Commons:Droit d'auteur par territoire/Japon

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This page is a translated version of a page Commons:Copyright rules by territory/Japan and the translation is 41% complete. Changes to the translation template, respectively the source language can be submitted through Commons:Copyright rules by territory/Japan and have to be approved by a translation administrator.

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Cette page fournit un aperçu des règles de droit d'auteur du Japon applicables au téléchargement d'œuvres sur Wikimedia Commons. Notez que toute œuvre originaire du Japon doit appartenir au domaine public ou être disponible sous licence libre au Japon et aux États-Unis avant de pouvoir être téléchargée sur Wikimedia Commons. En cas de doute sur le statut de droit d'auteur d'une œuvre du Japon, reportez-vous aux lois applicables pour plus de précisions.

Lois applicables

Le Japon est membre de la Convention de Berne depuis le 15 juillet 1899 et de l'Organisation mondiale du commerce depuis 6 mars 2002[1]. En 2018, l'Organisation mondiale de la propriété intellectuelle (OMPI), une agence des Nations Unies, a enregistré le Copyright Act (Act No. 48 du 6 mai 1970, tel qu'amendé par le Act No. 35 du 14 mai 2014) était la principale loi sur le droit d'auteur promulguée par la législature du Japon[1]. L'OMPI conserve le texte de cette loi dans sa base de données WIPO Lex (en anglais).[2]


Under the Copyright Act (Act No. 48 of May 6, 1970, as amended up to Act No. 30 of May 25, 2018),

  • Copyright subsists for the life of the author plus 70 years.[35/1970-2018 Art. 51]
  • If the work is anonymous or pseudonymous, the copyright lasts for 70 years after the publication or the death of the author, whichever is the earlier.[35/1970-2018 Art. 52]
  • Cooperative works: 70 years from first publication (or creation if unpublished).[35/1970-2018 Art. 53]
  • The copyright of a work in the name of an organization expires 70 years after publication, or 70 years after the creation if the work is not published within 70 years after creation.[1899-1931 Art. 53]
  • The preceding provision shall not apply when the author registers the work to the copyright office while the protection period specified in the preceding provision.[1899-1931 Art. 53.2]
  • For audio recordings, the term is 70 years after publication. See {{PD-Japan-audio}} for details.
  • The copyright period has been extended from 50 years to 70 years in 2018. Works whose copyright has expired before the effective date are not affected.
  • Since June 18, 2003, cinematographic works are exceptionally protected for 70 years, instead of 50 years, after the publication, or 70 years after the creation if the film is not published within 70 years of the creation.[1899-1931 Art. 54]
    • 38 years after the creator's death if it was published as his work before 1971.[1899-1931 Art. 22-3][1899-1969 Art. 3][3]
    • All films produced in Japan prior to 1953 and directed by a person who died more than 38 years ago are in the public domain. See template {{PD-Japan-film}} for details.
  • Photographs: 10 years from first publication (or creation if unpublished) before 1957.[1899-1931 Art. 23]
  • Copyright protection for photographs published on or before December 31, 1956 has been ended, whether the author is alive or not.
  • The term of protection for works from 1970 or before is the longer of the term under the old Copyright Act and that under the current Copyright Act. This provision especially affects the copyright status of cinematographic works.
  • There is an extension for Axis powers in WWII, which is essentially 11 years added to the copyright protection length.
  • If the work was also published in the U.S. within 30 days (or it was first published in the United States), it was also protected under U.S. law but not affected by the URAA restoration. See Commons:PD files and Commons:Tableau de Hirtle.

Œuvres non protégées

Under the Copyright Act (Act No. 48 of May 6, 1970, as amended up to Act No. 35 of May 14, 2014) the following are not eligible for copyright.[35/1970-2014 Art. 13]

  1. the Constitution and other laws and regulations;
  2. public notices, instructions, circular notices and the like issued by organs of the State or local public entities, incorporated administrative agencies ... or local incorporated administrative agencies ...;
  3. judgments, decisions, orders and decrees of courts, as well as rulings and judgments made by government agencies in proceedings of a quasi-judicial nature;
  4. translations and compilations prepared by organs of the State or local public entities, incorporated administrative agencies or local incorporated administrative agencies of [any of] the materials listed in the preceding three items.


Œuvres individuelles

Date of author's death Date of publication Copyright tag
– December 31, 1945 – December 31, 1923 {{PD-Japan}} + {{PD-old-auto-1923}}
{{PD-Japan}}{{PD-old-auto-1923|deathyear=death year}}
– December 31, 1945 January 1, 1924 – December 31, 1957
January 1, 1971 –
{{PD-Japan}} + {{PD-old-auto-1996}}
{{PD-Japan}}{{PD-old-auto-1996|country=Japan|deathyear=death year}}
– December 31, 1945 January 1, 1958 – December 31, 1970 {{PD-Japan}} + {{Not-PD-US-URAA}}The work was still in copyright in Japan on the date of URAA restoration (January 1, 1996) because copyright of the posthumous work was valid for 38 years from its publication before 1971.[1899 Art. 4][1969 Art. 52-1]
January 1, 1946 – December 31, 1967 – December 31, 1923 {{PD-Japan}} + {{PD-old-auto-1923}}
{{PD-Japan}}{{PD-old-auto-1923|deathyear=death year}}
January 1, 1924 – {{PD-Japan}} + {{Not-PD-US-URAA}}[note 1]
Others L’œuvre est toujours sous la protection de la loi japonaise.

