Commons:識別可能な人物の写真

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This page is a translated version of a page Commons:Photographs of identifiable people and the translation is 43% complete. Changes to the translation template, respectively the source language can be submitted through Commons:Photographs of identifiable people and have to be approved by a translation administrator.

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人物写真のカテゴリ分けのスキームについては Commons:Category scheme People を参照

Shortcut: COM:IDENT· COM:PEOPLE

被写体本人の承諾のもと私的な場で撮影された写真

人物の写真を扱うにあたっては、我々は被写体の法的な権利や写真を公開するにあたっての倫理に注意するのみならず、撮影者や写真の所有者の懸念にも目を向けることが要求されます。これらの問題は写真の著作権上の取り扱いとはまた性格が異なるものであり、写真の撮影者・アップロード者・再利用者それぞれの行為を制限したり何らかの義務を課す場合があります。例えば、もし写真がクリエイティブ・コモンズ・ライセンスかパブリックドメインの状態にあった場合、撮影者(あるいは写真の所有者)の権利は失われているため、写真の利用にあたって撮影者の許可は不要です。しかし、被写体の権利は取り除かれていません。

通常、私的な場所で撮影された識別可能な個人の写真の公表には被写体の許可が必要です。仮にその地域の法律がそれを要件としていなかったとしても、コモンズでは公開に対する許可が降りていることが期待されます。一方、多くの国では(特に英語圏では)公共の場所で撮られた識別可能な個人の写真には被写体の許可は通常必要ありません。しかし、国ごとの許可の要件は実に様々です。どのような許可がどれほど必要かということに対しては様々な観点が関係し、簡単にまとめるのは難しいものです。

多くの国では、被写体が識別可能でありかつ生存している場合のみ、この問題が影響します。とは言え被写体が既に死去していたり、識別困難な画像であっても、一定の法的・倫理的課題は残ります。

法的な問題[edit]

存命の人物が被写体となっている写真の撮影・公開・使用をコントロールする人格権には2つの形態があります。肖像権とプライバシー権です。被写体の名誉を毀損しないような配慮もされるべきです。

画像がコモンズで受け入れられないケースは、以下のうち少なくとも1つの国で違法、もしくはたぶん違法であると考えられる場合です: (a) 写真が撮影された国、(b) 写真がアップロードされた時にアップロード者がいた国、(c) アメリカ合衆国(コモンズの画像の保管国)。

特定の地域の法律により、コモンズのコンテンツの利用に対してはここで課されている以上の追加の要件が必要となる場合があります。テンプレート {{Personality rights}} により、コンテンツの転用を希望する利用者に対して追加要件の存在をお知らせすることができます。写真が撮られた場所の法律と、公開された場所の法律と両方に注意する必要があります。

肖像権[edit]

Patricia de Leon(パナマ出身の女優)は自分の写真が闘牛反対運動の広告に使われることを許可しました[1]

The right of publicity is the right to control the commercial use of one's likeness. The most obvious example of this is in advertising (and it applies whether or not the advertisement itself is for commercial purposes). This right concerns the subject of the photograph and is distinct from the photographer's copyright license which may impose its own terms or grant freedoms regarding commercial reuse. All images hosted on Commons must allow free commercial reuse from a copyright point-of-view, but the subject of the photograph may still refuse permission or demand payment for such reuse. However, this right does not affect the hosting of an image on Commons, rarely affects the use of an image on a Wikimedia project, and is only likely to affect advertisemental/commercial re-users of the image. Note that in some countries and US states, the right of publicity may persist for some time after the subject's death.

プライバシーの権利[edit]

The right of privacy is the right to be left alone and not to be made the subject of public scrutiny without consent. The right to privacy is enshrined in several international laws though the details with regard to photographs vary from country to country. Images must not unreasonably intrude into the subject's private or family life.

The law on privacy concerning photographs can be crudely divided into whether the photograph was taken in a private or public place. A private place is somewhere the subject has a reasonable expectation of privacy and a public place is somewhere where the subject has no such expectation. The terms are unrelated to whether the land is privately or publicly owned. For example, a tent on a beach is a private place on public land and a concert is a public place on private property. A place may be publicly accessible but still retain an expectation of privacy concerning photography, for example a hospital ward during visiting hours. Whether the place is private or not may also depend on the situation at the time: for example that same hospital ward would have been a public place during a tour before it opens.

アメリカ合衆国(コモンズのサーバーが設置されている場所)では、規則では公共の場所で人物を撮影し、その写真を公表するにあたって同意は必要ではありません。ゆえに、当該国の国内法の規定、上位に働く法的懸念(例として、中傷)もしくは倫理的問題(例として、写真が不正に入手された場合)などでそれが止められない限り、コモンズのコミュニティは、公共の場所で撮影された対象の特定が可能な写真を撮影したりアップロードするにあたって、被写体の同意を通常必要としていません。これは有名な人物の画像であろうと無名の個人の画像であろうと同様です。

In many countries the subject's consent is needed to just take a picture, and/or to publish it and/or to use it commercially even if the person is in a public place. Further nuances may include the age of the subject, what the subject is doing at the time, whether the subject is famous, whether the image concerns news of public interest, etc. See Commons:Country specific consent requirements for details.

