共享资源:货币

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This page is a translated version of a page Commons:Currency and the translation is 67% complete. Changes to the translation template, respectively the source language can be submitted through Commons:Currency and have to be approved by a translation administrator.
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Currency is one of the most widely-available artifacts — practically anyone in a country using a certain currency can digitize it using a scanner. It's also highly informational, often pertinent not only to the currency itself, but to the subjects that it depicts, such as national symbols. This makes it a good candidate for inclusion in Wikimedia Commons. However, like other government works, the copyright status of currency designs varies from nation to nation and sometimes even between currencies in the same nation. Moreover, the use of reproductions of currency is carefully controlled by counterfeiting law. This page documents licensing requirements, tags, and printing requirements of various kinds of currency around the world and links the relevant categories on Wikimedia Commons.[1]

重点

  • A photograph of a coin has two requirements before it can be included. The first is that the design of the coin itself is not copyrighted, or permission has been obtained. The second is that the photographer agrees to license it under a free licence. A picture of a 3D-object creates in most jurisdictions a new copyright on the picture, something that is not the case when photographing pure 2D-objects. See When to use the PD-Art tag for more information.
  • Items of currency should not be included in photos for the purpose of indicating the scale or size of an object; a ruler or scale marking should be used instead. See the {{NoCoins}} tag for details.
  • With respect to similar images of currency, please respect others' work and avoid overwriting existing files (those uploaded by other users). In general, it is better to upload a new file, please refer to Commons:Overwriting existing files.
  • The {{Counterfeiting}} tag is used to describe the terms under which an image on Commons may be printed without violating criminal counterfeiting law. This is particularly important for projects such as the print version of Wikipedia and other derivative print uses, which would wish to avoid inadvertently violating these laws. See the template page for an example of how this message is displayed.

Contents

国家

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Albania

阿尔巴尼亚

Symbol OK.svg可以 {{PD-Albania-exempt}} Means of payment are not subject to copyright.[35/2016 Article 12.1ç]

X mark.svg 不可以 for the currency issued by the current Bank of Algeria. According to the Algerian 2003 copyright act,

  • State works, legally made available for public use in non-profit generating purposes, may be freely used subject to maintaining the work wellbeing and highlighting its source. State works, within the context of this article, shall mean works produced and published by various state institutions, local groups and public establishments of administrative nature.[Law of 2003, Art.9]

The non-commercial restriction that makes both coins or banknotes incompatible with Commons licensing policy. This does not apply to the banknotes and coins issued by the Banque de l'Algérie, the banking authority during French rule (until 1958), because it was not an official body of the current Algerian state. Copyright status of this currency is currently undetermined.

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Angola

安哥拉

X mark.svg 不可以 No exception for currency in the Angolan copyright law.

X mark.svg 不可以. There is no exception for currency in the Argentine copyright law.

Symbol OK.svg可以 Armenian currency is not copyrighted. Monetary items, together with other state symbols, are explicitly excluded from copyright by the 2013 version of the copyright law of Armenia.[2013 Article 4.1(d)]

Please use {{PD-AM-exempt}} for Armenian currency images.

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Aruba

阿魯巴

无可用信息

X mark.svg 不可以 for coins or banknotes designed on or after 1 May 1969.

Symbol OK.svg可以 for coins or banknotes designed before 1 May 1969, but under the following conditions: Derivative works of images of banknotes are expressly forbidden. Low resolution images of banknotes are allowed for editorial or educational purposes, as long as only one side of a bank note is featured. See website for details of exact size requirements for images.

Designs from prior to 1 May 1969 are in the public domain, and should use the tag {{PD-Australia-currency}}.

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Austria

奥地利

X mark.svg 不可以

  • It is the (apparently unanimous) view in treatises and law review articles on Austrian copyright law that bank notes and coins do not constitute official works under s 7 of the Austrian Copyright Act and are therefore not freely usable.[2]

无可用信息

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Bahamas

巴哈马

X mark.svg 不可以. Images of banknotes and coins denominated in Bahamian dollars are subject to copyright protection and are property of the Central Bank of The Bahamas. They cannot be reproduced or published without the expressed consent of the Central Bank of The Bahamas.[3]

Symbol OK.svg可以 Belarusian currency is not copyrighted. Monetary items, together with other state symbols, are explicitly excluded from copyright.[262-Z/2011 Art.7(2)]

Please use {{PD-BY-exempt}} for Belarus currency images.

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Belgium

比利时

Banknotes

X mark.svg 不可以 Banknotes denominated in Belgian francs issued by the National Bank of Belgium can still be exchanged for an undetermined period of time. The Bank still owns copyrights with regard to the design of the banknotes it has issued, in accordance with the legislation on intellectual property rights. Therefore, these banknotes may not be reproduced without the Bank's permission, subject to the observance of the conditions the Bank has laid down. The same kind of restrictions apply to reproductions of Belgium banknotes as to Euro banknotes.[4]

Coins

Pictogram-voting-question.svg Unknown

Pictogram-voting-question.svg Unclear According to Article 8 of the Law No.1322 of April 13, 1992, on Copyright: "Only a natural person may be an author; however, the State, public law bodies and moral or legal entities may exercise copyright as derived owners, in accordance with the norms of this Law".[1322/1992 Article 8]

Article 5(i) of Law No. 1322 defines "derived work" as: "Any work arising from the adaptation, translation or other transformation of an original work, provided that it constitutes a separate creation".[1322/1992 Article 5(i)]

The copyright law has provisions giving copyright to the State in national folklore and when Bolivian nationals die without heirs, so it is not clear if the government's right to hold copyright extends to banknotes.

X mark.svg 不可以. Banknotes and coins of the Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina can only be reproduced with the express permission of the Bank, as defined by the law «Official Gazette of BiH» 1/97, Chapter 5, Article 47.[5]

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Brazil

巴西

Symbol OK.svg可以

Under the Copyright Law, all works subsidized by the Union are in the public domain.[9.610/2013 Article 6] According to the Industrial Property Law of 1996,

  • The following are not registrable as marks: ... reproductions or imitations of titles, policies, coins, and paper currency of the Union, the States, the Federal District, the Territories, the Municipalities, or of a country.[9.279/1996 Art.124(XIV)]
  • However, the law prohibits reproducing or imitating, in whole or in part and in a way that may induce error or confusion, coats of arms, escutcheons, or national, foreign or international official badges, without the necessary authorization, in a mark, title of establishment, trade name, insignia or advertising sign, or using such reproductions or imitations for economic purposes.[9.279/1996 Art.191]

Please use: {{Money-BR}}.

