia   ■ Corsica   ■ Dagestan   ■ Easter Island   ■ England   ■ Extremadura   ■ Flanders   ■ Friuli-Venezia Giulia   ■ Gagauzia   ■ Galicia   ■ Galápagos Islands   ■ Gilgit–Baltistan   ■ Gorno-Badakhshan   ■ Guangxi   ■ Ingushetia   ■ Islamabad Capital Territory   ■ Inner Mongolia   ■ Kabardino-Balkaria   ■ Kalmykia   ■ Karachay-Cherkessia   ■ Karakalpakstan   ■ Karelia   ■ Khakassia   ■ Komi   ■ Kurdistan (Iraqi)   ■ Khyber Pakhtunkhwa   ■ Madeira   ■ Mari El   ■ Muslim Mindanao   ■ Mordovia   ■ Nakhichevan   ■ Navarre   ■ Nevis   ■ Ningxia   ■ North Ossetia – Alania   ■ Northern Ireland   ■ Nunatsiavut   ■ Quebec   ■ Saba   ■ Sakha   ■ Sardinia   ■ Scotland   ■ Sicily   ■ Sindh   ■ Sint Eustatius   ■ Srpska   ■ Tibet   ■ Tłı̨chǫ   ■ Trentino-Alto Adige   ■ Tuva   ■ Udmurtia   ■ Vojvodina   ■ Wales   ■ Wallonia   ■ Xinjiang   ■ Zanzibar

Other regions
Basque Country   ■ Burzenland   ■ Catalan Countries   ■ Frisia   ■ Kurdistan   ■ Manchuria   ■ Sápmi   ■ Svenskfinland   ■ Székely Land   ■ Transylvania

Former sovereign nations
Austria-Hungary   ■ Byzantine Empire   ■ Caliphate   ■ Czechoslovakia   ■ Frankish Empire   ■ Kingdom of Hawaiʻi   ■ Inca Empire   ■ Iroquois Confederacy   ■ Macedonian Empire   ■ Ottoman Empire   ■ Prussia   ■ Roman Empire   ■ Soviet Union   ■ Republic of Texas   ■ Vermont Republic   ■ Republic of West Florida   ■ Yugoslavia

Former dependencies and overseas territories
Netherlands Antilles

Former disputed territories
Tamil Eelam