Because of the expectation of privacy, the consent of the subject should normally be sought before uploading any photograph featuring an identifiable individual that has been taken in a private place, whether or not the subject is named. Even in countries that have no law of privacy, there is a moral obligation on us not to upload photographs which infringe the subject's reasonable expectation of privacy.

Proportionality[edit]

In some countries, proportionality (fair use) is the main legal criterion of all exceptions. That means usual practices are admitted and tolerated by the law.

名誉毀損[edit]

Images must not unfairly ridicule or demean the subject. This may result simply from the content of the image but can also arise by poor choice of title, description or category. Defamation is both a legal and moral issue; therefore, Commons does not base decisions on whether the subject is able or likely to sue.

Employees[edit]

If the photographer is employed while taking photographs, their actions may be subject to their employment contract or the rules of their professional body. For issues concerning medical staff and photographs of patients, see the essay Commons:Patient images.

Consent[edit]

A hospital ward is a publicly-owned space where people have an expectation of privacy, so from the relevant point of view here, it is a private space.

Just as the circumstances of a photograph govern whether consent is required, they also influence the nature and degree of consent should it be required. There are three aspects: taking, uploading and using a photograph. At the most basic level, a subject looking at the camera and smiling might normally be assumed to have given their consent to have their photograph taken. In some circumstances, however, verbal or even written agreement may be required.

Consent to have one's photograph taken does not permit the photographer to do what they like with the image. An image on Commons will have greater potential exposure than one in a photo album, on a personal Facebook, or part of a user's Flickr stream. A model, for example, may have consented to the image being taken for a personal portfolio, but not for publication on the Internet. The photographer and uploader must satisfy themselves that, when it is required, the consent given is appropriate for uploading to Commons.

Some subjects are unable to give appropriate consent due to young age or because of learning difficulties. In these cases, the consent of the parents or responsible guardians should be sought.

For a self-portrait, where the subject of the photograph is also the photographer and/or uploader, consent is assumed, provided they are capable of giving appropriate consent (as noted above).

Normally it is sufficient that the uploader asserts that appropriate consent was given. The {{consent}} template may be used for this purpose, though it is not required. Please refer to the template documentation.

An example of consent that is too restrictive for Commons would be a typical patient photography consent form, which may only allow the image to be used in medical journals or for teaching within the hospital. An example of consent that is more permissive than is required for Commons would be a model release, in which the subject gives up their right of publicity.

国ごとの状況[edit]

The table below may be used for indication specific requirements in various countries. Note though, that it is not a legally binding text and that because a country isn't listed here, it does not reflect a fact that everyone is free to take/publish/commercially use pictures of people in public spaces in that country. Further details, with references, may be found on Commons:Country specific consent requirements or by clicking on country links in the table.

Consent required for action related to a picture of a person in a public place (by country)
Country Take a picture Publish a picture Commercially1 use a published picture
Afghanistan No Yes (with exceptions) Yes (with exceptions)
Argentina No Yes (with exceptions) Yes (with exceptions)
Australia No (with exceptions) No (with exceptions) Yes
Austria No No (with exceptions) Yes
Belgium No Yes (with exceptions) Yes
Brazil Yes Yes Yes
Canada Depends on province Yes (with exceptions) Yes
China No No Yes
Czech Republic Yes (with exceptions) Yes (with exceptions) Yes (with exceptions)
Denmark No Yes (with exceptions) Yes (with exceptions)
Ethiopia No Yes (with exceptions) Yes
Finland No Yes (with exceptions) Yes (with exceptions)
France Yes (with exceptions) Yes Yes
Germany No (with exceptions) Yes (with exceptions) Yes (with exceptions)
Greece No No Yes (with exceptions)
Hungary Yes (with exceptions) Yes (with exceptions) Yes (with exceptions)
India No No (with exceptions) Yes (with exceptions)
Israel No No (with exceptions) Yes
Italy No Yes (with exceptions) Yes
Japan Yes (with exceptions) Yes (with exceptions) Yes (with exceptions)
Libya No Yes (with exceptions) Yes
Mexico No Yes Yes
Netherlands No No (with exceptions) No (with exceptions)
New Zealand No (with exceptions) No (with exceptions)  ?
Norway No Yes (with exceptions) Yes (with exceptions)
Peru No Yes (with exceptions) Yes (with exceptions)
Poland No Yes (with exceptions) Yes
Portugal No (with exceptions) Yes (with exceptions) Yes
Russian Federation No Yes (with exceptions) Yes (with exceptions)
Slovakia Yes (with exceptions) Yes (with exceptions) Yes (with exceptions)
Slovenia No No Yes
South Africa No No Yes
Spain Yes Yes Yes
Sweden No No Yes
Switzerland Yes Yes Yes
Taiwan No No (with exceptions) Yes
United Kingdom Depends on circumstances Depends on circumstances Depends on circumstances
United States No No Usually (although laws differ by state)
1: In this context "commercial use" is purely {{personality rights}}, and thus never a reason for deletion

