Commons:Droit d'auteur par territoire/États-Unis

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This page is a translated version of a page Commons:Copyright rules by territory/United States and the translation is 40% complete. Changes to the translation template, respectively the source language can be submitted through Commons:Copyright rules by territory/United States and have to be approved by a translation administrator.

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Droits d’auteur américains pour les œuvres publiées pour la première fois aux États-Unis, à l’exclusion des œuvres audio
Année de première publication
Remarque : la publication n'est pas une création
Durée du droit d'auteur
  • avant de 1924
  • de 1924 à 1963 : sans préavis, ou avec préavis, mais non renouvelable dans les 28 ans de la première publication.
  • de 1964 à 1977 : sans préavis
  • de 1978 au 1er mars 1989 : sans préavis et sans inscription dans les 5 ans suivant la première publication
Œuvre entrée dans le domaine public aux États-Unis
  • entre 1924 et 1963 : avec cartouche et droits renouvelés
  • entre 1964 et 1977 : avec cartouche
Protégé pendant 95 ans après la première publication
  • de 1978 au 1er mars 1989: création antérieure à 1978 avec préavis ou sans préavis mais enregistrée dans les cinq ans suivant la première publication
  • du 2 mars 1989 à 2002: création antérieure à 1978
  • Si l'auteur est connu, protégé par le droit d'auteur jusqu'au dernier de ses 70 ans ou du 31 décembre 2047.
  • Si l'auteur est inconnu ou est un société, le premier de 95 ans après la première publication ou de 120 ans de sa création, mais au plus tôt le 31 décembre 2047.
  • de 1978 au 1er mars 1989: création postérieure à 1977 avec préavis ou sans préavis mais enregistrée dans les cinq ans suivant la première publication
  • du 2 mars 1989 à 2002: création postérieure à 1977
  • non publié avant 2003 (c'est-à-dire publié pour la première fois après 2002)
  • Si l'auteur est connu, protégé par copyright pendant 70 ans pma.
  • Si l'auteur est inconnu ou le nom de la société, le premier des 95 ans après la première publication ou des 120 ans de sa création.
pma : post mortem auctoris ou "après la mort de l'auteur"

Cette page donne un aperçu des règles en matière de droits d'auteur aux États-Unis applicables aux œuvres téléversées sur Wikimédia Commons.

Règles générales

Tout ce qui est publié[1] avant le 1er janvier 1924 se trouve dans le domaine public. Tout ce qui est publié avant le 1er janvier 1964 et dont les droits d'auteurs n'ont pas été renouvelés se trouve dans le domaine public (effectuer une recherche dans la base de données "Copyright Renewal", de la Stanford University pour ce qui concerne les livres). Tout ce qui est publié avant le 1er janvier 1978 sans notice de droits d'auteurs ("©", "Copyright" ou "Copr.") suivie d'une année de publication (celle-ci peut être omise dans certains cas) ainsi que du nom du détenteur des droits (ou son pseudonyme) se trouve aussi dans le domaine public. Tout ce qui est publié en 1978 ou plus tard, mais avant le 1er mars 1989 sans notice de droits d'auteurs se trouve dans le domaine public à moins que les droits d'auteurs sur l’œuvre n'aient été enregistrés dans les 5 ans suivant la publication initiale de l’œuvre.