X mark.svg 不可以 The Bulgarian National Bank requires written permission for reproduction of Bulgarian banknotes and coins of all emissions in physical or electronic form.[6]

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Canada

加拿大

无可用信息

X mark.svg 不可以 The Cayman Islands Money Authority holds the copyright on its currency notes. It permits reproductions with prior consultation with the Authority and if the reproduction is not on products for sale. Given the copyright status and the non-commercial use clause, their designs are not appropriate for use on Commons.[7]

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Chile

智利

X mark.svg 不可以 The Central Bank of Chile holds the intellectual property for the designs of banknotes and coins in circulation, and those designs are registered with the Department of Intellectual Property (N° 115.594). This is expressed in Sections 28 of the Constitutional Organic Act. Publication or reproduction of such designs without the consent of the Bank is prohibited, and subject to criminal and civil sanctions.[17.336/2014 Art.78][8]

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR China

中国

X mark.svg 不可以。The use of Renminbi designs is subject to approval. According to the Measures for the Administration of the Use of Renminbi Designs (人民币图样使用管理办法):

  • Article 4 The use of Renminbi designs shall be put under the examination and approval system of one approval for one matter. The People's Bank of China shall be the examination and approval organ for the use of Renminbi designs, and all the branches of the People's Bank of China shall be the organs that accept applications for the use of Renminbi designs.

X mark.svg 不可以 within 70 years of publication of the design.

Both banknotes and coins are produced by the Banco de la República, the Colombian central bank. They claim all rights reserved on their website in the footer of all pages, and in a legal disclaimer (Spanish: [1]) which asserts intellectual property over the website's designs and trademarks. There is no further information provided about the legality of photographic reproductions or similar. Colombia's copyright law has no exemption for government works, meaning that the Bank is permitted to claim copyright, for up to 70 years from the date of publication. The law makes no exemptions for banknotes or currency either.

  • X mark.svg 不可以 Currency less than 25 years old.
  • Pictogram-voting-question.svg Uncertain Currency between 25 and 50 years old.
  • Symbol OK.svg可以 Currency more than 50 years old.

The Central Bank of Costa Rica (Banco Central de Costa Rica) is the "copyright holder of Costa Rica’s currency design -protected under Law No. 6683"[9] According to Costa Rica's intellectual property law (Law 6683, as amended by Law 8834 of 3 May 2010):

  • The State, the municipal councils and the official corporations shall enjoy the protection of this Law, but, as far as economic rights are concerned, only for 25 years from the date of publication of the work, except in the case of public bodies whose purpose is the exercise of such rights as their normal activity, in which case protection shall be for 50 years.[6683/2010 Article 63]

All images of Costa Rican currency must use {{Currency}}, as the Central Bank of Costa Rica has placed several Non-copyright restrictions on use of images of Costa Rican currency.[9]

X mark.svg 不可以 The Croatian National Bank is the holder of all proprietary rights and copyrights on kuna banknotes and kuna and lipa coins, and their reproduction is subject to prior approval of the Croatian National Bank. See: Article 24 of the Act on the Croatian National Bank, Official Gazette 75/2007.

Symbol OK.svg可以 Common legal tender of Czechia is not subject to copyright as there is public interest in their exclusion from copyright protection.[121/2000–2006 Art.3(a)]

This does not necessarily apply to special-issue coins, such as precious-metal coins, commemorative coins, special editions of coins for collectors, etc.

Decree No. 274/2011 Coll. of 5 September 2011, consolidated as of 1 January 2017, defines the terms and conditions under which it is possible to reproduce banknotes and coins and to produce objects imitating them:[10] For intangible reproductions of banknotes, it is required that their resolution not exceed 72 dots per inch and that they are marked with the word “specimen” printed diagonally in an opaque colour and in a layer that cannot be separated from the image of the banknote, with the length of the word being at least 75% of the longer side of the banknote and the height being at least 15% of the shorter side of the banknote (or with another word of the same dimensions and similar meaning). Intangible images of coins may always be produced. Tangible reproductions of banknotes and images have different conditions.

Please use {{Money-CZ}} for Czech currency images.

✓OK There is a legal succession of "Česká národní banka" (ČNB) for all precursor institutes ("Státní banka československá" (SBCS), "Národní banka Československá" until 1919). Therefore, {{Money-CZ}} can be applied for Czechoslovakian currency of former times and money of the first Slovakian Republic too.

X mark.svg 不可以 The country joined the Berne Convention in 1963. The World Intellectual Property Organisation does not list any copyright-related laws prior to 1986. Ordinance-Law No. 86-033 of April 5, 1986 on the Protection of Copyright and Neighboring Rights states:

  • Official acts of the authority shall not give rise to any copyright. Any other literary, artistic, or scientific publications produced by the authorities shall generate copyright for the authorities.[86-033/1986 Article 7]
文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Denmark

丹麦

X mark.svg 不可以 The National Bank of Denmark states:

  • Danmarks Nationalbank regularly receives requests from firms and private individuals about reproduction of banknotes and coins. Any reproduction of money should always be considered carefully since it is a criminal offence to imitate and/or copy money in such a way they can be mistaken for genuine money. Moreover, Danmarks Nationalbank's copyright to the banknote and coin designs must be respected.[11][12]

X mark.svg 不可以 There is no exception for currency under Dominican copyright law. Under Law No. 65-00 of 21 August 2000,

  • Rights in works created by public employees or officials in the performance of the duties inherent in their position shall be presumed to be assigned to the public organization in question.[65-00/2000 Article 28]
文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Egypt

埃及

Symbol OK.svg可以 According to Law No. 82 of 2002 on the Protection of Intellectual Property Rights: "[Copyright protection] shall not cover the following: Official documents, whatever their source or target language, such as laws, regulations, resolutions and decisions, international conventions, court decisions, award of arbitrators and decisions of administrative committees having judicial competence."[82/2002 Article 141]

Estonian currency was removed from the public domain in 2000.[13]

However, Bank of Estonia (Eesti Pank), which holds the copyright to the design of the currency, has allowed reproduction under certain terms:

  • Banknotes: As long as reproductions in advertising or illustrations cannot be mistaken for genuine banknotes they can be used without prior authorisation of the Bank of Estonia. Same kind of restrictions apply to reproductions of Estonian kroon banknotes as do to euro banknotes.[14]
  • Coins: Reproduction in a non-relief (drawings, paintings, films) format is authorised, provided they are not detrimental to the image of the Estonian kroon.

Please use {{EEK banknote}} or {{EEK coin}} for Estonian currency images.

