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English: Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ("scholastics" or "schoolmen") of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context. It originated as an outgrowth of and a departure from Christian monastic schools at the earliest European universities. The first institutions in the West to be considered universities were established in Italy, France, Spain and England in the late 11-12th centuries for the study of liberal arts, law, medicine, and theology, such as Schola Medica Salernitana, the University of Bologna, and the University of Paris. It is difficult to define the date at which they became true universities, although the lists of studia generalia for higher education in Europe are a useful guide, held by the Catholic Church and its various Religious Order.
Latina: Scholastica (ab adiectivo Graeco σχολαστιϰός "ad scholam pertinens" deductum) est ratio sive via scientifca argumentationis, quae Medio Aevo descripta est. Haec via in quaestionibus disceptandis logicam classicam ab Aristotele propositam sequitur. Propositio argumentis explicandis exquiritur, affirmationes via logica confutantur. Methodus scholastica non solum ad theologiam, ut multi his diebus putant, sed omnem scientiam spectabat et diu via katexochen habebatur. Scholastica Medio Aevo alto orta et saeculo XIII apicem consecuta usque ad Novum Aevum ineuntem in disciplina superiore praevaluit. Praeterea notio scholasticae etiam ad aetatem denotandam, qua via scholastica praevaluit, adhibetur.
中文: 士林哲學又稱經院哲學,意指學院的學問。起初受到神秘、講究直觀的教父哲學影響,尤以奧古斯丁主義為最,後來又受到亞里斯多德哲學啟發。


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