  • les œuvres qui ont été publiées pour la première fois hors des États-Unis (et qui n'ont pas ensuite été republiées aux États-Unis dans les 30 jours suivants) à partir du 1er janvier 1924 (inclus) sont susceptibles d'être soumises aux droits d'auteur aux États-Unis en vertu de l'URAA (Uruguay Round Agreements Act) même si les droits d'auteurs de l’œuvre ont expiré avant cette date aux États-Unis en raison d'un non-respect des formalités liées au droit d'auteur des États-Unis (renouvellement des droits d'auteur et inclusion d'une mention de droits d'auteur)[2]. En général, de telles œuvres ont vu leurs droits d'auteur restaurés aux États-Unis si l’œuvre n'était plus couverte par les droits d'auteurs aux États-Unis en raison d'un non-respect des formalités prévues aux États-Unis tout en étant toujours soumises aux droits d'auteur dans leur pays d'origine à la date d'effet de l'URAA (pour la plupart des pays, cette date d'effet correspond au 1er janvier 1996). Les œuvres publiées pour la première fois aux États-Unis ne sont pas concernées par l'URAA.
  • la situation des droits d'auteurs pour les enregistrements sonores aux États-Unis (y compris ceux publiés avant 1924) constitue un cas particulier. Les enregistrements effectués à compter du 15 février 1972 (inclus) sont soumis aux mêmes règles de droits d'auteur que les autres œuvres. Selon le Music Modernization Act, qui a été promulgué en octobre 2018, les enregistrements effectués avant le 15 février 1972 voient les termes des droits d'auteur les concernant dépendre du moment où l'enregistrement a été publié pour la première fois.
  • Recordings that were published prior to 1924 will enter the public domain on January 1, 2022. Recordings that were published from 1924 through 1946 are copyrighted for a period of 100 years after first publication. Recordings that were published from 1947 through 1956 are copyrighted for a period of 110 years after first publication. Recordings that were published after 1956 and first fixed prior to February 15, 1972 will enter the public domain on February 15, 2067. These copyright terms for pre-1972 recordings apply regardless of any formalities (copyright notice, registration with the US copyright office, or copyright renewal.)
  • Works created after January 1, 1978 are protected for 70 years after the death of the creator.
  • Works created before 1978 and first published after or in 1978 are protected for the earlier of 95 years from publication or registration for copyright or 120 years from creation (for anonymous or corporate works) or 70 years after death of the creator for known authors; if it was published in 1978–2001, that copyright is extended to December 31, 2047 if it's shorter. (Thus no works first published with permission of the copyright holder between 1978 and 2001 in the US are out of copyright.)

U.S. copyright law applies in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands, but does not apply in American Samoa. According to the U.S. Copyright Office 17 U.S.C. § 101 (defining use of the term "United States" in the Copyright Act of 1976): "The 'United States', when used in a geographical sense, comprises the several States, the District of Columbia and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the organized territories under the jurisdiction of the United States Government."[3] Of the organized territories, the United States Copyright Office says that: "U.S. federal copyright law applies in the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands but not in American Samoa."[4]

Full details of US Copyright Law (Title 17) are published by the U.S. Copyright Office.[5]

Works by the US Government

A work by the U.S. federal Government is in the public domain. This applies certainly within the United States; it may, however, not apply in other jurisdictions. See the CENDI Copyright FAQ list, 3.1.7, the U.S. Government's own statement to that effect, but also this discussion.

Example of public domain work created by NASA, a U.S. federal government agency
  • Images on government or government agency websites are not necessarily public domain; always look for copyright notices or similar. Especially the images on the favorite website "Astronomy Picture of the Day" are in most cases not within the public domain but copyrighted by their individual authors (so please do not upload images from there to Wikimedia Commons). Images on certain military websites (e.g. AKO) frequently are creations of military members in their individual capacities (e.g. soldiers on patrol using their personal cameras). These images may not be in the public domain, but they are very hard to distinguish from works of military photographers, and they rarely contain copyright information.
  • This does not include governments of the individual states. The work of most state and local governments are subject to copyright, but there are some exceptions.
  • This does not include government-funded corporations like Amtrak
  • This does not include works of employees of the USPS, as exempted in 1976 [1]. In particular, the USPS holds exclusive copyright to all US postage stamp designs since 1978 [2] (older US stamps are all considered public domain).
  • This also does not include works commissioned by the US Government, but produced by contractors; in this case, the copyright may have been assigned to the US Government (for instance, the copyright of the official Ada programming language manual was assigned to the US Department of Defense).
  • Some US government agencies may work in cooperation with other agencies or corporations; this is in particular the case of NASA, which operates the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in cooperation with Caltech, and operates a number of space projects in cooperation with foreign agencies such as ESA and CNES. Only materials solely produced by NASA are in the public domain. The other agencies may hold copyright on some material, including material published on NASA sites (in these cases there will be copyright notices— please look for them to determine copyright status).
  • The government sometimes publishes images with statements about non-copyright restrictions (like the White House photostream). This does not affect copyright.
  • Commercial use of some federal images, such as identifying insignia or identification, is prohibited however. Fraudulent use (such as wearing military decorations without authorization) is also banned. However, restrictions of this nature are not within the scope of Commons policy.
  • The United States Army Institute of Heraldry— the official custodian of such images has addressed this issue with its Copyright statement, which informs the reader as to how to meet any commercial needs under this statute.

