Commons:Currency/Europe/de

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This page is a translated version of a page Commons:Currency/Europe and the translation is 100% complete. Changes to the translation template, respectively the source language can be submitted through Commons:Currency/Europe and have to be approved by a translation administrator.
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Währung
AfrikaAmerikaAsienEuropaOzeanienOthers

Diese Seite enthält Übersichten über das Urheberrecht für Währungen in verschiedenen Ländern oder Territorien Europas. Es wird von einzelnen Seitenabschnitten eingebunden und enthält die Regeln für jedes Gebiet. Es enthält Seiten, für die keine Währungsregeln definiert wurden.

Staat in Europa

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COM:CUR Albania

Albanien

Symbol OK.svgOK {{PD-Albania-exempt}} Means of payment are not subject to copyright.[35/2016 Article 12.1ç]

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COM:CUR Andorra

Andorra

Keine Information verfügbar

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COM:CUR Armenia

Armenien

Symbol OK.svgOK Armenian currency is not copyrighted. Monetary items, together with other state symbols, are explicitly excluded from copyright by the 2013 version of the copyright law of Armenia.[2013 Article 4.1(d)]

Please use {{PD-AM-exempt}} for Armenian currency images.

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COM:CUR Azerbaijan

Aserbaidschan

Symbol OK.svgOK Monetary signs, together with other state symbols, are explicitly excluded from copyright by the 2013 Copyright law of Azerbaijan.[636-IVQD/2013 Article 7]

Please use {{PD-AZ-exempt}} for Azerbaijan currency images.

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COM:CUR Belgium

Belgien

Banknotes

X mark.svg Nicht OK Banknotes denominated in Belgian francs issued by the National Bank of Belgium can still be exchanged for an undetermined period of time. The Bank still owns copyrights with regard to the design of the banknotes it has issued, in accordance with the legislation on intellectual property rights. Therefore, these banknotes may not be reproduced without the Bank's permission, subject to the observance of the conditions the Bank has laid down. The same kind of restrictions apply to reproductions of Belgium banknotes as to Euro banknotes.[1]

Coins

Pictogram-voting-question.svg Unknown

X mark.svg Nicht OK. Banknotes and coins of the Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina can only be reproduced with the express permission of the Bank, as defined by the law «Official Gazette of BiH» 1/97, Chapter 5, Article 47.[2]

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COM:CUR Bulgaria

Bulgarien

X mark.svg Nicht OK The Bulgarian National Bank requires written permission for reproduction of Bulgarian banknotes and coins of all emissions in physical or electronic form.[3]

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COM:CUR Denmark

Dänemark

X mark.svg Nicht OK The National Bank of Denmark states:

  • Danmarks Nationalbank regularly receives requests from firms and private individuals about reproduction of banknotes and coins. Any reproduction of money should always be considered carefully since it is a criminal offence to imitate and/or copy money in such a way they can be mistaken for genuine money. Moreover, Danmarks Nationalbank's copyright to the banknote and coin designs must be respected.[4][5]
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COM:CUR Germany

Deutschland

Keine Information verfügbar

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COM:CUR Estonia

Estland

Estonian currency was removed from the public domain in 2000.[6]

However, Bank of Estonia (Eesti Pank), which holds the copyright to the design of the currency, has allowed reproduction under certain terms:

  • Banknotes: As long as reproductions in advertising or illustrations cannot be mistaken for genuine banknotes they can be used without prior authorisation of the Bank of Estonia. Same kind of restrictions apply to reproductions of Estonian kroon banknotes as do to euro banknotes.[7]
  • Coins: Reproduction in a non-relief (drawings, paintings, films) format is authorised, provided they are not detrimental to the image of the Estonian kroon.

Please use {{EEK banknote}} or {{EEK coin}} for Estonian currency images.

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COM:CUR Finland

Finnland

X mark.svg Nicht OK. Some exceptions may apply. The Bank of Finland claims that using images of banknotes and Euro coins is subject to permission. For Euro banknotes and the shared side of Euro coins: see COM:CRT/European Union:Currency. For markka banknotes, permission has been granted given provided certain guidelines are followed, see below. There is a statement from the Finnish Copyright Council (a semi-official body giving advice on copyright) that the use of an image on a markka coin is not subject to copyright and it seems that the statement could apply more broadly.

