Indian diaspora may refer to the official term, Non-Resident Indian (NRI; Hindi: प्रवासी भारतीय Pravāsī Bhāratīya), meaning an Indian citizen who resides in a foreign country; or Person of Indian Origin (PIO), a person of Indian origin who is born outside India, or a person of Indian origin who resides permanently outside India. Other terms with the same meaning are overseas Indian and expatriate Indian. In common usage, this often includes Indian-born individuals (and also people of other nations with Indian ancestry) who have taken the citizenship of other countries. The NRI population across the world is estimated at over 30 million. As per a UNDP's 2010 report, after China, India has the second largest diaspora in the world. Also as per UNESCO Institute for Statistics the number of Indian students abroad tripled from 51,000 in 1999 to over 153,000 in 2007, making India second after China among the world’s largest sending countries for tertiary students. As of January 2006, the Indian government has introduced the "Overseas Citizenship of India (OCI)" scheme to allow a limited form of dual citizenship to Indians, NRIs and PIOs for the first time since independence in 1947.
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