Edicts of Government

  • Edicts of Government are always public domain in whole or in part and applies to such works whether they are Federal, State, or local as well as to those of foreign governments. This includes judicial opinions, administrative rulings, legislative enactments, public ordinances, and similar official legal documents. Precedence is that citizen are expected to understand the law and that there can be no copyright assertion of laws or court decisions. Edicts of government may or may not overlap with works by the U.S. Government.

Bandeaux de licence

Raccourci
COM:TAG United States

Voir aussi : Commons:Bandeaux de licence

  • {{PD-US}} – Publié avant 1923 et dans le domaine public aux USA.
  • {{PD-US-expired}} – published anywhere before 1924 and public domain in the U.S. (preferred over {{PD-US}})
  • {{PD-1996}} – Domaine public dans le pays d'origine au 1er janvier 1996 et aux États-Unis.
  • {{PD-US-not renewed}} – Publié aux USA entre 1923 et 1963 sans que le copyright soit renouvelé
  • {{PD-US-no notice}} – Publié sans notice de copyright avant 1978
  • {{PD-US-no notice advertisement}} – any advertisement published in the U.S. prior to 1978 in a collective work without a copyright notice specific to the advertisement
  • {{PD-US-1978-89}} – published in the United States between 1978 and March 1, 1989 but with neither copyright notice nor registration within 5 years
  • {{PD-US-unpublished}} – never published anywhere prior to 2003
  • {{PD-US-record}} – Enregistrements sonores dans le domaine public (réalisés avant le 15 février 1972 et n'utilisant pas d'œuvres copyrightées — ne s'applique pas à New York)

Voir aussi #US States and Territories

Agences gouvernementales des États-Unis
Legislative Branch
Department of Agriculture
Department of Commerce
Department of Defense
Department of Education
Department of Energy
Department of Health and Human Services
Department of Homeland Security
  • {{PD-USGov-DHS}} – Images du Department of Homeland SecurityImages du Department of Homeland Security.
Department of Housing and Urban Development
  • {{PD-USGov-HUD}} – for public domain images from the Department of Housing and Urban Development.
Department of the Interior
Department of Justice
Department of Labor
Department of State
Department of Transporation
Department of the Treasury
Department of Veterans Affairs
Independent agencies
  • {{PD-USGov-NSF}} – Images de la National Science Foundation.
  • {{PD-USGov-POTUS}} – Images de l'Executive Office of the President of the United States.
  • {{PD-USGov-SI}} – for public domain images from the Smithsonian Institution
  • {{PD-USGov-USAID}} – Images de l'U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID).
  • {{PD-USGov-USTR}} – for public domain images from the Office of the United States Trade Representative.
  • {{PD-USGov-WPA}} – Images de la Works Progress Administration.
  • {{PD-USGov-TVA}} – Images de la Tennessee Valley Authority.
  • {{PD-DCGov}} – for public domain images from the District of Columbia.
  • {{PD-USGov-Award}} – for an image of an award or decoration of an agency of the federal government of the United States.
Collections du domaine public détenues par la Bibliothèque du congrès des États-Unis

Voir aussi : Commons:Library of Congress

États et territoires des États-Unis

Further information: W:WP:PDOMG
Further information: W:Copyright status of work by U.S. subnational governments

Work of Organized Territories has less clear status; the first link in this section shows strong evidence that Puerto Rico's works are in the public domain, while the second link prevaricates.

Divers

Monnaie

Raccourci
COM:CUR United States

Voir aussi : Commons:Monnaie

Pièces

Symbol OK.svg 

Many but not all coins or bills produced by the United States Mint are in the public domain as works of the Federal Government. Some were designed by third parties who assigned rights to the Mint. These are typically commemorative coins for special occasions and the copyright is described in their marketing materials; another example is the obverse of the golden dollar.[4] The status of each coin or bill should be assessed individually.

Billets de banque

Symbol OK.svg 

"Color illustrations" of banknotes appear to be permitted if they respect the following conditions (from 18 U.S. Code § 504 and 31 CFR § 411.1):

  • the illustration is of a size less than three-fourths or more than one and one-half, in linear dimension, of each part of the item illustrated;
  • the illustration is one-sided; and
  • all negatives, plates, positives, digitized storage medium, graphic files, magnetic medium, optical storage devices and any other thing used in the making of the illustration that contain an image of the illustration or any part thereof are destroyed and/or deleted or erased after their final use.