Decisions by governmental institutions are excepted from copyright. This includes images that are part of the decisions (see e.g. statement 1989:13 of the Finnish Copyright Council, on using the image of a coin), unless those are separate works, which is thought to apply only in unusual cases. In the old law on money there was no mention of copyright. Thus the images on markka banknotes and coins should be in the public domain, and likewise the images on the national side of euro coins.

There might be copyright issues, independent of the copyright by governmental bodies, if a design element is a derived work of a pre-existing work. The last 20 mark and 100 mark banknotes are known to be encumbered by this.

Counterfeit legislation does apply: it is criminal to publish images that are confusingly similar to legal tender (chapter 37, article 7 of the penal code). For instructions about Euro notes and coins see above.

The Bank of Finland claims it has copyright on Finnish (i.e. mark) banknotes and states that illegal reproduction of banknotes is punishable as counterfeit or fraud according to chapter 33 and 36 of the Penal Code (these seem not to apply to good faith use), or as breach of copyright.

Sources:

  • On copyright protection of the common face design of the euro coins.[8]
  • Bank of Finland 2015 guide how to use pictures of the notes.[9]
  • Decision of the European central bank of 19 April 2013 on the denominations, specifications, reproduction, exchange and withdrawal of euro banknotes (recast)[10]
  • The penal code chapter 37, article 7, and chapter 33 and 36.[11]
  • Statement of the Finnish Copyright Council on using an image of the Finnish flag, about coins is summarized.[12]
  • Statement of the Finnish Copyright Council on coats of arms of municipalities, where the applicability of article 9 of the copyright law is discussed.[13]
  • Old law on money.[14]
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COM:CUR France

Frankreich

Symbol OK.svgOK Regarding former French currency (francs), case law states that copyright exists, but is paralysed by the ‘allocation to the general interest and character of public service’ of currency. See, for instance, Cour de Cassation 5 February 2002.[15]

Verwende bitte {{Money-FR}}.

Keine Information verfügbar

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COM:CUR Greece

Griechenland

X mark.svg Nicht OK According to the Greek legislation, neither the Bank of Greece not any other Greek authority is competent to provide you or any other interested party with any kind of permission to use the image of the Greek drachmae banknotes. However, without prejudice to the moral right of the designer recognized under Greek law (Law 2121/1993, as in force), there is no legal provision prohibiting the reproduction of drachmae banknotes.

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COM:CUR Ireland - Éire

Irland

Keine Information verfügbar

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COM:CUR Iceland

Island

Coins designed after December 31, 1948 (current year minus 71 years)

X mark.svg Nicht OK Copyrights for coins designed after December 31, 1948 are held by the Central Bank of Iceland.

Coins designed before January 1, 1949 (current year minus 70 years)

Symbol OK.svgOK Iceland Currency becomes public domain because the Icelandic Copyright law (§49) specifies that images considered to be "works of art" become public domain 70 years after creation. Please use {{Icelandic currency}} for currency designed before January 1, 1949.

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COM:CUR Italy

Italien

Symbol OK.svgOK Regarding former Italian currency (lire), the copyright on the artwork is most likely in the public domain. "Copyright in works created and published under the name and at the expense of the State, shall belong to them".[633/1941 art. 11]

"The duration of the exploitation rights belonging to the State (…) shall be twenty years as from first publication, whatever the form in which publication was effected".[633/1941 art. 29] The last distributed lira (the 500.000 bill) was distributed in the first half of 1997, more than 20 years ago.[16]

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COM:CUR Kazakhstan

Kasachstan

Symbol OK.svgOK Banknotes, together with other state symbols, are explicitly excluded from copyright by article 8 of Copyright law of Kazakhstan.[419/2015 Article 8]

Please use {{PD-KZ-exempt}} for Kazakhstan currency images.

