Commons:Copyright rules/it

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Files uploaded to Commons should be free both in the country of origin (as defined by the Berne Convention) and in the United States of America, and possibly in other countries involved, either through being properly licensed by the copyright owner or being in the public domain.

Copyright rules by subject matter

Main page: Commons:Copyright rules by subject matter/it.

Commons:Copyright rules by subject matter/it brings together a variety of subjects and aims to answer the question "Can I upload photographs/pictures of ...?"

It is ✓OK to upload:

  • Generally, photos you have taken yourself of uncopyrightable subjects such as views; nature; yourself; and people who have given their consent for you to photograph them and for you to publish the photograph. (However, you should remember that uploads should be educational - Commons is not your private web space.)
  • Photos taken by you, or scans or photocopies made by you of objects or designs whose copyright has expired (usually 70 years after the death of the author, but see Commons:Principi di diritti di autore per territorio for a country-by-country list).
  • Mere mechanical scans or photocopies, made by somebody else, of an object or design old enough to be in the public domain (usually 70 years after the death of the author, but see Commons:Principi di diritti di autore per territorio for a country-by-country list). For scans of old images that may have been enhanced, see Commons:When to use the PD-scan tag.
  • Photographs, taken either by yourself or someone else, that are faithful reproductions of 2D public domain works of art. See Commons:When to use the PD-Art tag.

Other subjects may or may not be allowable - see headings at Commons:Copyright rules by subject matter/it. If you want to have an answer to the question "Can I upload photographs/pictures from ...?", see the section at Commons:Copyright rules by subject matter/it on Internet images. See also: Commons:Soglia di originalità.

Lista di controllo

Facciamo finta che hai scattato una fotografia con la tua macchina fotografica, oppure ne hai scannerizzata una che proviene da qualche parte, o ancora l'hai scaricata da un sito web, e vuoi caricarla su Wikimedia Commons. Come fai a sapere se è OK oppure no? Di seguito trovi una semplice lista che ti aiuterà nella decisione. In caso di dubbio, leggi prima i consigli relativi al tuo paese (vedi più sotto). Se ancora non sei sicuro che il file possa essere caricato, chiedi al Commons:Help desk o al Commons:Village pump.

Vedi Commons:Copyright rules by subject matter/it per una lista più completa.

Symbol OK.svg OK

Fotografie proprie di:

  • Natura (foreste, cielo ecc.)
  • Animali (gatti, cani ecc.)
  • Insetti (formiche, scarafaggi ecc.)
  • Prodotti agricoli (mele, patate ecc.)
  • Persone che hanno dato il loro consenso alla pubblicazione della propria immagine
  • Te stesso (a meno che non usi questo sito come tuo spazio web personale) ( but not pictures others took of you. These require the consent from whoever took the picture)
  • Oggetti che sono nel pubblico dominio per via della loro età negli Stati Uniti e nella tua giurisdizione:
    • Edifici costruiti da un architetto morto da più di 70 anni (preferibilmente da più di 100 anni)
    • Opere d'arte create da un artista morto da più di 70 anni (preferibilmente da più di 100 anni) (first published before 1923)
    • Opere letterarie di autori che sono morti da più di 70 anni (preferibilmente da più di 100 anni) (first published before 1923)
    • Giornali e riviste pubblicate da un autore che è morto da più di 70 anni (preferibilmente da più di 100 anni) (first published before 1923)

Scansioni proprie di:

  • Materiale il cui copyright è scaduto sia nella tua giurisdizione che negli Stati Uniti.

Materiale da siti web:

  • Materiale il cui copyright è scaduto nella tua giurisdizione, negli Stati Uniti e nella giurisdizione del sito web.

