Category talk:Homo erectus models

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Doniece Turner 16)

The oldest "modern" human remains outside Africa, from Qafzeh in the Middle East may be as old as 100,000 years and those from Mount Carmel in Israel, 80,000 years old, but humans only flourished at the time of the extinction of the Neanderthals around 35,000 years ago (Reader, 1988) (Roe, 1990) (middle and early upper Pleistocene). Within Africa the oldest modern humans are just less than 160,000 years old and represented by Homo sapiens idaltu. Another Homo sapiens skull from Dali, China, is dated at 200,000 years old. It has a cranial capacity of 1,120 cc. (Johanson & Edgar, 1996). In Africa, 21 sites spanning Africa from north to south (Libya, Morocco, Algeria, Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania) and dating from 500,000 years to 30,000 years ago have yielded fossils with predominantly modern anatomical characteristics. In South Africa, two sites, the Klasies River Mouth and Border Cave have yielded H. sapiens sapiens fossils dating from around 60,000 to 80,000 years ago. Others put fossils from Klasies River Mouth Cave, with modern appearance, at between 115,000 and 80,000 years old (Burenhult, 1994). Along the Langebaan Lagoon are human footprints dated at 117,000 years old (Gore & Garrett, 1997). Sites in South Africa (including Equus Cave, Florisbad, Die Kelders Cave) provide evidence that modern humans evolved over a period of 200,000 years from Homo heidelbergensis. "Rhodesia Man" from Kabew in Zambia is now recognised as an example of H. heidelbergensis . A 300 to 400 thousand year old skull from Greece (Petralona) and a 200 thousand year old skull from the French Pyrenees are also classified as H. heidelbergensis. Three skulls in a cave site (Sima de los Huesos) in Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain have been identified as early Neanderthals and dated at over 300,000 years old. One had a cranial volume of 1,125 cm 3 and the other 1,390 cm 3 (Arsuaga, et al. 1993). Specimens that cover the period from 400 thousand to 200 thousand years ago show a change to a more modern form (Bilsborough, 1992).

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