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COM:CUR Croatia

Kroatien

X mark.svg Nicht OK The Croatian National Bank is the holder of all proprietary rights and copyrights on kuna banknotes and kuna and lipa coins, and their reproduction is subject to prior approval of the Croatian National Bank. See: Article 24 of the Act on the Croatian National Bank, Official Gazette 75/2007.

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COM:CUR Latvia

Lettland

Under the Copyright Law of 2000 (as amended up to June 14, 2017),

  • The Bank of Latvia holds the copyright of lat banknotes. The Bank of Latvia copyright does not affect the right of the author of the images used on the banknotes to be recognised as the author thereof.[2000-2017 Sec.17'(1)]
  • It is prohibited to reproduce banknotes in any way, except in the case, where the Bank of Latvia, the European Central Bank, the central bank or state which has emitted such banknotes has provided written permission or the requirements of the Bank of Latvia, the European Central Bank or the relevant state for the reproduction of banknotes. Restrictions on the economic rights of authors shall not apply to banknotes.[2000-2017 Sec.17'(2)]

Copyright for euro banknotes and common side of euro coins is determined by the European Central Bank (see COM:CRT/European Union:Currency), but copyright of national sides of euro coins is determined by national legislation. The Bank of Latvia suggests that the Regulation for Reproducing the Lats Banknotes and Coins must be met to reproduce lats, and ECB Reproduction rules must be met to reproduce euros. All photographic reproductions of banknotes and coins must comply those criteria. Prior to the amendments, which came into force in May 1 2004, currency was public domain in Latvia per both the unamended 2000 law and 1993 law. Therefore any coins or banknotes that were no longer in circulation by 2004 date are public domain.

Please use {{Latvian coins}} for relevant Latvian coins images and {{Latvian banknote}} for images of Latvian banknotes, as {{PD-LV}} does not apply to Latvian currency.

Symbol OK.svgOK According to the Law of May 19, 1999, on Copyright and Neighboring Rights, "Copyright protection shall not subsist in .. means of payment".[1999-2006 Art.5]

Please use {{PD-Liechtenstein-official}} for the corresponding currency images.

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COM:CUR Lithuania

Litauen

Symbol OK.svgOK The designs of Lithuanian currency are not copyrighted.

Monetary items, together with other state symbols, are explicitly excluded from copyright by article 5 of Copyright law of Lithuania. Please use {{PD-LT-exempt}} for Lithuanian currency images.

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COM:CUR Luxembourg

Luxemburg

Keine Information verfügbar

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COM:CUR Malta

Malta

X mark.svg Nicht OK There is no copyright exception for Maltese currency or governmental work (see articles 2(1)a, 3(1)a and 6(1) of the Maltese copyright act]). The Bank of Malta makes currency images available for use, but their disclaimer forbids any kind of derivative work, thus making these files impossible to host on Commons.

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COM:CUR Moldova

Republik Moldau

Keine Information verfügbar

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COM:CUR Monaco

Monaco

Keine Information verfügbar

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COM:CUR Montenegro

Montenegro

Keine Information verfügbar

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COM:CUR Netherlands

Niederlande

X mark.svg Nicht OK: Guilder banknotes are subject to copyright 70 years after the first publication. De Nederlandsche Bank has been contacted and they state that the introduction of the Euro does not change this.

Pictogram-voting-question.svg Question Guilder coins may be OK to reproduce, since they are subject to Article 15b of the Auteurswet. Works published by or on behalf of the government can be reproduced, unless copyright has been reserved explicitly by the government at the time of publication. However, even if no reservation was made, only the author has the right to have those works published in a collection.[17]

X mark.svg Not OK National sides of the Euro coins are subject to copyright as well. Although they are subject to Article 15b, an express reservation of rights has been made by the Dutch government.

X mark.svg Nicht OK According to the law for the National Bank of Macedonia, for each reproduction of the banknotes and coins that are in official use in Macedonia there should be an official written permission from the Bank itself. The Council of the Bank decides the ways and the procedures for publication of photos of the currency.[18]

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COM:CUR Norway

Norwegen

X mark.svg Nicht OK Norwegian currency is protected by copyright. The Bank of Norway, which administers the rights of the artists, states: "Use of illustrations of Norwegian coins and banknotes must not violate the rights of the authors".