Œuvres anonymes ou sous pseudonyme

If the author of the work is unveiled during its copyright term, it is protected as an individual work. e.g. Osamu Tezuka (手塚 治, died in 1989) and his pen name "手塚 治虫" are well-known among people, so his works will be protected in Japan until 2059.

Date of publication Copyright tag
– December 31, 1923 {{PD-Japan}} + {{PD-anon-1923}}
January 1, 1924 – December 31, 1945 {{PD-Japan}} + {{PD-anon-auto-1996}}
January 1, 1946 – December 31, 1967 {{PD-Japan}} + {{Not-PD-US-URAA}}[note 1]
Others The work is still protected under Japan law.

Œuvres collectives

Date of publication Copyright tag
– December 31, 1923 {{PD-Japan-organization}} + {{PD-1923}}
January 1, 1924 – December 31, 1945 {{PD-Japan-organization}} + {{PD-1996}}
January 1, 1946 – December 31, 1967 {{PD-Japan-organization}} + {{Not-PD-US-URAA}}[note 1]
Others The work is still protected under Japan law.

Photographies anciennes

Date of creation Date of publication Copyright tag
– December 31, 1946 Any date {{PD-Japan-oldphoto}}
January 1, 1947 – December 31, 1956 – December 31, 1956[4] {{PD-Japan-oldphoto}}
January 1, 1957 – (within 10 years) Judged under 1970 Copyright law. (as an individual work or pseudonymous work)
Not published within 10 years from creation {{PD-Japan-oldphoto}}
January 1, 1957 – Any date Judged under 1970 Copyright law. (as an individual work or pseudonymous work)


  • For some government works, {{PD-Japan-exempt}}
  • For pre-1953 films directed by a person who died more than 38 years ago. This may not exclude the company's work. e.g. In 2006, Roy Export Company Establishment sued a Japanese company that was copying Sunnyside (1919) and other pre-1953 films directed by Charlie Chaplin. Tokyo distinct court judged that Chaplin held their copyright. They have been protected until 2015 (38 years after his death, according to the older copyright law) or 70 years after their publication, plus more additional period by the wartime prolongation.[5]
  • {{PD-Japan-film}} + choose from {{PD-1923}}, {{PD-1996}} (–1945) or {{Not-PD-US-URAA}} (1946–1953)
  • For other films, No one expires copyright yet. (earliest 2025)
  • FoP (photographs of an architectural work) {{FoP-Japan}} + free license tag for the image
  • FoP (photographs of the copyrighted artwork or sculpture located in a public space) {{NoFoP-Japan}} (Not accepted on Commons)[6]

Bandeaux de licence


Voir aussi : Commons:Bandeaux de licence

  • {{PD-Japan-oldphoto}} – Photos publiées au Japon avant le 31 décembre 1956, ou photographiées avant 1946 et non publiées pendant 10 ans.
  • {{PD-Japan}} – Pour les œuvres japonaises sauf les photos, 50 ans après la mort du créateur (ou du dernier si plusieurs créateurs).
  • {{PD-Japan-film}} – Pour les films produits au Japon avant 1953.
  • {{GJSTU1}} - For information made available on government websites under the Government of Japan Standard Terms of Use (Version 1.0).

Non-copyright tags:

  • {{FoP-Japan}} may be added to a picture that includes architectural works, which are allowed under the "freedom of panorama" rule, but other tags should be given to show the picture's copyright status in Japan and the United States.
  • {{AerialPhotograph-mlitJP}} – The copyright holder, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism of Japan, allows anyone to use th image for any purpose, provided that the copyright holder is properly attributed.



Voir aussi : Commons:Monnaie

✓OK The designs of the Japanese banknotes are published as state-issued 'Notifications' which exempt them from copyright protection under Copyright Law of Japan.[7] {{PD-Japan-exempt}} applies to them. [8]

De minimis

COM:DM Japan

Voir aussi : Commons:De minimis

Copyright Act Article 30-2, amended in 2012, states:

  • Article 30-2: When creating a copyrighted work of photography, sound recording or video recording, other copyrighted items that are incidental subjects of the work because they are hard to be separated from the item that is a subject of the work may be copied or translated along the work being created (only if they are minor components of the work being created). However, if, considering the kinds of the incidentally included works and the manner of the copying or translation, it unfairly is prejudicial to the interest of the copyright holders of the incidentally included works, they may not.[9]

Liberté de panorama


Voir aussi : Commons:Liberté de panorama

  • for artistic works: X mark.svg Pas d'accord {{NoFoP-Japan}} except in cases governed by Article 46.
  • for buildings only: Symbol OK.svg  {{FoP-Japan}}

The Copyright Act (Act No. 48 of May 6, 1970, as amended up to Act No. 35 of May 14, 2014), allows the reproduction of artistic works located permanently in open places accessible to the public, such as streets and parks, or at places easily seen by the public, such as the outer walls of buildings, only for non-commercial purposes. Therefore, such photographs are not free enough for Commons.