Veuillez utiliser {{PD-USGov-money}} pour les images de monnaie des États-Unis pertinentes.

De minimis

Raccourci
COM:DM United States

Voir aussi : Commons:De minimis

The United States courts interpret the de minimis defence in three distinct ways:

  1. Where a technical violation is so trivial that the law will not impose legal consequences;
  2. Where the extent of copying falls below the threshold of substantial similarity (always a required element of actionable copying); and
  3. In connection with fair use (not relevant here, since Commons does not allow fair use images).

It is the first of these that is often of particular concern on Commons.

Liberté de panorama

Raccourci
COM:FOP US

Voir aussi : Commons:Liberté de panorama

✓OK seulement pour les bâtiments : {{FoP-US}}

Buildings are works subject to copyright in the U.S. according to 17 USC 102(a)(8) since the Architectural Works Copyright Protection Act was passed in 1990. It applies to all buildings that were completed after December 1, 1990, even if begun before, or where the plans were published after that date.

However, the U.S. federal copyright law explicitly exempts "pictures, paintings, photographs, or other pictorial representations" of copyrighted buildings from the copyright of the building in 17 USC 120(a). Anyone may paint, draw, or photograph buildings from public places. This includes such interior public spaces as lobbies, auditoriums, etc. The creator holds the exclusive copyright to such an image (the architect or owner of the building has no say whatsoever), and may publish the image in any way. 17 USC 120 applies only to architectural works, not to other works of visual art, such as statues or sculptures.

This means that for buildings completed before December 1, 1990, there is complete FoP, without regard to whether the building is visible from a public place, because the building is public domain, except for the plans. For photos of such buildings, the license tag {{PD-US-architecture}} can be used (along with a license tag for the photo.) For buildings completed after December 1, 1990, freedom is given only to photograph such a building. This includes style elements such as gargoyles and pillars, which are protected only from three-dimensional reproduction (Leicester v. Warner Bros.).

Note that copyright applies only to "buildings".

"The term building means structures that are habitable by humans and intended to be both permanent and stationary, such as houses and office buildings, and other permanent and stationary structures designed for human occupancy, including but not limited to churches, museums, gazebos, and garden pavilions."

All such works are copyrighted and, therefore, covered by the FOP exemption only if they are visible from a public place.

"Bridges, cloverleafs, dams, highways or walkways are not ‘buildings’ under the definition of architectural works."

In the U.S., such works do not have a copyright and therefore may be photographed freely, whether or not from a public place. They do have copyrights in many other countries.

Originality requirement

This discussion must be considered qualified by the requirement under US law that a work, including a derivative work, must display originality to be protectable under copyright law. See Feist Publications, Inc., v. Rural Telephone Service Co. in the English Wikipedia. More specifically, in the case of derivative works, it has been held, in Durham Industries, Inc. v. Tomy Corp.[8] and earlier in L. Batlin & Son, Inc. v. Snyder.[9] that a derivative work must be original relative to the underlying work on which it is based. Otherwise, it cannot enjoy copyright protection and copying it will not infringe any copyright of the derivative work itself (although copying it may infringe the copyright, if any, of the underlying work on which the derivative work was based). For further discussion of this issue, see the Wikipedia article Derivative work.

For a legal discussion, see Wikilegal/Pictorial Representations Architectural Works.

Œuvres d'art et sculptures X mark.svg Not OK.

For artworks, even if permanently installed in public places, the U.S. copyright law has no similar exception, and any publication of an image of a copyrighted artwork thus is subject to the approval of the copyright holder of the artwork. However, public artwork installed before 1924 is considered to be public domain, and can be photographed freely. In addition, any public artwork installed before 1978 without a copyright notice is also in the public domain (unless the copyright owner actively prevented anyone from copying or photographing the work until 1978). In these situations, document the date of installation and the creator (sculptor) of the pictured work as much as possible. (A good resource for finding information about U.S. sculptures is the Smithsonian Art Inventories Catalog.)