This means, among other things, that the original pattern may not be manipulated. As they are non-derivative, images of Norwegian currency may not be used unless it is in the public domain due to age (70 years after end of year of author's death). When using images of Norwegian currency under fair use rules on other projects, see the Norges Bank Guidelines for the use of Norwegian banknote and coin designs for other conditions that apply, such as size regulations, maximum resolution etc.[19]

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COM:CUR Austria

Österreich

X mark.svg Nicht OK

  • It is the (apparently unanimous) view in treatises and law review articles on Austrian copyright law that bank notes and coins do not constitute official works under s 7 of the Austrian Copyright Act and are therefore not freely usable.[20]

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COM:CUR Poland

Polen

X mark.svg Nicht OK Polish National Bank require written permission for reproduction of Polish banknotes and coins of all emissions in physical or electronic form.[21]

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COM:CUR Portugal

Portugal

Keine Information verfügbar

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COM:CUR Romania

Rumänien

Symbol OK.svgOK Article 9(d) of the Romanian copyright law of March 14, 1996 excludes means of payment from copyright.

Use {{PD-money-Romania}} to tag reproductions of Romanian currency.

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COM:CUR Russia

Russland

Symbol OK.svgOK Russian currency is not copyrighted. Monetary items, together with other state symbols, are explicitly excluded from copyright by article 1259(6) of Part IV of the Civil Code of Russia (which covers intellectual property rights). Drafts for such items, however, are copyrighted by their authors. When a public body adopts such a draft and turns it into an official symbol, the resulting official symbol is not copyrighted and may be reproduced without mentioning the original author(s) of the draft. (See article 1264.)

Monetary items were already excluded from copyright in the 1993 legislation, which was in effect until the end of 2007. See article 8 of the 1993 law, as amended in 2004.

Please use {{PD-RU-exempt}} for images of Russian currency.

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COM:CUR San Marino

San Marino

Keine Information verfügbar

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COM:CUR Sweden

Schweden

X mark.svg Not OK Currency may be protected by copyright in Sweden. Riksbanken advices that the original authors of the works used on banknotes and coins may decide to sue if they feel their moral rights have been violated (which may mean the economic rights are not an issue for Swedish currency).

There were undecided lawsuits on the matter at the time of the deletion request. Riksbanken itself seems not to have any claims. On the issue of counterfeit Riksbanken cites the Euro instructions as probably sufficient safeguards.[22]

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COM:CUR Switzerland

Schweiz

Symbol OK.svgOK: Currency is not covered by copyright in Switzerland. Article 5(1)(b) of the Swiss copyright law from 1993 on works not subject to copyright explicitly excludes monetary items from copyright.

Reproduction of banknotes that may be confused with genuine bills is prohibited by article 243 of the Swiss Penal Code.[23] The Swiss National Bank has issued guidelines on how to reproduce banknotes in a way they believe are permissible.[24] Printing "Specimen" across the image and not reproducing the bills at their true size or in their true colors are recommendations.

{{PD-Switzerland-official}} can be used to tag images of Swiss currency.

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COM:CUR Serbia

Serbien

Symbol OK.svgOK template:PD-SerbiaGov

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COM:CUR Slovakia

Slowakei

X mark.svg Nicht OK. The Slovak National Bank does not provide information about copyright on images of currency.[25]

Some third parties, such as shops, have been granted permission to deal with Slovakian currency.[26]

Slovakia has used the Euro since 2009. See COM:CRT/European Union Currency for more information.

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COM:CUR Slovenia

Slowenien

X mark.svg Nicht OK: The copyright on the design of the tolar and other obsolete currencies as well as the national sides of the euro coins is held by the Bank of Slovenia.

Slovenia has used the Euro since 1 January 2007. See COM:CRT/European Union: Currency for more information.

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COM:CUR Spain

Spanien

Symbol OK.svgOK: Regarding former Spanish national currency, the pesetas, there is "no significant jurisprudence on the application of copyright to banknotes" per 1999 Report on the Legal Protection of Banknotes in the European Union Member States. Additionally, there is "no use of the copyright symbol: © on Spanish banknotes". The rules for reproduction of pesetas only have provisions for advertising purposes. Reproductions for teaching materials in particular do not require the authorisation of the Bank of Spain.[27]

{{PD-SpanishGov-money}} can be used to tag images of Spanish pesetas.

