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Medieval art[edit]

Queen Mary Psalter c. 1310-1320[edit]

Citole in British Museum (ca.1300, converted into violin in 16th century)[edit]

Modern reproduction of citole[edit]

Hypothesis: evolution from cithara to citole[edit]

Similar shape instruments[edit]

Lyre guitars & mandolins in 19th century (and later)[edit]

See also categories: Lyre-guitars, Harp lutes and Dital harps.

Holly leaf shape instruments[edit]


  1. a b c d e f Butler, Paul. The Citole Project. Historical Instruments, Paul Butler Díverse Arts.
  2. a b c d e f g Blumberg, Roger Edward (2002). The Cipher for Viola da Gamba and Lute, Page 2.
  3. Hawkins, 1776
  4. Kevin, 2008
  5. James D'Aquisto (1971). Archtop Mandolin. Metropolitan Museum of Art.