Category:Hindu temples in Vietnam
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The Hindu temples of Vietnam are the oldest surviving monuments of central and southern Vietnam, with attested archaeological evidence that includes structures and Sanskrit inscriptions. Since the colonial era, they have also been called as Champa temples, Champa towers, Cham towers, or just Tower temples of Champa. Their regional name is ngôi đền, Tòa Tháp, Bimong or Kalan – variously reflecting the sacred nature, architecture and material of construction. More specifically, a Kalan is a brick temple, a Bimong is a wooden frame-style temple that mimics a hut (barrel-shaped, the equivalent of Vallabhi), and a thap is a tall tower. The oldest known Vietnamese Cham temples as well as Sanskrit inscriptions on steele are from the 4th to 5th century. Over time, seven different Hindu temple forms evolved, with exceptional artistic expression.
The Hindu temple, in Cham culture, is the body of Deity and a house of God. Like in India, Cambodia and Indonesia, the Cham people independently perfected and included in their temples the architectural elements of symmetric mandapa, antarala and garbhagriya (sanctum) in both square and fused square floor plans. They evolved in their own ways in different regions and kingdoms. Roughly, the most notable Hindu temple architecture and arts reflect Ulik (northern), Amaravati (northern-central), Vijaya (southeastern), Kauthara (southeastern) and Panduranga (southern). These Hindu sites in Vietnam have been dated between the 5th and the 17th centuries. Of these, some of the notable Cham Hindu temples sites are:
- Ulik: My Khanh (Phu Dien), Ha Trung, Lieu Coc, Linh Thai, Uu Diem
- Amaravati: My Son (UNESCO site), Dong Duong, Bang An, Chien Dan, Khuong My, Tra Kieu
- Vijaya: Banh It, Thap Doi, Duong Long, Canh Tien, Binh Lam, Thap Mam
- Kauthara: Po Nagar, Thap Nhan
- Panduranga: Hoa Lai, Po Klong Garai, Po Rome, Po Sah Inu (Phu Hai), Po Dam, Yang Prong
Over a hundred sites are now known, with excavations continuing through the 2000s and 2010s. They often are located on top of hills with sweeping views of rice farms, villages and plains below. Others are near confluence of rivers, near waterfalls, or midst lush valleys with mountains that remind of Kailasha. Both single temples and a group of temples are found at one site. Some sites such as the UNESCO world heritage site of My Son had over 100 temples alone, of which 71 structures survive in ruined form after the Vietnam war of the 1960s and early 1970s. The largest group of Cham temples are dedicated to Shiva, Uma in Durga Mahisasuramardini form, and Vishnu. Some of these temples remain active and attract daily prayers from the minority Cham community of Vietnam. Most Vedic and Puranic gods and goddesses are found in the historic temples and associated arts of Vietnam, with panels including scenes of Ramayana, Mahabharata and Hindu secular legends. Some post-9th century temples include or co-locate Buddhist temples or Hindu-Buddhist syncretic themes. The most valued inscription stones and artwork panels are now preserved in the major museums of Vietnam such as one in Da Nang, and in France such as at the Guimet and the Louvre.
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Media in category "Hindu temples in Vietnam"
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Ganesha statue Cham Empire Hindu Temple Vietnam.jpg 768 × 1,024; 158 KB
Parque Tao Dan, Ciudad Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 2013-08-15, DD 08.JPG 3,207 × 4,656; 6.61 MB
Thap-cham-doi.jpg 2,048 × 1,152; 501 KB
Thap-cham.jpg 1,536 × 2,048; 814 KB