Commons:Copyright rules by territory/Romaume-Uni

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Cette page fournit un aperçu des règles de droit d'auteur du Royaume-Uni applicables au téléchargement d'œuvres sur Wikimedia Commons. Notez que toute œuvre originaire du Royaume-Uni doit appartenir au domaine public ou être disponible sous licence libre au Royaume-Uni et aux États-Unis avant de pouvoir être téléchargée sur Wikimedia Commons. En cas de doute sur le statut de droit d'auteur d'une œuvre du Royaume-Uni, reportez-vous aux lois applicables pour plus de précisions.

Lois applicables

Le Royaume-Uni est membre de la Convention de Berne depuis le 5 décembre 1887, de l'Organisation mondiale du commerce depuis le 1er janvier 1995 et du traité de l'OMPI sur les droits d'auteur depuis le 14 mars 2010.[1]

En 2018, l'Organisation mondiale de la propriété intellectuelle (OMPI), une agence des Nations Unies, mentionne que le Copyright, Designs and Patents Act de 1988 (Chapter 48, incorporant jusqu'aux amendements du Digital Economy Act de 2017) était la principale loi sur le droit d'auteur promulguée par la législature du Royaume-Uni[1]. L'OMPI conserve le texte de cette loi dans sa base de données WIPO Lex (en anglais)[2]. Une version à jour de cette loi est aussi disponible sous une forme structurée sur le site legislation.gov.uk (en anglais).[3]

Prior to 1988, copyright was governed by the Copyright Act 1956.

Résumé

  • échéance standard de la protection par les droits d'auteur : 70 ans après la mort
  • Droits d'auteur de la Couronne :
    • 50 ans après la première publication à titre commercial, mais
    • les œuvres, à l'exception des gravures, créées avant le 30 juin 1957 : 50 ans après leur création
  • Œuvres anonymes
    • photographies créées avant le 30 juin 1957 : 70 ans après leur création si non publiées, 70 ans après leur publication si elles sont publiées dans les 70 ans qui suivent leur création
  • Œuvres posthumes
    • les œuvres autres que des photographies, publiées à titre posthume avant 1945, dont l'auteur est mort au moins 20 ans avant la publication : 50 ans après leur publication

Généralités

Comme dans le reste de l'Union Européenne, la durée de base de protection par les droits d'auteur au Royaume-Uni correspond à 70 ans après la mort de l'auteur. L'auteur doit être une personne physique et ne peut être une entreprise. Il existe toutefois de nombreuses variantes à cette règle de base. Les œuvres, au Royaume-Uni, sont classées en deux catégories dans le cadre de la définition de la durée de protection des droits d'auteur : les œuvres réalisées par le gouvernement et les œuvres non réalisées par le gouvernement. Les premières sont couvertes par les droits d'auteur de la Couronne et les règles spécifiques en matière de durée des droits d'auteur, et les secondes sont couvertes par les règles standard en matière de durée.

Droits d'auteur de la Couronne

Shortcut
COM:CROWN

Les œuvres protégées par les droits d'auteur de la Couronne ont leur protection qui court normalement pendant 50 ans à compter de leur date de publication à titre commercial. Pour les œuvres de la Couronne créée avant l'entrée en vigueur de la loi "Copyright Act de 1956", le 30 juin 1957, d'autres règles s'appliquent. Les droits d'auteur de la Couronne concernant les photographies prises avant le 30 juin 1957 courent pendant 50 ans à partir de leur création. Les gravures publiées et protégées par les droits d'auteur de la Couronne, lorsqu'elles ont été créées avant le 30 juin 1957, le sont pendant 50 ans à compter de leur date de publication à titre commercial. Les gravures non publiées et protégées par les droits d'auteur de la Couronne ne seront plus protégées à la fin de 2039. Les œuvres d'art de la Couronne autres que des gravures et des photographies, créées avant le 30 juin 1957, sont protégées par les droits d'auteur pendant 50 ans à compter de leur création.

D'autres règles supplémentaires s'appliquent aux œuvres d'art de la Couronne, créées entre le 30 juin 1957 et l'entrée en vigueur de la loi "Copyright Designs and Patents Act de 1988" le 1er août 1989. Les gravures créées durant cette période, qui ont été publiées, voient toujours les droits d'auteur expirer 50 ans après leur publication à titre commercial. Les gravures créées durant cette même période, non publiées, verront expirer les droits d'auteur à la fin 2039 comme avant. Les photographies publiées ne sont plus couvertes par les droits d'auteur 50 ans après leur publication. Les photographies non publiées se seront plus couvertes par les droits d'auteur à la fin de 2039. Les autres œuvres d'art ne sont plus protégées par les droits d'auteur 50 ans après leur création.