X mark.svg 不可以. Ethiopia's copyright law excepts "any official text of a legislative, administrative or of legal nature, as well as official translations thereof".[410/2004 Article 5(b)] The term "official text" does not seem to include banknotes. Note that, as of May 2016, Ethiopia is not a party to the Berne Convention, so Ethiopian banknotes are not protected by US copyright law. However, Commons' policy is that works must be free in both the US and the source country.

Euro banknotes

Symbol OK.svg可以 Under conditions. (use {{Money-EU}} for images of Euro banknotes). The rules for reproducing Euro banknotes were published in the Official Journal of the European Union, L078 of 25 March 2003.[15] In summary, Euro banknotes are copyright of the European Central Bank, and the following rules apply to one-sided reproductions, such as pictures on websites:

  • The size of the reproduction must be at least 125% or not greater than 75% of both the length and width of the banknote.
  • Reproductions depicting a part of either side of the note should be smaller than one-third of the original side.
  • On intangible reproductions (e.g. websites), the word SPECIMEN must be printed diagonally across the reproduction in Arial font or similar, in a non-transparent color contrasting with the dominant color of the note. The length of the word must be at least 75% of the length of the reproduction, and the height of the word must be at least 15% of the width of the reproduction. The resolution of the image must not exceed 72 dots per inch (dpi).
Euro coins

Symbol OK.svg可以 Common side, under conditions. Copyright of the common side of the coin lies with the Commission of the European Union, which has determined that reproduction in a format without relief (e.g. drawing, pictures), provided that they are not detrimental to the image of the euro, is authorized.[16][17][18] A deletion request was made in 2010 regarding them (Commons:Deletion requests/Template:Euro coin common face 2) and the conclusion was to keep them but they were deleted regardless. They were reinstated after a deletion review.

Reproduction of all or part of the common face design of the euro coins is authorised without recourse to a specific procedure in the following cases ... for photographs, drawings, paintings, films, images, and generally reproductions in flat format (without relief) provided they are in faithful likeness and are used in ways which do not damage or detract from the image of the euro.[18]

X mark.svg 不可以 National side may not be acceptable. Copyright of the national side of the coin is determined by the individual Member States in accordance with national legislation. It is copyrighted in some of them. For more information see Copyright of the national sides of euro circulation coins (ec.Europa.eu: XLSX format file).[19]

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Finland

芬兰

X mark.svg 不可以. Some exceptions may apply. The Bank of Finland claims that using images of banknotes and Euro coins is subject to permission. For Euro banknotes and the shared side of Euro coins: see COM:CRT/European Union:Currency. For markka banknotes, permission has been granted given provided certain guidelines are followed, see below. There is a statement from the Finnish Copyright Council (a semi-official body giving advice on copyright) that the use of an image on a markka coin is not subject to copyright and it seems that the statement could apply more broadly.

Decisions by governmental institutions are excepted from copyright. This includes images that are part of the decisions (see e.g. statement 1989:13 of the Finnish Copyright Council, on using the image of a coin), unless those are separate works, which is thought to apply only in unusual cases. In the old law on money there was no mention of copyright. Thus the images on markka banknotes and coins should be in the public domain, and likewise the images on the national side of euro coins.

There might be copyright issues, independent of the copyright by governmental bodies, if a design element is a derived work of a pre-existing work. The last 20 mark and 100 mark banknotes are known to be encumbered by this.

Counterfeit legislation does apply: it is criminal to publish images that are confusingly similar to legal tender (chapter 37, article 7 of the penal code). For instructions about Euro notes and coins see above.

The Bank of Finland claims it has copyright on Finnish (i.e. mark) banknotes and states that illegal reproduction of banknotes is punishable as counterfeit or fraud according to chapter 33 and 36 of the Penal Code (these seem not to apply to good faith use), or as breach of copyright.

Sources:

  • On copyright protection of the common face design of the euro coins.[20]
  • Bank of Finland 2015 guide how to use pictures of the notes.[21]
  • Decision of the European central bank of 19 April 2013 on the denominations, specifications, reproduction, exchange and withdrawal of euro banknotes (recast)[22]
  • The penal code chapter 37, article 7, and chapter 33 and 36.[23]
  • Statement of the Finnish Copyright Council on using an image of the Finnish flag, about coins is summarized.[24]
  • Statement of the Finnish Copyright Council on coats of arms of municipalities, where the applicability of article 9 of the copyright law is discussed.[25]
  • Old law on money.[26]
文本嵌入自
COM:CUR France

法国

Symbol OK.svg可以 Regarding former French currency (francs), case law states that copyright exists, but is paralysed by the ‘allocation to the general interest and character of public service’ of currency. See, for instance, Cour de Cassation 5 February 2002.[27]

Please use {{Money-FR}}.

Symbol OK.svg可以 Georgian currency is not copyrighted. Monetary items, together with other state symbols, are explicitly excluded from copyright by article 8 of Copyright law of Georgia.[2112-IIS/2017 Article 8]

Please use {{PD-GE-exempt}} for Georgian currency images.

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Germany

德国

X mark.svg 不可以 except for Deutsche Mark bank notes.

  • At present many Commons images of German coins and banknotes use {{PD-GermanGov}}, but this template relies on § 5 Abs. 1 UrhG, which has recently been declared by a low German court (Landgericht) to apply only to text, not images. See discussion at Commons:Village_pump/Copyright/Archive/2012/07#German_currency.
  • Deutsche Bundesbank has confirmed public domain for German DM-banknotes 1949-2001, which is, however, a permission for simple usage only and not solely sufficient) towards Wikipedia.[28]
  • According to the coinciding German copyright literature, works like bank notes, coins and stamps are not to be considered works by the government and are not free.[29] This, however, does not influence above-mentioned permission by Deutsche Bundesbank affecting Deutsche Mark bills (not coins!).
文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Greece

希腊

X mark.svg 不可以 According to the Greek legislation, neither the Bank of Greece not any other Greek authority is competent to provide you or any other interested party with any kind of permission to use the image of the Greek drachmae banknotes. However, without prejudice to the moral right of the designer recognized under Greek law (Law 2121/1993, as in force), there is no legal provision prohibiting the reproduction of drachmae banknotes.