Spain has used the Euro since 1 January 2002. See COM:CRT/European Union:Currency for Euro banknotes and the shared side of Euro coins.

X mark.svg Nicht OK for the national side of Euro coins.

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COM:CUR Česko

Tschechien

Keine Information verfügbar

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COM:CUR Turkey

Türkei

Symbol OK.svgOK: Electronic reproductions of banknotes and coins are permitted by the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey, under the following conditions:[28][29]

  • They must not exceed 72 dpi (dots per inch); and
  • The expression “ÖRNEKTIR GEÇMEZ” or “SPECIMEN” must be printed diagonally across the reproduction in Arial font or a font similar to Arial font. The length of the expression “ÖRNEKTIR GEÇMEZ” or “SPECIMEN” must be at least 75 percent of the length of reproduction, and the height thereof must be at least 15 percent of the width of the reproduction. The characters must be written in a non-transparent (opaque) color contrasting with the dominant color of the respective banknote. In two-sided reproductions, the abovementioned expression must be printed on both sides.
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COM:CUR Ukraine

Ukraine

Symbol OK.svgOK Ukrainian currency is not copyrighted. Monetary items, together with other state symbols, are explicitly excluded from copyright by article 10 of Copyright law of Ukraine.[3792-XII/199-2017 Art.10(e)]

Please use {{PD-UA-exempt}} for Ukrainian currency images.

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COM:CUR Hungary

Ungarn

Symbol OK.svgOK The Hungarian National Bank (MNB) issued an exemplary decree, which permits reproductions of all forms of Hungarian banknotes and coins in a way which they cannot be misidentified as original, with the most important factor being the usage of the same material as the original. This essentially lifts the counterfeiting restriction from digital copies, without limits (since anyone in possession of a banknote could create a high-quality digital reproduction at ease).[30][31][32][33]

Moreover, they have released a license to allow free usage (unless restricted by the aforementioned anti-counterfeiting decree) of the banknotes they possess direct copyright.[34]This covers most banknotes created since 1983. For all other notes and coins you should still have to locate the author and ask specifically for license, which is not impossible, but tough. In most cases the Magyar Nemzeti Bank is the copyright holder.

The {{HU banknote}} template should be used on recent banknotes. The copyright status for designs of coins should be researched individually. Out-of-copyright banknotes and coins can use {{PD-old}}.

Keine Information verfügbar

X mark.svg Nicht OK UK banknotes are fully protected by copyright. The Bank of England owns the copyright on its banknotes, and all banknotes carry a © notice.[35]

No images of these banknotes may be uploaded to Commons. Those that are will be deleted.

Coin designs are copyrighted by the Royal Mint.[36]

Publishing images of coins is not prohibited by the Forgery and Counterfeiting Act 1981.[37] Its Section 19 refers only to "imitation British coins", defined as "any thing which resembles a British coin in shape, size and the substance of which it is made". The implication here is that images cannot resemble the substance of the real coins. However, since such images may only be published with the official consent of the Royal Mint, none of these images is allowed on Commons.

Both the Bank of England's copyright on its banknotes and the Royal Mint's copyright on coin designs are instances of Crown Copyright. Published photographs or engravings subject to Crown Copyright which were created more than 50 years ago are now in the public domain: use {{PD-UKGov}}. Images of British coins and banknotes which were minted and circulated more than 50 years ago are permissible provided that the author of the work containing the coins or banknotes is willing to release his / her copyright to the reuse of the image, which is a separate copyright concern and must also be addressed.

Scottish and Northern Irish banks will retain their own copyright on banknotes independent of the Bank of England; however, in the United Kingdom, it is a criminal offence under s18(1) of the Forgery and Counterfeiting Act 1981 "to reproduce on any substance whatsoever, and whether or not on the correct scale, any British currency note or any part of a British currency note."[37] The term "British currency note" is defined as something which "has been lawfully issued in England and Wales, Scotland or Northern Ireland", "is or has been customarily used as money in the country where it was issued", and is payable on demand" - this includes Scottish and Northern Irish banknotes, as well as those issued by the Bank of England.