Tim Padfield a réalisé un digramme qui résume ces durées.[4]

Les règles de droits d'auteur de la Couronne concernant les enregistrements sonores sont beaucoup plus simples. Les droits expirent 50 ans après la création de l'enregistrement, sauf si l’œuvre est publiée à titre commercial durant cette période, ce qui prolonge la durée des droits à 50 ans après la première publication.

La licence "Ordnance Survey OpenData" a été conçue pour être compatible avec la licence "Creative Commons BY 3.0" et paraît être correcte.[5][6]

Certaines œuvres publiées à partir de 2010 sont disponibles sous licence "UK Open Government Licence", qui est supposée être compatible avec la licence "CC BY 3.0". Voir {{OGL}}.[6]

Droits d'auteur du Parlement

Parliamentary copyright was created by the Copyright Designs & Patents Act 1988 and its duration rules are the same as for Crown copyright materials created after 30 August 1989.

Droits d'auteur sur les enregistrement sonores

If the source material is out of copyright, sound recordings leave copyright after 50 years from first publication. Plans are underway to extend this to 70 years.

Droits d'auteur ordinaires

For ordinary copyright works the largest distinction is between those with a known author and those with a pseudonymous or anonymous author. There are also distinctions in copyright term between artistic works and sound recordings. The commencement dates for the Copyright Act 1957 and the Copyright Designs & Patents Act 1988 are also crucial. For a summary of these rules see the flowchart.[7] This means that some works whose copyright expired before the 1988 act came into force were brought back into copyright.

The rules for ordinary copyright sound recordings are the same as for Crown copyright sound recordings.

Auteur connu

If the work was created after 30 August 1989 and has a known author copyright expires 70 years after the death of the author. If the work is a photograph with a known author taken before 30 June 1957 then copyright also expires 70 years after the death of the author. If the work is a non-photograph artistic work with a known author which was created prior to 30 August 1989 then several scenarios can apply:

  1. If the work was published during the author's lifetime then copyright expires 70 years after the death of the author.
  2. If the work was published before 30 August 1989 and the author died more than 20 years before publication then copyright expires 50 years after publication.
  3. If the work was published before 30 August 1989 and the author died less than 20 years before publication then copyright expires 70 years after the death of the author.
  4. If the work was not published before 30 August 1989 and the author died after 1968 then copyright expires 70 years after the death of the author.
  5. If the work was not published before 30 August 1989 and the author died before 1969 then copyright expires at the end of 2039.

Auteur inconnu

Commons:Anonymous_works:United_Kingdom

If the author is unknown then the basic time period to bear in mind is 70 years. If the work has an unknown author and was created after 30 August 1989, copyright expires either 70 years after creation or, if during that period the work is made available to the public by being published, 70 years after publication. If the work is a photograph with an unknown author taken before 1 June 1957 then copyright expires 70 years after creation or, if during that period the work is made available to the public, 70 years after that. If the work was created before 1969 with an unknown author, then several scenarios may apply:

  1. If the work was published before 30 August 1989 then copyright expires 70 years after that first publication.
  2. If the work is unpublished and was first made available to the public after 1968 then copyright expires 70 years after the work was first made available to the public.
  3. If the work is unpublished and has never been made available to the public then copyright expires at the end of 2039.
  4. If the work is unpublished and was first made available to the public before 1969 then copyright expires at the end of 2039.

Droits d'auteur typographiques

If scanning a copyright-expired work from a British publication, typographical copyright must be borne in mind.[8] This subsists for 25 years from creation of the publication and covers the typographical arrangement of the publication. It does not exist in the United States.

Publication right

One related right to copyright that must be borne in mind in the United Kingdom is publication right. This applies to ordinary copyright works but does not apply to Crown copyright works. If the copyright of an unpublished work has expired (virtually impossible before 2040) then the first publisher of that work is entitled to publication right over that work. Publication right has the same rules as copyright but only lasts for 25 years. It does not exist in the United States.

Database right

If scanning material from a publication from 1982 or later database right must also be borne in mind. This right normally lasts 15 years from creation or substantial amendment of the database. Many books count as databases due to their systematic arrangement of information. Under transitional provisions works created from 1982-1997 are also covered by database right until the end of 2012, ie 15 years after the passage of the original legislation. It does not exist in the United States.

Bandeaux de licence

Raccourci
COM:TAG United Kingdom

Voir aussi : Commons:Bandeaux de licence

The following are copyright tags/ templates for UK works. If you are uploading a UK-based work to Commons, please find the corresponding tag and add it to the licensing information for the item you are uploading (copy and paste, if you like). When you then save the file, these tags will expand to produce and appropriate text for that kind of license.