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Hong Kong

香港

无可用信息

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Hungary

匈牙利

Symbol OK.svg可以 The Hungarian National Bank (MNB) issued an exemplary decree, which permits reproductions of all forms of Hungarian banknotes and coins in a way which they cannot be misidentified as original, with the most important factor being the usage of the same material as the original. This essentially lifts the counterfeiting restriction from digital copies, without limits (since anyone in possession of a banknote could create a high-quality digital reproduction at ease).[30][31][32][33]

Moreover, they have released a license to allow free usage (unless restricted by the aforementioned anti-counterfeiting decree) of the banknotes they possess direct copyright.[34]This covers most banknotes created since 1983. For all other notes and coins you should still have to locate the author and ask specifically for license, which is not impossible, but tough. In most cases the Magyar Nemzeti Bank is the copyright holder.

The {{HU banknote}} template should be used on recent banknotes. The copyright status for designs of coins should be researched individually. Out-of-copyright banknotes and coins can use {{PD-old}}.

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Iceland

冰岛

Coins designed after December 31, 1948 (current year minus 71 years)

X mark.svg 不可以 Copyrights for coins designed after December 31, 1948 are held by the Central Bank of Iceland.

Coins designed before January 1, 1949 (current year minus 70 years)

Symbol OK.svg可以 Iceland Currency becomes public domain because the Icelandic Copyright law (§49) specifies that images considered to be "works of art" become public domain 70 years after creation. Please use {{Icelandic currency}} for currency designed before January 1, 1949.

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR India

印度

✓OK Indian currency should now be OK. Please use {{GODL-India}}.

✓OK Article 14b of the Indonesian Copyright Act No. 19, 2002 states that "publication and/or reproduction of anything which is published by or on behalf of the Government, except if the Copyright is declared to be protected by law or regulation or by a statement on the work itself or at the time the work is published" is not an "infringement of Copyright". Indonesian banknotes are issued by Bank Indonesia and its predecessor Bank Negara Indonesia, which from 1953 to 1968 was "a corporate body belonging to the state" (Act No.11 of 1953), from 1968 to 1999 "belongs to the state" (Act No.17 of 1968) and from 1999 onwards is "a state institution:, and they thus fall under the aegis of Article 14b.[35]

Please use {{PD-IDGov}} for images of Indonesian currency.

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Iran

伊朗

  • X mark.svg 不可以 For coins and banknotes designed after 21 March 1988 (current year minus 31 years)

According to the 1970 Law for the Protection of Authors, Composers and Artist Rights, Iran banknotes and coins designed after 21 March 1988 are copyrighted and their copyright belong to Central Bank of Iran.

  • Symbol OK.svg可以 For coins and banknotes designed before 22 March 1989 (current year minus 30 years)

According to the 1970 Law for the Protection of Authors, Composers and Artist Rights, Iran banknotes and coins designed before 22 March 1989 become public domain after 30 years since, "In the following cases images fall into public domain after 30 years from the date of publication or public presentation (Article 16): In cases where the work belongs to a legal personality or rights are transferred to a legal personality." Iran banknotes and coins are copyrighted and their copyright belong to Central Bank of Iran which is a "legal personality".

Please use {{Iranian currency}} for banknotes/coinage designed before 22 March 1989.

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Iraq

伊拉克

无可用信息

X mark.svg 不可以 Irish money is copyrighted. According to the Copyright Law of 2000, Chapter 24: Copyright: Legal Tender; Irish coins and bank notes are copyrighted, even if issued before that provision became effective.[28/2000 Sec.200(3)]

That is, older coins and bank notes are retroactively placed under copyright. The copyright on legal tender is perpetual, i.e. does not expire at all. The act applies to all coins and banknotes issued since 1926.[28/2000 Sec.200(9)]

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Israel

以色列

Symbol OK.svg可以 Israeli currency is copyrighted. According to a statement from the Bank of Israel, reproductions may appear in a catalog, book, research paper,

etc. provided that they do not modify the colors or designs, although a black and white reproduction is allowed. They must be at least 30% larger or smaller than the original, and for commercial use must not include both sides of the note or coin. Finally, the reproductions must credit the Bank of Israel.[36] The complete Law of the Bank of Israel does not specify these conditions.[37] Instead the above "Instructions" paper has detailed them. The effective date of the conditions are not stated.

Please use {{Money-IL}} for images of Israeli currency.

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Italy

意大利

Symbol OK.svg可以 Regarding former Italian currency (lire), the copyright on the artwork is most likely in the public domain. "Copyright in works created and published under the name and at the expense of the State, shall belong to them".[633/1941 art. 11]

"The duration of the exploitation rights belonging to the State (…) shall be twenty years as from first publication, whatever the form in which publication was effected".[633/1941 art. 29] The last distributed lira (the 500.000 bill) was distributed in the first half of 1997, more than 20 years ago.[38]

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Japan

日本

✓OK The designs of the Japanese banknotes are published as state-issued 'Notifications' which exempt them from copyright protection under Copyright Law of Japan.[39]

{{PD-Japan-exempt}} applies to them. [40]

Symbol OK.svg可以 Banknotes, together with other state symbols, are explicitly excluded from copyright by article 8 of Copyright law of Kazakhstan.[419/2015 Article 8]

Please use {{PD-KZ-exempt}} for Kazakhstan currency images.

Symbol OK.svg可以. Under Law No. 6 as of 2017, monetary signs, together with other state symbols, are explicitly excluded from copyright.[2017 Article 8]

Please use {{PD-KG-exempt}} for Kyrgyzstan currency images.

Under the Copyright Law of 2000 (as amended up to June 14, 2017),

  • The Bank of Latvia holds the copyright of lat banknotes. The Bank of Latvia copyright does not affect the right of the author of the images used on the banknotes to be recognised as the author thereof.[2000-2017 Sec.17'(1)]
  • It is prohibited to reproduce banknotes in any way, except in the case, where the Bank of Latvia, the European Central Bank, the central bank or state which has emitted such banknotes has provided written permission or the requirements of the Bank of Latvia, the European Central Bank or the relevant state for the reproduction of banknotes. Restrictions on the economic rights of authors shall not apply to banknotes.[2000-2017 Sec.17'(2)]

Copyright for euro banknotes and common side of euro coins is determined by the European Central Bank (see COM:CRT/European Union:Currency), but copyright of national sides of euro coins is determined by national legislation. The Bank of Latvia suggests that the Regulation for Reproducing the Lats Banknotes and Coins must be met to reproduce lats, and ECB Reproduction rules must be met to reproduce euros. All photographic reproductions of banknotes and coins must comply those criteria. Prior to the amendments, which came into force in May 1 2004, currency was public domain in Latvia per both the unamended 2000 law and 1993 law. Therefore any coins or banknotes that were no longer in circulation by 2004 date are public domain.

Please use {{Latvian coins}} for relevant Latvian coins images and {{Latvian banknote}} for images of Latvian banknotes, as {{PD-LV}} does not apply to Latvian currency.

