Commons:Copyright rules by territory/Eswatini

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This page provides an overview of copyright rules of Eswatini (up to 2018 Swaziland) relevant to uploading works into Wikimedia Commons. Note that any work originating in Eswatini must be in the public domain, or available under a free license, in both Eswatini and the United States before it can be uploaded to Wikimedia Commons. If there is any doubt about the copyright status of a work from Eswatini, refer to the relevant laws for clarification.


After the Second Boer War, Swaziland was a British protectorate from 1903 until it regained its independence on 6 September 1968. On 19 April 2018 the official English name was changed from Kingdom of Swaziland to Kingdom of Eswatini, mirroring its Swazi name.

Eswatini has been a member of the World Trade Organization since 1 January 1995 and the Berne Convention since 14 December 1998.[1]

As of 2018 the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), an agency of the United Nations, listed the British Copyright Act, 1912 (Commonwealth Copyright) as the main copyright law enacted by the legislature of Eswatini.[1] WIPO holds the text of this law in their WIPO Lex database.[2]

General terms

According to the 1912 Act,

  • The standard term of copyright is the life of the author followed by 50 years after his death.[1912 Section 5]
  • Copyright in a work of joint authorship in which the contributions of each author are not distinct lasts for 50 years after the death of the author who dies first, or for the life of the author who dies last, whichever is longer.[1912 Section 16]
  • Posthumous works are protected for 50 years after first being made public.[1912 Section 17]
  • Works made by or under the direction of the government are protected for 50 years after first publication.[1912 Section 18]
  • Audio recordings and photographs are protected for 50 years from creation.[1912 Section 19, 21]

Freedom of panorama


See also: Commons:Freedom of panorama

OOjs UI icon check-constructive.svg OK. Under Section 4. (1) ...the following acts shall not constitute an infringement of copyright: ...

(c) the making or publishing of paintings, drawings, engravings, or photographs of a work of sculpture or artistic craftsmanship, if permanently situate in a public place or building, or the making or publishing of paintings, drawings, engravings, or photographs (which are not in the nature of architectural drawings or plans) of any architectural work of art;

See also


  1. a b Eswatini Copyright and Related Rights (Neighboring Rights). WIPO: World Intellectual Property Organization (2018). Retrieved on 2018-11-04.
  2. Copyright Act, 1912 (Commonwealth Copyright). Eswatini (1912). Retrieved on 2018-11-04.
Caution: The above description may be inaccurate, incomplete and/or out of date, so must be treated with caution. Before you upload a file to Wikimedia Commons you should ensure it may be used freely. See also: Commons:General disclaimer