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COM:CUR Belarus

Weißrussland

Symbol OK.svgOK Belarusian currency is not copyrighted. Monetary items, together with other state symbols, are explicitly excluded from copyright.[262-Z/2011 Art.7(2)]

Please use {{PD-BY-exempt}} for Belarus currency images.

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COM:CUR Cyprus

Republik Zypern

Keine Information verfügbar

Spezifischer Status

Keine Information verfügbar

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COM:CUR Faroe Islands

Färöer

Keine Information verfügbar

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COM:CUR Gibraltar

Gibraltar

Keine Information verfügbar

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COM:CUR Guernsey

Guernsey

Keine Information verfügbar

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COM:CUR Jersey

Jersey

Keine Information verfügbar

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COM:CUR Isle of Man

Isle of Man

Keine Information verfügbar

Begrenzte Anerkennung

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COM:CUR Abkhazia

Abchasien

Keine Information verfügbar

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COM:CUR Kosovo

Kosovo

Keine Information verfügbar

Commons:Copyright rules by territory/Republic of Artsakh

Keine Information verfügbar

Keine Information verfügbar

Keine Information verfügbar

teilweise in Europa

Währung
AfrikaAmerikaAsienEuropaOzeanienOthers
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  16. Seduta della Commissione V BILANCIO, TESORO E PROGRAMMAZIONE (1996-09-18). Retrieved on 9 December 2017.
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  20. See MM Walter, "Anmerkung zu OGH 22.11.1994, 4 Ob 1105/94 – 'Bundeshymne'" (1995) 13 Medien und Recht international 186 ("Es kann mE aber nicht fraglich sein, daß ein Werk durch eine solche Veröffentlichung oder Aufnahme in ein amtliches Werk nicht seinen urheberrechtlichen Schutz verliert […] Dies gilt insbesondere für Briefmarken, Münzen oder Banknoten; sie werden durch die Veröffentlichung in Amtsblättern (Bundesgesetzblatt, Verordnungsblatt etc), in denen ihre Herausgabe (mit Verordnung) angeordnet wird, nicht zu amtlichen Werken."); MM Walter, Österreichisches Urheberrecht (Medien und Recht 2008) 311 ("Was schließlich die (grafische) Gestaltung von Münzen und Banknoten anlangt, können diese urheberrechtlich geschützt sein. Auch sie sind schon deshalb keine amtlichen Werke, weil sie nicht ausschließlich oder vorwiegend zum amtlichen Gebrauch bestimmt sind. Davon abgesehen handelt es sich auch nicht um Sprachwerke und in der Regel auch nicht um Werke wissenschaftlicher oder belehrender Art im Sinn des § 2 Z 3 UrhG."); M Ciresa, "§ 7" in M Ciresa (ed), Österreichisches Urheberrecht (Orac R 19 2017) para 8 ("Lehr- und Prüfungsmaterialien von Universitäten und Hochschulen sind ebenfalls keine amtlichen Werke […] Dies gilt auch für die grafische Gestaltung von Münzen und Banknoten"); M Röttinger, "Das Urheberrecht an den Euro-Münzen und Euro-Banknoten" (2000) 11 ecolex 654, 655 ("Aufgrund der klaren und engen Formulierung von § 7 öUrhG stellt sich gar nicht ernsthaft die Frage, ob es sich bei Münzen bzw Münzbildern um freie Werke ('amtliche Werke') handelt.").
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  30. 2/2010. (I. 28.) MNB rendelet
  31. 3/2010. (I. 28.) MNB rendelet
  32. summary of the rules released by MNB in Hungarian
  33. Information on Money Reproductions (in English). Magyar Nemzeti Bank. Retrieved on 2019-03-26.
  34. Szerzői jogi hozzájáruló nyilatkozat engedély nélkül készíthető forintbankjegy-utánzatokhoz (in Hungarian). Magyar Nemzeti Bank. Retrieved on 2019-03-26.
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