Symbol OK.svg可以 According to the Law of May 19, 1999, on Copyright and Neighboring Rights, "Copyright protection shall not subsist in .. means of payment".[1999-2006 Art.5]

Please use {{PD-Liechtenstein-official}} for the corresponding currency images.

Symbol OK.svg可以 The designs of Lithuanian currency are not copyrighted.

Monetary items, together with other state symbols, are explicitly excluded from copyright by article 5 of Copyright law of Lithuania. Please use {{PD-LT-exempt}} for Lithuanian currency images.

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Macao

澳門

无可用信息

X mark.svg 不可以 According to the Bank Negara Malaysia, "You are not allowed to reproduce the Malaysian currency. It is also illegal for you to use any photograph, drawing or design of any note, coin or any part of the note or coin, of any size, scale or colour, in any advertising or on any merchandise or products, which are manufactured, sold, circulated or distributed except with the permission of BNM".[41]

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Malta

马耳他

X mark.svg 不可以 There is no copyright exception for Maltese currency or governmental work (see articles 2(1)a, 3(1)a and 6(1) of the Maltese copyright act]). The Bank of Malta makes currency images available for use, but their disclaimer forbids any kind of derivative work, thus making these files impossible to host on Commons.

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Mexico

墨西哥

X mark.svg 不可以 Mexican currency is copyrighted and the reproduction of designs is only permitted by seeking authorisation from the Ministry of Finance (Secretaría de Hacienda y Crédito Público).[42][43]

Coins and banknotes produced before 23 July 1928 entered the public domain before the law changed on 23 July 2003, and remain in the public domain.

Symbol OK.svg可以 Moldova currency is not copyrighted. Monetary items, together with other state symbols, are explicitly excluded from copyright by article 8 of Law on Copyright and Related Rights of Moldova.

Please use {{PD-MD-exempt}} for Moldova currency images.

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Mongolia

蒙古国

X mark.svg 不可以: Banknotes are copyrighted, as they do not fall within one of the copyright exemptions in Article 8 of the Law of Mongolia on Copyright and Related Rights (as last amended on January 19, 2006).[2006 Article 8]

X mark.svg 不可以. Under Law No. 4/2001 of 27 February 2001 there are no exceptions to copyright protection for works which were already in the public domain. Banknotes are not within the exceptions to copyright. There is a copyright exception for "official texts of a legislative, administrative or judicial nature, or to official translations thereof".[4/2001 Article 5a] Because the exception uses "text", banknotes do not seem to be within the exception.

Copyright protection for collective works, such as banknotes, lasts 70 years under Mozambique law and also under US law, since Mozambique is a party to the Berne Convention. Since that is long before Mozambique gained independence, all Mozambique banknotes are copyrighted. For banknotes that circulated before independence, Portuguese law applies.

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Nepal

尼泊尔

X mark.svg 不可以: Banknote and coin designs are copyrighted. According to the Copyright Act, 2059 (2002), "Government of Nepal shall have the copyright over the work prepared by Government of Nepal."[8/2002 Section 40]

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Netherlands

荷蘭

X mark.svg 不可以: Guilder banknotes are subject to copyright 70 years after the first publication. De Nederlandsche Bank has been contacted and they state that the introduction of the Euro does not change this.

Pictogram-voting-question.svg Question Guilder coins may be OK to reproduce, since they are subject to Article 15b of the Auteurswet. Works published by or on behalf of the government can be reproduced, unless copyright has been reserved explicitly by the government at the time of publication. However, even if no reservation was made, only the author has the right to have those works published in a collection.[44]

X mark.svg Not OK National sides of the Euro coins are subject to copyright as well. Although they are subject to Article 15b, an express reservation of rights has been made by the Dutch government.

X mark.svg Not OK New Zealand coins and notes are copyrighted by the Reserve Bank of New Zealand. They note that "the Reserve Bank has no objection to reproducing our notes and coins as complete on-screen or printed images, typically for design, educational or illustrative purposes" but that "for intellectual property reasons we cannot grant permission to reproduce detail parts of these designs, and in particular that: (1) The ‘Pukaki’ image on the 20 cent coin is owned by Ngati Whakaue, used with permission by the Reserve Bank; (2) The image of H.M. The Queen on the obverse of our coins is owned by The Crown." This amounts to a restriction on derivative works, making the designs not appropriate for Commons.

The Reserve Bank of New Zealand provides guidelines on using images of currency.[45]

X mark.svg 不可以. There is no copyright exemption for government works. (discussion)

X mark.svg 不可以 According to the law for the National Bank of Macedonia, for each reproduction of the banknotes and coins that are in official use in Macedonia there should be an official written permission from the Bank itself. The Council of the Bank decides the ways and the procedures for publication of photos of the currency.[46]

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Norway

挪威

无可用信息

X mark.svg 不可以 Although certain governments works are exempt from copyright, currency is not one of the exceptions.

Copyright Ordinance, 1962 as amended by Copyright (Amendment) Ordinance, 2000 says,

  • Copyright in a Government work shall, where Government is the first owner of the copyright therein, subsist until 50 years from the beginning of the calendar year next following the year in which the work is first published.[XXXIV/2000 Section 22(1)]
  • The following acts shall not constitute an infringement of copyright, namely: ... the reproduction or publication of any matter which has been published in any official Gazette, or the report of any committee, commission, council, board or other like body appointed by the Government unless the reproduction or publication of such matter or report is prohibited by the Government.[XXXIV/2000 Section 57(q)(i)] Currency does not fall into this definition.
  • See also: Commons:Deletion requests/File:Pakistan commemorative banknote.png.
文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Peru

秘鲁

X mark.svg 不可以 Peruvian currency is not exempted from copyright.[822/1996 Art.9] Law 26714, Article 256, prohibits reproducing bills and coins and distributing them for advertising or similar purposes in such a way as to create confusion or cause the reproductions to be used by third parties as if they were genuine currency[47]

X mark.svg 不可以. For reproductions of legal tender notes or metallic copies of legal tender coins.

Symbol OK.svg可以. For copies of notes and coins that are no longer legal tender, and for non-metallic reproductions of coins.