Architectural works (i.e., buildings) located in such places may be photographed and the photos may be reproduced for any purposes, which contains the "non-commercial" restriction, and applies only to "artistic works".[1899-1931 Art. 46(iv)] Some buildings like the Tower of the Sun can be regarded as artistic works per discussion.

Note: According to Japanese copyright law, Japan has a copyright lifetime of 70 years after the death of the author (ie. creator/designer) or following "the death of the last surviving co-author in the case of a joint work." Henceforth, the author's works shall become copyright free and enter the public domain.[1899-1931 Art. 51]

Timbres postaux

Voir aussi : Commons:Timbres postaux/Domaine public

Copyrighted Stamps more than 70 years old or published before 1 January 1968 are in the public domain, per {{PD-Japan}}.

Seuil d'originalité


Voir aussi : Commons:Seuil d’originalité

Logos in the gallery below are Symbol OK.svg  to upload. Article 2 of Japanese copyright law defines that a work is eligible for copyright when it is a production in which thoughts or sentiments are expressed in a creative way and which falls within the literary, scientific, artistic or musical domain.[10]

Japanese courts have decided that to be copyrightable, a text logo needs to have artistic appearance that is worth artistic appreciation. Logos composed merely of geometric shapes and texts are also not copyrightable in general.

Asahi logo.svg (DR) Letters are a means of communication, shared by anyone. Copyright protection of fonts is limited only to those that raise artistic appreciation as much as artistic works do.[11]
Cup Noodles.jpg (DR) Although the shape is stylized, the text is in a normal arrangement and keeps its function of being read as a sequence of letters.[12]
Olympic flag.svg The Court is negative towards recognizing the symbol as a copyrightable work of fine arts, because it is considered merely relatively simple graphic elements.[13]
  • Furby toy: utilitarian, so not protected by copyright as an artistic work. Not utilitarian in the United States, so photos of the toy can't be uploaded to Commons.[14]

Voir aussi


  1. a b c The work may be protected by copyright under U.S. law. because its copyright in the U.S. was restored by the URAA. However, the current policy on Commons is to accept it. This policy may change in the future, depending on the outcome of community discussions. Also, it may be deleted if Commons receive a valid takedown notice.


  1. a b Japan Copyright and Related Rights (Neighboring Rights). WIPO: World Intellectual Property Organization (2018). Retrieved on 2019-01-22.
  2. Copyright Act (Act No. 48 of May 6, 1970, as amended up to Act No. 35 of May 14, 2014). Japan (2014). Retrieved on 2018-11-08.
  3. Copyright Act 1970, Supplementary Provision Act No. 85 of June 18, 2003
  4. Copyright Act 1899 (revised in 1969), Art. 52–3
  5. >2006 Wa 15552 : The case of the claim for suspension of copyright violation. Court precedent : Search results (in Japanese) (PDF). Court of Japan. Tokyo District Court Civil Division 29 (2007-08-29). Retrieved on 2016-12-30.
  6. w:ja:Wikipedia:屋外美術を被写体とする写真の利用方針 (Criteria for using a photograph of the artwork located in a public space) at Japanese Wikipedia
  7. 日本のお金 近代通貨ハンドブック 大蔵省印刷局編 (Japan's Money Modern Currency Handbook Ministry of Finance Printing Bureau) 119 (1994).
  8. Ministry of Finance Notification No. 76, 1984: Specifications of the Bank of Japan Notes scheduled to be introduced on November 1, 1984 - 10,000, 5,000 and 1,000 yen note.
  9. いわゆる「写り込み」等に係る規定の整備について. Agency for Cultural Affairs.
  10. [1][2]
  11. Tokyo High Court 平成6(ネ)1470 [3]
  12. Tokyo High Court 昭和55(行ケ)30, Supreme Court 昭和55(行ツ)75) [4]
  13. (Tokyo District Court 昭39(ヨ)第5594 [5]
  14. Sendai High Court ruling
Cite error: <ref> tag with name "Bunka2018" defined in <references> is not used in prior text.
Attention : la description ci-dessus peut être inexacte, incomplète ou obsolète, elle doit donc être traitée avec prudence. Avant de déposer un fichier sur Wikimedia Commons, vous devez vous assurer qu’il peut être utilisé librement. Voir aussi : Commons:Avertissements généraux