- 1 Rocks sticking out of the sea
- 2 Land under sea
- 3 Lagoons
- 4 Tidal landforms
- 5 Beaches
- 6 Sea cliffs
- 7 Headlands
- 8 Coastal dunes
- 9 Inlets
- 10 Rivers at coasts
Rocks sticking out of the sea
A stack is a geological landform consisting of a steep and often vertical column in the sea near a coast, formed by wave erosion.
Land under sea
A reef is a bar of rock, sand, coral or similar material, lying beneath the surface of water.
A shoal or sandbar (also called sandbank) is a somewhat linear landform within or extending into a body of water, typically composed of sand, silt or small pebbles.
A lagoon is a shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by barrier islands or reefs.
Mudflats are coastal wetlands that form in intertidal areas where sediments have been deposited by tides or rivers.
A beach is a landform alongside a body of water which consists of loose particles, such as sand, gravel, shingle, pebbles.
Sand and pebble beaches
A wave-cut platform is a narrow flat area that was created by erosion.
A sea cliff is a form of coast where the action of marine waves has formed steep cliffs.
Wave-cut notches are created by waves at the base of a cliff.
A headland is a narrow strip of land, largely surrounded by water.
A spit or sandspit is a deposition bar or beach landform off coasts or lake shores.
A cape is a headland or a promontory of large size extending into a body of water, usually the sea.
A peninsula is a landform surrounded by water on the majority of its border while being connected to a mainland from which it extends.
A coastal dune is a hill of loose sand built by aeolian processes (wind) or the flow of water, along the coast.
An inlet is an indentation of a shoreline. From small to big:
A cove is a small type of bay.
A bay is a part of a sea or ocean that invades the land.
A calanque is a steep-sided valley formed within karstic regions.
A fjord is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by a glacier.
A gulf is a large inlet from the ocean into the landmass, up to more than 100 km.
Rivers at coasts
A river mouth is the part of a river where the river debouches into a sea or an ocean.
An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.
A river delta is a system of branches of a river before it flows into the sea or into a large lake.