No copyright shall subsist in any work of the Government of the Philippines. However, prior approval of the government agency or office wherein the work is created shall be necessary for exploitation of such work for profit.[8293/2015 Section 176.1] The Central Bank of the Philippines prohibits making, distributing or using:

  • Any handbill, advertisement, placard, circular, card, or any other object whatsoever bearing the facsimile, likeness or similitude of any legal tender Philippine currency note, or any part thereof, whether in black and white or any color or combination of colors, without prior authority therefore having been secured from the Governor, BSP or his duly authorized representative.
  • Any object whatsoever bearing the likeness or similitude as to design, color or the inscription thereon of any legal tender Philippine currency coin or any part thereof, in metal form, irrespective of size and metallic composition, without prior authority from the Governor, BSP or his duly authorized representative.[48]
文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Poland

波兰

X mark.svg 不可以 Polish National Bank require written permission for reproduction of Polish banknotes and coins of all emissions in physical or electronic form.[49]

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Qatar

卡塔尔

X mark.svg 不可以 (See Commons:Deletion requests/Files in Category:Banknotes of Qatar)

Law No. 7 of 2002 on the Protection of Copyright and Neighboring Rightssays

  • The protection provided by this Law shall not cover the following works ... laws, legal provisions, administrative decisions, international treaties, official documents or any official translation thereof.[7/2002 Article 4(1)]

However, "official documents" seems unlikely to include currency. The Qatar Central Bank states that all content on its site (which includes images of currency) may not be used for commercial purposes without the permission of the bank.[50]

无可用信息

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Russia

俄罗斯

Symbol OK.svg可以 Russian currency is not copyrighted. Monetary items, together with other state symbols, are explicitly excluded from copyright by article 1259(6) of Part IV of the Civil Code of Russia (which covers intellectual property rights). Drafts for such items, however, are copyrighted by their authors. When a public body adopts such a draft and turns it into an official symbol, the resulting official symbol is not copyrighted and may be reproduced without mentioning the original author(s) of the draft. (See article 1264.)

Monetary items were already excluded from copyright in the 1993 legislation, which was in effect until the end of 2007. See article 8 of the 1993 law, as amended in 2004.

Please use {{PD-RU-exempt}} for images of Russian currency.

Symbol OK.svg可以 template:PD-SerbiaGov

X mark.svg 不可以: Government works are copyrighted.[8/2011 Section 8]

X mark.svg Not OK. The copyright in the designs of banknotes and coins is held by the 新加坡政府. The designs may be regarded either as engravings, or as artistic works other than engravings or photographs, made by or under the direction or control of the Government, and under the Copyright Act (Cap. 63, 2006 Rev. Ed.):

  • an engraving enters the public domain after 70 years have passed since the end of the calendar year in which the work was first published; and
  • an artistic work other than an engraving or a photograph enters the public domain after 70 years have passed since the end of the calendar year in which the work was made.

X mark.svg 不可以. The Slovak National Bank does not provide information about copyright on images of currency.[51]

Some third parties, such as shops, have been granted permission to deal with Slovakian currency.[52]

Slovakia has used the Euro since 2009. See COM:CRT/European Union Currency for more information.

X mark.svg 不可以: The copyright on the design of the tolar and other obsolete currencies as well as the national sides of the euro coins is held by the Bank of Slovenia.

Slovenia has used the Euro since 1 January 2007. See COM:CRT/European Union: Currency for more information.

X mark.svg 不可以: Copyright of the designs of South African banknotes and coins is owned by the South African Reserve Bank. Their document "Policy on the reproduction of images of South African Currency" sets out the policy of the bank in respect to the reproduction of South African coins and banknotes. In short, only news media can produce such images and then only because of time constraints in obtaining formal permission. Under the Copyright Act of 1978, such copyright lasts for 50 years.

Symbol OK.svg可以: The Bank of Korea owns copyright on all currency issued in South Korea since its establishment in 1950. The Bank of Korea allows anyone to reproduce and use the reproduction of its currency without requiring a permission but under certain restrictions, as explained in the Guidelines for the Reproduction of Bank of Korea Notes and Coins.[53]

For electronic reproductions the resolution of the image in its original size must not exceed 72dpi, and the word "SPECIMEN" or "보기" must be marked on either the obverse or the reverse of any part, excluding the portrait, of the reproduction and must be plainly distinguishable but inseparable from the reproduction. The size of the word “SPECIMEN” or “보기” must larger than the word “Bank of Korea” on the top center of the front side of the banknote, and must be in a non-transparent color that is clearly contrasted with the main color of the respective banknote. This also applies to partial reproductions.[53]

Please use {{South Korean currency}} for South Korean currency images that meet the requirement of Section 3.C (Intangible reproductions) of the currency reproduction guidelines.

✓OK Former USSR currency is not copyrighted.

Please use {{PD-RU-exempt}} for images of Soviet (USSR) currency.

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Spain

西班牙

Symbol OK.svg可以: Regarding former Spanish national currency, the pesetas, there is "no significant jurisprudence on the application of copyright to banknotes" per 1999 Report on the Legal Protection of Banknotes in the European Union Member States. Additionally, there is "no use of the copyright symbol: © on Spanish banknotes". The rules for reproduction of pesetas only have provisions for advertising purposes. Reproductions for teaching materials in particular do not require the authorisation of the Bank of Spain.[54]

{{PD-SpanishGov-money}} can be used to tag images of Spanish pesetas.

Spain has used the Euro since 1 January 2002. See COM:CRT/European Union:Currency for Euro banknotes and the shared side of Euro coins.

X mark.svg 不可以 for the national side of Euro coins.

X mark.svg 不可以 The government works that are excepted from copyright are only "any official text of a legislative, administrative or legal nature, as well as any official translation thereof" (Intellectual Property Act, No. 36 of 2003, at Section 8B), so it is assumed that banknotes and coins are protected and not appropriate for Commons.

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Sudan

苏丹

  • Symbol OK.svg可以: Banknote designs before 18 December 1996
  • Pictogram-voting-question.svg Unclear: Banknote designs on or after 18 December 1996

Sudan's first copyright law entered into force on 18 December 1996 and did not extend protection to works already in the public domain. Banknotes issued before this date are therefore in the public domain in Sudan. Because these banknotes were in the public domain in Sudan before it joined the Berne Convention (28 December 2000), they are also in the public domain in the United States and may be uploaded to Commons.

The status of banknote designs released after 18 December 1996 is unclear. Under Sudanese copyright law, "official documents" are in the public domain, but banknotes may not fall under the definition of "official documents". If that definition does not include banknotes, then banknotes will be protected for 50 years after the death of the last contributing author.

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Sweden

瑞典

X mark.svg Not OK Currency may be protected by copyright in Sweden. Riksbanken advices that the original authors of the works used on banknotes and coins may decide to sue if they feel their moral rights have been violated (which may mean the economic rights are not an issue for Swedish currency).

