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- cittern - guittar / English guitar - Pianoforte guitar. ATLAS of Plucked Instruments. "Guittars often had a special a hammering device (known as "Pianoforte guitar") : a box with 6 keys which when pressed, make a hammer beat on the strings of one of the courses, to produce the sound, in stead of by plucking the strings. It probably would make a rather quiet sound.... Some hammering devices where on the outside and could be taken off, if you wanted to play the instrument normally. Other models were inside the body and hammer the strings from underneath through the rosette."
- BMFA.1999.1 Keyed cittern (English guitar) (1798) by Longman & Broderip (English, 1776-1798). AMICA Library (Art Museum Images from Cartography Associates). Cartography Associates. "Creation Place: England London; Materials and Techniques: Maple, spruce, ivory"