  • {{PD-UK-unknown}} – Pour les vieilles images britanniques dont l'auteur est inconnu et dont les droits d'auteur ont expiré.
    • {{PD-Britannica}} – Pour les images provenant de la douzième édition de l'Encyclopædia Britannica ou d'une version antérieure.
  • {{PD-UKGov}} – Pour les images du gouvernement britannique dont le copyright a expiré (notamment les œuvres créées avant 1969).
    • {{OldOS}} — Pour les cartes de l'Ordnance Survey publiées il y a plus de 50 ans.
    • {{OS OpenData}} – Pour les cartes de l'Ordnance Survey publiées au Royaume-Uni.

The UK's Open Government Licence (OGL) (view in English or Welsh) is a simple set of terms and conditions that facilitates the re-use of a wide range of public sector information free of charge. Since 2010, almost all information owned by the UK Crown is offered for use and re-use under the Open Government Licence.

The Open Parliament License (OPL) facilitates the free use of material made available by the House of Commons or the House of Lords in which copyright or database right subsists. Almost all material produced by Parliament and its committees is governed by the Open Parliament License.

Monnaie

Raccourci
COM:CUR UK

Voir aussi : Commons:Monnaie

X mark.svg Pas d'accord UK banknotes are fully protected by copyright. The Bank of England owns the copyright on its banknotes, and all banknotes carry a © notice.[9] No images of these banknotes may be uploaded to Commons. Those that are will be deleted.

Coin designs are copyrighted by the Royal Mint.[10]

Publishing images of coins is not prohibited by the Forgery and Counterfeiting Act 1981.[11] Its Section 19 refers only to "imitation British coins", defined as "any thing which resembles a British coin in shape, size and the substance of which it is made". The implication here is that images cannot resemble the substance of the real coins. However, since such images may only be published with the official consent of the Royal Mint, none of these images is allowed on Commons.

Both the Bank of England's copyright on its banknotes and the Royal Mint's copyright on coin designs are instances of Crown Copyright. Published photographs or engravings subject to Crown Copyright which were created more than 50 years ago are now in the public domain: use {{PD-UKGov}}. Images of British coins and banknotes which were minted and circulated more than 50 years ago are permissible provided that the author of the work containing the coins or banknotes is willing to release his / her copyright to the reuse of the image, which is a separate copyright concern and must also be addressed.

Scottish and Northern Irish banks will retain their own copyright on banknotes independent of the Bank of England; however, in the United Kingdom, it is a criminal offence under s18(1) of the Forgery and Counterfeiting Act 1981 "to reproduce on any substance whatsoever, and whether or not on the correct scale, any British currency note or any part of a British currency note."[11] The term "British currency note" is defined as something which "has been lawfully issued in England and Wales, Scotland or Northern Ireland", "is or has been customarily used as money in the country where it was issued", and is payable on demand" - this includes Scottish and Northern Irish banknotes, as well as those issued by the Bank of England.

De minimis

Raccourci
COM:DM UK

Voir aussi : Commons:De minimis

Section 31 of the UK Copyright, Designs and patents Act 1988, as subsequently amended in 2003, states that:

  • Copyright in a work is not infringed by its incidental inclusion in an artistic work, sound recording, film, or broadcast.

Les "œuvres d'art", telles que définie dans la loi, comprennent les photographies.

Liberté de panorama

Raccourci
COM:FOP UK

Voir aussi : Commons:Liberté de panorama

Symbol OK.svg  pour les œuvres en 3D
Symbol OK.svg  pour les "œuvres d'artisanat" en 2D
X mark.svg Pas d'accord pour les "œuvres graphiques" en 2D {{FoP-UK}}

Section 62 of the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 is broader than the corresponding provisions in many other countries, and allows photographers to take pictures of

  • buildings, and
  • sculptures, models for buildings and works of artistic craftsmanship (if permanently situated in a public place or in premises open to the public).

without breaching copyright. Such photographs may be published in any way.

Note that under UK law, "works of artistic craftsmanship" are defined separately from "graphic works". Graphic works are defined in Section 4 as any painting, drawing, diagram, map, chart or plan, any engraving, etching, lithograph, woodcut or similar work. The freedom provided by Section 62 does not apply to graphic works - such as a mural or poster - even if they are permanently located in a public place. These cannot be uploaded to Commons without a licence from the copyright holder.

The courts have not established a consistent test for what is meant by a "work of artistic craftsmanship", but one of the standard reference works on copyright, Copinger and Skoane James (15th edn, 2005), suggests that for a work to be considered as such the creator must be both a craftsman and an artist. Evidence of the intentions of the maker are relevant, and according to the House of Lords case of Hensher -v- Restawile [1976] AC 64, it is "relevant and important, although not a paramount or leading consideration" if the creator had the conscious purpose of creating a work of art. It is not necessary for the work to be describable as 'fine art'.

In Hensher -v- Restawile, some examples were given of typical articles that might be considered works of artistic craftsmanship, including hand-painted tiles, stained glass, wrought iron gates, and the products of high-class printing, bookbinding, cutlery, needlework and cabinet-making. Copinger and Skoane James suggests that original jewellery is another candidate.