There were undecided lawsuits on the matter at the time of the deletion request. Riksbanken itself seems not to have any claims. On the issue of counterfeit Riksbanken cites the Euro instructions as probably sufficient safeguards.[55]

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Switzerland

瑞士

无可用信息

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Syria

叙利亚

X mark.svg 不可以. Syrian banknotes and coins are likely to be protected by copyright. The 2001 copyright law of Syria does not explicitly exempt the designs of banknotes and coins, only official documents and administrative decisions. In 2013, Syrian copyright law was substantially changed with the repeal of the 2001 copyright law. However, there does not appear to be any changes to the protection of banknotes or coins.[62/2013 Art. 4]

无可用信息

Symbol OK.svg可以. Under the the Law on Copyright and Related Rights (as amended up to 2009), Tajikistan currency is not copyrighted. Monetary items, together with other state symbols, are explicitly excluded from copyright.[2009 Article 7]

Please use {{PD-TJ-exempt}} for Tajikistan currency images.

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Thailand

泰国

X mark.svg 不可以: Reproduction of banknote images requires a permission from the Bank of Thailand.[56]

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Turkey

土耳其

Symbol OK.svg可以: Electronic reproductions of banknotes and coins are permitted by the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey, under the following conditions:[57][58]

  • They must not exceed 72 dpi (dots per inch); and
  • The expression “ÖRNEKTIR GEÇMEZ” or “SPECIMEN” must be printed diagonally across the reproduction in Arial font or a font similar to Arial font. The length of the expression “ÖRNEKTIR GEÇMEZ” or “SPECIMEN” must be at least 75 percent of the length of reproduction, and the height thereof must be at least 15 percent of the width of the reproduction. The characters must be written in a non-transparent (opaque) color contrasting with the dominant color of the respective banknote. In two-sided reproductions, the abovementioned expression must be printed on both sides.

Symbol OK.svg可以 Turkmenistan currency is not copyrighted. Banknotes and other state symbols, are explicitly excluded from copyright by Law No. 257-IV of January 10, 2012, Article 7.

Please use {{PD-TM-exempt}} for Turkmenistan currency images.

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Uganda

乌干达

X mark.svg 不可以. Bank of Uganda owns the copyright in its banknotes and coins. Under section 120(373) of the Penal Code, it is a criminal offence for any person to reproduce banknotes or coins to any degree without the prior consent in writing of the Bank of Uganda.

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Ukraine

乌克兰

Symbol OK.svg可以 Ukrainian currency is not copyrighted. Monetary items, together with other state symbols, are explicitly excluded from copyright by article 10 of Copyright law of Ukraine.[3792-XII/199-2017 Art.10(e)]

Please use {{PD-UA-exempt}} for Ukrainian currency images.

X mark.svg 不可以 Banknotes and coins are not exempted from copyright law in the United Arab Emirates, and so are protected in the same way as other works of applied and plastic art or drawings, with respect to reproduction and to the time period of copyright protection.

X mark.svg 不可以 UK banknotes are fully protected by copyright. The Bank of England owns the copyright on its banknotes, and all banknotes carry a © notice.[59]

No images of these banknotes may be uploaded to Commons. Those that are will be deleted.

Coin designs are copyrighted by the Royal Mint.[60]

Publishing images of coins is not prohibited by the Forgery and Counterfeiting Act 1981.[61] Its Section 19 refers only to "imitation British coins", defined as "any thing which resembles a British coin in shape, size and the substance of which it is made". The implication here is that images cannot resemble the substance of the real coins. However, since such images may only be published with the official consent of the Royal Mint, none of these images is allowed on Commons.

Both the Bank of England's copyright on its banknotes and the Royal Mint's copyright on coin designs are instances of Crown Copyright. Published photographs or engravings subject to Crown Copyright which were created more than 50 years ago are now in the public domain: use {{PD-UKGov}}. Images of British coins and banknotes which were minted and circulated more than 50 years ago are permissible provided that the author of the work containing the coins or banknotes is willing to release his / her copyright to the reuse of the image, which is a separate copyright concern and must also be addressed.

Scottish and Northern Irish banks will retain their own copyright on banknotes independent of the Bank of England; however, in the United Kingdom, it is a criminal offence under s18(1) of the Forgery and Counterfeiting Act 1981 "to reproduce on any substance whatsoever, and whether or not on the correct scale, any British currency note or any part of a British currency note."[61] The term "British currency note" is defined as something which "has been lawfully issued in England and Wales, Scotland or Northern Ireland", "is or has been customarily used as money in the country where it was issued", and is payable on demand" - this includes Scottish and Northern Irish banknotes, as well as those issued by the Bank of England.

Coins

Symbol OK.svg可以

Many but not all coins or bills produced by the United States Mint are in the public domain as works of the Federal Government. Some were designed by third parties who assigned rights to the Mint. These are typically commemorative coins for special occasions and the copyright is described in their marketing materials; another example is the obverse of the golden dollar.[2] The status of each coin or bill should be assessed individually.

Banknotes

Symbol OK.svg可以

"Color illustrations" of banknotes appear to be permitted if they respect the following conditions (from 18 U.S. Code § 504 and 31 CFR § 411.1):

  • the illustration is of a size less than three-fourths or more than one and one-half, in linear dimension, of each part of the item illustrated;
  • the illustration is one-sided; and
  • all negatives, plates, positives, digitized storage medium, graphic files, magnetic medium, optical storage devices and any other thing used in the making of the illustration that contain an image of the illustration or any part thereof are destroyed and/or deleted or erased after their final use.

Please use {{PD-USGov-money}} for relevant US currency images.

De minimis

The United States courts interpret the de minimis defence in three distinct ways:

  1. Where a technical violation is so trivial that the law will not impose legal consequences;
  2. Where the extent of copying falls below the threshold of substantial similarity (always a required element of actionable copying); and
  3. In connection with fair use (not relevant here, since Commons does not allow fair use images).

It is the first of these that is often of particular concern on Commons.

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Uruguay

乌拉圭

X mark.svg 不可以.

The Central Bank of Uruguay exclusively issues bank notes and mints coins throughout Uruguay.[62] State, municipality and public-law entities are holders of copyright, where, in any mode recognized by law, they acquire ownership of one of the works protected by the copyright law. State works have perpetual copyright.[18.046/2006 Article 40]

Symbol OK.svg可以 Uzbekistan currency is not copyrighted. Monetary items, together with other state symbols, are explicitly excluded from copyright by article 8 of Copyright law of Uzbekistan.[LRU-476/2018 Article 8] Drafts for such items, however, are copyrighted by their authors.[LRU-476/2018 Article 9]

Please use {{PD-UZ-exempt}} for Uzbekistan currency images.

