Category:1840 works in Berlin

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Works published, created or produced in Berlin in the year [[:en:1840{{{2}}}|1840{{{2}}}]].

Flag of Berlin.svg 18400s works in Berlin

[[Category:1840{{{2}}} in Berlin|*Works]] [[Category:1840{{{2}}} works in Germany|.Berlin]]

Political turmoil in the 1940s The 1948 revolution in Berlin Throughout the 1840s many German states were under pressure from nationalist and liberal demonstrators who wanted greater political representation and reform.

German monarchs, such as Prussia's King Frederick William IV, feared they would lose power and influence if German states were united.

However, in 1847, the Prussian king was forced to call a United Diet of the Prussian Estates to help him solve the financing of a new railway. The Diet demanded a written constitution and free elections, as well as a united German Parliament. The Diet was dissolved as a result.

The 1848 Revolutions In early 1848, revolution spread across Europe. In France, the monarchy was overthrown, and in Austria, Chancellor Metternich was forced to flee.

Much of the discontent came from the lower classes. The growth of industry and towns and cities led to increased organisation and political awareness among workers. They were driven by a desire to end economic hardship and social problems.

There was also a push from the liberals and nationalists for political change. They demanded a Prussian constitution and the creation of a united Germany.

In March, there were demonstrations on the streets of Berlin.

Despite his opposition to popular democracy, this forced Frederick William to:

  1. draft a Prussian constitution 
  2. allow an elected parliament to meet and advise him
  3. agree to a new German Parliament meeting in Frankfurt

The Frankfurt Parliament Painting of a meeting of the Frankfurt Parliament Meeting of the Frankfurt Parliament The Frankfurt Parliament was called to discuss reforms and attempt to draft a constitution for a unified Germany. This was seen as the best way to stop the political unrest.

The constitution was completed in March 1849: the German states were to be united as a German Empire headed by a German Emperor government would be provided by an elected parliament the government would represent the populations of all states the new German Empire would replace the existing Bund the Crown was offered to Prussia's Frederick William IV. But the Frankfurt Parliament and the attempt to unify Germany through political reform failed. Frederick William was not a strong enough leader to unite Germany. He refused to "accept a crown from the gutter" because it had not been offered by the other German Princes. Grossdeutschland or Kleindeutschland After the failure of the Frankfurt Parliament, debate continued on teh best way to unite Germany.

Prussia put forward a plan to unify the German states under Prussian control. The question was whether a united Germany should contain Austria (Grossdeutschland - Greater Germany) or leave it out (Kleindeutschland - Lesser Germany):

Prussia argued for exclusion of their rival, Austria Austria refused to agree with the Prussian plan - it would eliminate their influence in German affairs Austria persuaded the Bund's Federal Diet to threaten sanctions against Prussia. In 1850, with Russia supporting Austria, the Prussians backed down. Another attempt at a unified Germany had failed. By late 1849, the German Princes and the Austrian Emperor were able to reassert military control of their territories and impose their political will over their subjects.The degree of growth in German nationalism German nationalism had grown in the early 19th century due to Prussian ambition, the rise of liberal ideas and popular rebellion. However, the reassertion of Austrian power limited this growth.

The collapse of the 1848-1849 Revolution The Revolutions of 1848 achieved the potential for political change in the German states. However, by 1850 these hopes had been dashed. Prussia was once again subservient to Austria.

The Erfurt Parliament Frederick William of Prussia was still determined to increase the power of his state over the rest of the German lands.

He organised a union of German leaders, many of whom were coerced to join. The proposal was that Prussia would have control over foreign policy and military matters for all member states.

A parliament for the Erfurt Union met in Erfurt for a little over a month in spring, 1850.

The union began to break down when it became clear that many of the German princes decided to support Austria. The Austrians were able to resurrect the German Confederation, which met in Frankfurt in 1850.

Rebellion in Hesse-Cassel, a Prussian ally, saw the end of Prussian domination over the German states. When the Elector appealed to the Confederation for help, there was debate whether the Austrians should send aid, or allow Prussia to help.

Map showing the position of Hesse-Cassel. It sits to the right of the left-hand part of Prussia below Hannover. Map showing the position of Hesse Cassel The punctation of Olmutz The problem over what to do in Hesse-Cassel almost brought Austria and Prussia to war. However, it was clear to the Prussians that they were not strong enough to compete with Austrian military might.

Austrian and Prussian delegates met at Olmutz in November, 1850, in order to rectify the situation.

The agreement reached was a humiliation for Prussia:

the Erfurt Union was abolished the Confederation was officially re-established Prussia was not to challenge Austrian leadership the Confederation was to solve the problem in Hesse-Cassel Prussia had been brought under control. Austria continued to oppose unification of the German states.

Subcategories

This category has the following 3 subcategories, out of 3 total.