Other works that have been held to fall under this definition include hand-knitted woollen sweaters, fabric with a highly textured surface including 3D elements, a range of pottery and items of dinnerware. The cases are, respectively, Bonz -v- Cooke [1994] 3 NZLR 216 (New Zealand), Coogi Australia -v- Hyrdrosport (1988) 157 ALR 247 (Australia), Walter Enterprises -v- Kearns (Zimbabwe) noted at [1990] 4 EntLR E-61, and Commissioner of Taxation -v- Murray (1990) 92 ALR 671 (Australia).

The practical effect of the broad Freedom of Panorama provisions in the UK and in other countries with similar laws is that it is acceptable to upload to Commons not only photographs of public buildings and sculptures but also works of artistic craftsmanship which are on permanent public display in museums, galleries and exhibitions which are open to the public. According to Copinger and Skoane James, the expression "open to the public" presumably extends the section to premises to which the public are admitted only on licence or on payment. Again, this is broader than 'public place' which is the wording in many countries.

The Design and Artists Copyright Society and Artquest provide further information on freedom of panorama in the United Kingdom.[12][13]

Timbres postaux

Voir aussi : Commons:Timbres postaux/Domaine public

Red copyright.svg. Many British stamps are "Crown Copyright", that expires after 50 years and puts the stamps in the public domain. (See Crown copyright [in English].) This also applies to the stamps of the various territories of the British Empire prior to their independence.

Following the privatisation of Royal Mail as a separate legal entity in 2012 the copyright of new British stamps has been held by Royal Mail in its own right, so in general no stamp may be uploaded.

Seuil d'originalité

Raccourci
COM:TOO UK

Voir aussi : Commons:Seuil d’originalité

Symbol OK.svg  Lego bricks (see w:Interlego v Tyco Industries)

X mark.svg Pas d'accord for most logos. The level of originality required for copyright protection in the United Kingdom is very low.

These images are eligible for copyright protection:

Copies numériques d'images

In 2014 (updated 2015) the UK's Intellectual Property Office issued an advice notice, which said, in part:[16]

  • According to the Court of Justice of the European Union which has effect in UK law, copyright can only subsist in subject matter that is original in the sense that it is the author’s own ‘intellectual creation’. Given this criteria, it seems unlikely that what is merely a retouched, digitised image of an older work can be considered as ‘original’. This is because there will generally be minimal scope for a creator to exercise free and creative choices if their aim is simply to make a faithful reproduction of an existing work.

Voir aussi

Références

  1. a b United Kingdom Copyright and Related Rights (Neighboring Rights). WIPO: World Intellectual Property Organization (2018). Retrieved on 2018-11-12.
  2. Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 (Chapter 48, incorporating amendments up to the Digital Economy Act 2017). United Kingdom (2017). Retrieved on 2018-11-11.
  3. Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 (current). legislation.gov.uk. National Archives. Retrieved on 2019-03-29.
  4. Tim Padfield. Duration of Crown Copyright: Artistic Works. Copyright for Archivists. Retrieved on 2019-03-29.
  5. OS OpenData acknowledgements. Ordnance Survey. Retrieved on 2019-03-29.
  6. a b Open Government Licence. National Archives. Retrieved on 2019-03-29.
  7. Tim Padfield. DURATION OF COPYRIGHT - Literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works. Copyright for Archivists. Retrieved on 2019-03-29.
  8. Tullo, Carol. Guidance - Copyright in Typographical Arrangement. The National Archives (United Kingdom). Retrieved on 10 March 2018.
  9. Using images of banknotes. Bank of England. Retrieved on 2019-03-29.
  10. Advertising Guidelines. Royal Mint. Retrieved on 2019-03-29.
  11. a b Forgery and Counterfeiting Act 1981. legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved on 2019-03-29.
  12. Factsheet: Sculpture and Works of Artistic Craftmanship on Public Display. Design and Artists Copyright Society. Retrieved on 2019-03-29.
  13. Advertising and marketing art: Copyright confusion. Artquest.
  14. Maurizio Borghi (2 August 2011). UK: Future v. Edge (High Court Chancery Division), 13 june 2011. Kluwer Copyright Blog. Retrieved on 2019-03-29.
  15. Uture Publishing v. The Edge Interactive Media (13 June 2011). Retrieved on 2019-03-29.
  16. Copyright Notice: digital images, photographs and the internet. Intellectual Property Office (November 2015). Retrieved on 17 January 2019.
Attention : la description ci-dessus peut être inexacte, incomplète ou obsolète, elle doit donc être traitée avec prudence. Avant de déposer un fichier sur Wikimedia Commons, vous devez vous assurer qu’il peut être utilisé librement. Voir aussi : Commons:Avertissements généraux