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Vietnam

越南

X mark.svg 不可以. Banknotes and coins are not exempted from copyright law. Furthermore, duplication of Vietnamese banknotes or coins without the written consent of the State Bank is prohibited by an order of the Prime Minister in June 2003 (article 3).[63]

文本嵌入自
COM:CUR Zambia

赞比亚

X mark.svg 不可以 Banknotes and coins are not exempted from copyright, and are assumed to be treated normally as works produced by government employees. According to the Copyright and Performance Rights Act 1994, the copyright on works made by government employees is held by the government, and the expiration of the protection is 50 years after the first publication of the work.[1994-2010 Section 12(2)]

参考资料

Some citation text may not have been transcluded

  1. Rulesforuse.org – Central Bank Counterfeit Deterrence Group – contains information about the reproduction rules of many (but not all) currencies
  2. See MM Walter, "Anmerkung zu OGH 22.11.1994, 4 Ob 1105/94 – 'Bundeshymne'" (1995) 13 Medien und Recht international 186 ("Es kann mE aber nicht fraglich sein, daß ein Werk durch eine solche Veröffentlichung oder Aufnahme in ein amtliches Werk nicht seinen urheberrechtlichen Schutz verliert […] Dies gilt insbesondere für Briefmarken, Münzen oder Banknoten; sie werden durch die Veröffentlichung in Amtsblättern (Bundesgesetzblatt, Verordnungsblatt etc), in denen ihre Herausgabe (mit Verordnung) angeordnet wird, nicht zu amtlichen Werken."); MM Walter, Österreichisches Urheberrecht (Medien und Recht 2008) 311 ("Was schließlich die (grafische) Gestaltung von Münzen und Banknoten anlangt, können diese urheberrechtlich geschützt sein. Auch sie sind schon deshalb keine amtlichen Werke, weil sie nicht ausschließlich oder vorwiegend zum amtlichen Gebrauch bestimmt sind. Davon abgesehen handelt es sich auch nicht um Sprachwerke und in der Regel auch nicht um Werke wissenschaftlicher oder belehrender Art im Sinn des § 2 Z 3 UrhG."); M Ciresa, "§ 7" in M Ciresa (ed), Österreichisches Urheberrecht (Orac R 19 2017) para 8 ("Lehr- und Prüfungsmaterialien von Universitäten und Hochschulen sind ebenfalls keine amtlichen Werke […] Dies gilt auch für die grafische Gestaltung von Münzen und Banknoten"); M Röttinger, "Das Urheberrecht an den Euro-Münzen und Euro-Banknoten" (2000) 11 ecolex 654, 655 ("Aufgrund der klaren und engen Formulierung von § 7 öUrhG stellt sich gar nicht ernsthaft die Frage, ob es sich bei Münzen bzw Münzbildern um freie Werke ('amtliche Werke') handelt.").
  3. Statute Law of The Bahamas - Chapter 351- Central Bank of the Bahamas (2010).
  4. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named NBBrepro
  5. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named CBBH5-10
  6. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named BNBrules
  7. Reproduction Guidelines Currency Notes. Cayman Islands Monetary Authority. Retrieved on 2019-01-19.
  8. $CLP Chilean peso. Central Bank Counterfeit Deterrence Group. Retrieved on 2019-01-21.
  9. a b Lineamientos para uso de imágenes​​. Banco Central de Costa Rica. Retrieved on 2019-01-18.
  10. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named CNB2742011
  11. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named DNBrepro
  12. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named WikiDNBinquiry
  13. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named CAAA
  14. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named TicketonKroon
  15. GUIDELINE OF THE EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK of 20 March 2003 on the enforcement of measures to counter non-compliant reproductions of euro banknotes and on the exchange and withdrawal of euro banknotes. Official Journal of the European Union 16-19 (25 March 2003).
  16. Reproduction rules for coins. European Commission. Retrieved on 2019-01-28.
  17. The euro. European Commission. Retrieved on 2019-01-28.
  18. a b European Commission (22 October 2001). Communication from the Commission on copyright protection of the common face design of the euro coins. Retrieved on 2019-01-28.
  19. Copyright of the national sides of euro circulation coins. ec.europa.eu. Retrieved on 2019-03-20.
  20. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Eurlex31803
  21. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named BoF2015
  22. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named ECB20130419
  23. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named PenalCode
  24. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Minedu20013
  25. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Minedutn9711
  26. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Finlex19930358
  27. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Alric
  28. Geldscheinsammlung (in German). Deutsche Bundesbank. Retrieved on 2019-03-26.
  29. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Dreier-Schulze
  30. 2/2010. (I. 28.) MNB rendelet
  31. 3/2010. (I. 28.) MNB rendelet
  32. summary of the rules released by MNB in Hungarian
  33. Information on Money Reproductions (in English). Magyar Nemzeti Bank. Retrieved on 2019-03-26.
  34. Szerzői jogi hozzájáruló nyilatkozat engedély nélkül készíthető forintbankjegy-utánzatokhoz (in Hungarian). Magyar Nemzeti Bank. Retrieved on 2019-03-26.
  35. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named BofInd
  36. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named BofIinst
  37. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named BofILaw
  38. Seduta della Commissione V BILANCIO, TESORO E PROGRAMMAZIONE (1996-09-18). Retrieved on 9 December 2017.
  39. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named MinFin1994
  40. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named MinFin76-1984
  41. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named BNMCurr
  42. Reproduction of images of bills and coins (in Spanish). Banco de México.
  43. Ley Monetaria de Los Estados Unidos Mexicanos (in Spanish). Cámara de Diputados.
  44. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Spoor2005
  45. Using images of currency. Reserve Bank of New Zealand. Retrieved on 2019-03-16.
  46. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named BankLaw
  47. Ley N° 26714 Modifícase los artículos 252° a 258° y 261° del Código Penal (Counterfeit currency offences) (in Spanish) (1996).
  48. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named BSnP61
  49. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named PNBrules
  50. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named QCBDisclaimer
  51. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Bankcurr
  52. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Banksales
  53. a b Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named BofK
  54. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named BdeErules
  55. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named RiksbankCopying
  56. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named BofT
  57. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named TCMBen
  58. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named TCMBtu
  59. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named BofEimages
  60. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named RMintAds
  61. a b Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Forgery1981
  62. Billetes y Monedas. Banco Central del Uruguay. Retrieved on 2019-01-22.
  63. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Dec130-2003