Applicable templates:

The line of argument that a large sculpture or memorial is a building and therefore covered by the FOP exemption was specifically rejected in Federal claims court (Gaylord v. The United States, 2008), which noted that the building exemption to the Architectural Works Copyright Protection Act (AWCPA) does not extend to "The Column" sculpture in the Korean War Veterans Memorial because "[t]he structures used in the definition of 'building' by the Copyright Office are intended to house individuals; either for the sake of providing shelter or for another purpose such as religious services."[5] While the court ruled in favor of the defendant under a fair use rationale it was later overturned in favor of the plaintiff; the photograph was deemed a derivative work. The court also contended that had Congress intended to extend the AWCPA to monuments and memorials, the law would have been drafted to reflect that in the first place.

For further legal discussion, see Wikilegal/Copyright of Images of Memorials in the US.

For further information, refer to Commons:Public art and copyrights in the US and the following resources:

For foreign works considered under US law: use {{Not-free-US-FOP}}.

Foreign works from countries that have a relevant freedom of panorama may fall under US law for copyright issues within the US. Under the choice-of-law principle lex loci protectionis U.S. courts might apply U.S. freedom-of-panorama standards in such cases, rather than the standards of the source country. However, in practice it is unsettled whether and how this approach would be applied in real-world U.S. legal cases involving freedom-of-panorama elements.

See {{Not-free-US-FOP}} and Commons:Requests for comment/Non-US Freedom of Panorama under US copyright law. Voir aussi : Category:United States FOP cases

Timbres postaux

Voir aussi : Commons:Timbres postaux/Domaine public

Avant 1978

Domaine public : utilisez {{PD-USGov}}

Title 17 of the United States Code (source : en:United States Postal Service) :

  • public domain if issued before 31 December 1977
À partir de 1978

Protégés par les droits d'auteur

Copyrighted by the United States Postal Service after 1 January 1978 (the date on which the Copyright Act of 1976 went into effect).[10] Written permission is needed[11].

Seuil d'originalité

Shortcuts
COM:TOO US
COM:TOO United States
These images are ✓OK to upload to Commons, because they are below the threshold of originality required for copyright protection.

Despite repeated requests, the U.S. Copyright Office found the Vodafone speechmark (shaded version) ineligible for copyright protection. It can however not be uploaded to Commons because it's a UK logo.

These are X mark.svg Not OK to upload to Commons (unless published under a free license by the copyright holder), because they are above the threshold of originality required for copyright protection.

Références

  1. Pour une définition de ce qu'est une "publication", voir par exemple cette circulaire du Copyright Office, page 3. Cette définition moderne n'est valide qu'à partir de 1978, dans la mesure où le Copyright Act de 1909 ne la donnait pas explicitement, bien que les concepts soient similaires.
  2. Hirtle, Peter (2018-11-06). Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States. Retrieved on 2018-12-10.
  3. Copyright Law of the United States (Title 17) Chapter 1 Subject Matter and Scope of Copyright 101 Definitions. U.S. Copyright Office. Retrieved on 2019-03-14.
  4. Circular 38a: International Copyright Relations of the United States 14. U.S. Copyright Office. Retrieved on 2019-03-14.
  5. Copyright Law of the United States ( (Title 17)). U.S. Copyright Office. Retrieved on 2019-03-14.
  6. Compendium II: Copyright Office Practices, § 1102.08(b)
  7. W:Compendium II: Copyright Office Practices, § 206.02(e)
  8. 630 F.2d 905 (2d Cir, 1980), available at http://www.altlaw.org/v1/cases/551553 and http://cases.justia.com/us-court-of-appeals/F2/630/905/238194/
  9. 536 F.2d 486 (2d Cir.) (en banc), available at http://www.altlaw.org/v1/cases/554959 and http://www.coolcopyright.com/cases/fulltext/batlinsnydertext.htm
  10. http://about.usps.com/corporate-social-responsibility/stamp-collecting.htm#asc8
  11. http://about.usps.com/doing-business/rights-permissions/welcome.htm USPS site
  12. Omega S.A., v. Costco Wholesale Corp., 541 F.3d 982, 983.
  13. Fishman, Stephen () The Public Domain: How to Find & Use Copyright-Free Writings, Music, Art & More, Nolo, p. 183 Retrieved on . ISBN: 1413320287.
Cite error: <ref> tag with name "USCO1" defined in <references> is not used in prior text.

External links

Attention : la description ci-dessus peut être inexacte, incomplète ou obsolète, elle doit donc être traitée avec prudence. Avant de déposer un fichier sur Wikimedia Commons, vous devez vous assurer qu’il peut être utilisé librement. Voir aussi : Commons:Avertissements généraux