Discutibile, potrebbe Symbol OK.svg essere o X mark.svg non essere OK

Tutti i tipi di materiale protetto da copyright, quando chi carica il file non è il detentore del copyright:

Fotografie, disegni, scansioni o altre riproduzioni di:

  • Automobili (cars with only one color and without any ads, paintings etc. are OK)
  • Prodotti di uso quotidiano (solo design veramente semplici sono OK)
  • Copertine di libri (solo disegni veramente semplici sono OK)
  • Moneta corrente (dipende dalle leggi locali; per favore vedi Commons:Currency)
  • Edifici costruiti da un architetto che è morto meno di 70 anni fa (o è ancora vivo) (vedi Commons:Libertà di panorama o Libertà di panorama)

X mark.svg Non OK

  • Immagini in fair use. See Commons:Fair use.
  • Fan art che rappresentano fedelmente materiale protetto da copyright. See Commons:Fan art.
  • Fotografie, disegni, scansioni e altre riproduzioni di oggetti che sono protetti dal copyright di qualcun altro oltre a quello della tua riproduzione, come i seguenti:
    • Action figure, statuette, costumi e altro materiale protetto da copyright (vedi Commons:Derivative works). See Commons:Opere derivate.
    • Copertine (o poster) di CD, videogiochi, film, riviste, giornali con meno di 70 anni (copertine e parti interne)
  • Suoni di qualcosa che è protetto dal copyright di qualcuno oltre al tuo, come i seguenti:
    • Trasmissioni di stazioni radio protette da copyright (programmi e pubblicità)
    • Canzoni create da un autore [whose copyright has not expired]

Copyright rules by territory

Main page: Commons:Principi di diritti di autore per territorio.
Worldwide map of copyright term length

Laws about copyright differ from country to country. Images uploaded to Commons, unless uploaded from the United States, involve the interaction of two or more copyright jurisdictions. The laws of individual countries differ especially in the following points:

  • The time for which a copyright applies. In most countries, copyright expires no later than 70 years after the death of the author (p.m.a.). There may be special terms for recently published old material.
  • Status of works of the government. In many (but not all) countries, documents published by the government for official use are in the public domain.
  • Material applicable for copyright. In some jurisdictions, pictures of artistic work like architecture, sculptures, clothing etc. can not be used freely without the consent of the creator of the original artwork.

Almost all countries in the world are party to the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works (see here for the text). Following this convention, countries enforce copyrights from other countries, according to certain rules. One consequence of these rules is that we should always care about the laws of the country of origin of the work.

Dealing with uncertainty

When the date is unknown

Einstein photo example

Assume the most recent possible date considering the subject. The photo here shows Albert Einstein and his wife Elsa. Elsa died on December 20, 1936; Albert later on April 18, 1955. Therefore, it was taken before December 20, 1936.

When the place is unknown

Assume the most restrictive reasonably possible location considering the subject. In the Einstein photo here, it could be the United States, Germany, the Atlantic Ocean (assuming the Einstein couple was on board a ship) or any other country or location he reasonably could have gotten a photo taken in, but it would not likely be Nepal, for example.

When the photographer is unknown

Assume the most reasonable restrictive copyright barring evidence to the contrary. That is, unless the site or source itself asserts a freer set of rights (and you have good reason to believe they are not misapplying rights they do not have) assume the photographer retained all rights he legally could in his jurisdiction.

But the Berne Convention says that photographs are in the public domain 50 years after publication if the photographer is unknown. This applies unless a country has made a specific law.


French ship Borda

Assume that the author of the image on the right is unknown to us, but not unknown in the copyright sense. We know that the image represents the ship Borda, which was scrapped in 1891. The image could have been taken that year by a 20-year-old man, who could die of old age in his 90s; this brings us to 1960. Assuming the normal terms for "works" apply and a 70-year long copyright term pma, the image would be covered by copyright until the 2030s. If the work was truly anonymous, then the copyright probably did not exceed 1891 + 70 = 1961, which means it is free if it was published before 1923 (or free in USA for other reasons).

Caution, not being able to find an author does not mean that the work is anonymous. It can mean that we did not search long enough or at the right place. Vedi anche : Commons:Scopo del progetto/Principio di precauzione.


This page does not represent the views of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., its Board, Executive Director, or General Counsel, nor should it be taken as such. Each contributor has responsibility for their own actions, with or without independent legal advice.

Vedi anche : Commons:Avvertenze generali.

See also

  • Commons:Wikilivres – a similar site which is not operated by the Wikimedia Foundation but which allows for material in the Canadian public domain which is less restrictive than the United States
Ways to get help
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