倫理的問題[edit]

While some aspects of ethical photography and publication are controlled by law, there are moral issues too. They find a reflection in the wording of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 12:[1]"No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation." Common decency and respect for human dignity may influence the decision whether to host an image above that required by the law. The extent to which an image might be regarded as "unfairly obtained" or to be "intrusive", for example, is a matter of degree and may depend on the nature of the shot, the location, and the notability of the subject.

The provenance of an image may taint its use irredeemably. A "downblouse" photograph is not made ethically acceptable just because the subject's face is cropped out. A paparazzi telephoto shot of a naked sunbather does not become acceptable merely by pixelating the face.

In the same way as quality newspapers may apply a "public interest" test to doubtful images, the degree to which an image meets our educational project scope may also be considered. When in doubt, there is no requirement for Commons to host any image of a person.

個人の識別[edit]

The degree to which a subject is identifiable varies. An image that includes a clear view of the face is highly identifiable. Other features of the person's body, clothing or the location may help with identifying the subject. Outside of the image, clues may be obtained from the image title, description, origin, source url, and meta-data including but not limited to the geolocation and date. The greater the privacy issue with an image, the more weight should be given to the risk of identification by non-obvious means. Whether the person is the clear subject of the photograph or a mere bystander or background detail is another important factor.

The risk of identification can be minimised by not including certain information in the image description. However some details regarding the origin of the image (such as source url and author) may be a requirement of the source image licence or Commons policy, so cannot be removed. It may also be possible to shoot the subject from a different angle or frame it differently.

It is better to obtain consent than to attempt to anonymise an image that may require it. Placing a black band over the eyes was historically used to hide patient identity in medical publications but is no longer considered effective.[2] Pixelated features can sometimes be revealed by squinting one's eyes. These crude attempts to anonymise images may damage the value of an image to Commons to such a degree that it has limited or no realistic chance of being used.

Where the law forbids taking or publishing a photograph of a person without consent, and consent has not been given, then making the subject hard to identify (such as blurring their face) is unethical: the photograph should not be uploaded to Commons.

If the original or similar images are already present on the Internet (either on Commons or elsewhere) then attempts at anonymising the subject are ultimately futile. Content-based image retrieval engines such as TinEye or Google Images can identify a subject that has been anonymised. All of the following people are readily identifiable by anyone familiar with the subject. They may also be identified by computer, by simply dragging and dropping the image onto Google Images.[3]

[edit]

公共の場で撮られたため、この撮影には同意が必要ありませんでした

下記の例は多くの国において同意が必要ありません。

  • 無名のストリート・パフォーマー
  • 公共の場所における無名の人物。群衆の一部としてであればとりわけ。
  • 私的な会場における公的なイベント(たとえばオフィスビル内での記者会見)の参加者
  • 一般人が観戦する試合に出場しているバスケットボール選手

下記の例は通常同意が必要とされます。

  • 男女が会話している写真で「売春婦がポン引きと話す」との表題(名誉毀損の可能性)
  • 顔のわかる子供の写真で「肥満の少女」との表題(潜在的な中傷または侮辱)
  • 具体的に取材が招かれている場合を除く、私的なパーティーの参加者(合意を得ない無分別な侵入)
  • 明らかに公共の場所で撮影された場合を除く、裸体、下着または水着の写真 - 被写体の顔が不明瞭化された場合も含む(合意を得ない無分別な侵入)
  • 私的な場所にいる個人を、離れたところから望遠レンズで撮ったもの(無分別な侵入)

削除の依頼[edit]

The subject, photographer, or uploader of an image may request that it be removed from Commons. The reasons for removal may include such things as "It causes embarrassment" or "It was published without my consent", etc. Generally, images are not removed simply because the subject does not like them, but administrators are normally sympathetic to removal requests if good reasons can be given. In any case you may address a removal request through the normal public review process of a deletion request. If discretion is required, a deletion request explaining this may also be sent privately through Commons:Contact us/Problems.

他の画像入手元[edit]

Photographs with free licences that are hosted on other websites (such as Flickr) are often uploaded to Commons by users other than the photographer. This can make it difficult to ascertain whether consent was given. A free image licence only covers the photographer's rights and says nothing about the subject. It may be necessary to contact the owner of the photographs regarding permission from the subject, even though the licence means we do not need the photographer's permission.

関連ページ[edit]

外部リンク[edit]

The following websites discuss the rights of photographers taking photographs in public places:

References[edit]