- 1 Citole
- 2 Modern reproduction of citole
- 3 Hypothesis: evolution from cithara to citole
- 4 Similar shape instruments
- 5 References
Queen Mary Psalter c. 1310-1320
British Museum image: Royal 2 B VII f. 168v. Detail of a miniature of the marriage feast at Cana with a kneeling maid holding up a cup of the miraculous wine and six angels playing musical instruments in niches, three on either side. Instruments include 2 citoles, 3 rebecs, a trumpet and a psaltery.
Citole in British Museum (ca.1300, converted into violin in 16th century)
Modern reproduction of citole
Citola (reproduction) with Pedro Jesús Gómez
Hypothesis: evolution from cithara to citole
Plucked string instrument, Carolingian Psalter, 108r part (820–830)
Similar shape instruments
Lyre guitars & mandolins in 19th century (and later)
Holly leaf shape instruments
Chinese string instrument, Huobosi
Mexican 4 triple courses variation of Mandolin, Tricordia
Philomel, similar to violin using steel string.
Tibetan string instrument, Dramyin
- Hawkins, J. () A general history of the science and practice of music, Vol. 4, London: T. Payne and Son, p. 343
- Kevin, P., et al (2008). "A musical instrument fit for a queen: the metamorphosis of a Medieval citole". The British Museum Technical Research Bulletin, Volume 2: pp. 13–28.