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Esta páxina recolle as preguntas frecuentes da Wikimedia Commons xunto cunha breve explicación e mais a ligazón aos artigos que desenvolven cada tema.

Preguntas sobre o proxecto

Que é este sitio/wiki?

A "Wikimedia Commons" (na versión curta "Commons") é un repositorio de material multimedia mantido por voluntarios non-profesionais. O nome "Wikimedia Commons" procede da combinación de Wikimedia a Fundación que xestiona todos os proxectos Wikimedia e da palabra "common" porque este é un proxecto común a todos os diferentes tipos de proxectos Wikimedia. É un repositorio central de contido libre fotografías, diagramas, animacións, música, versións sonoras de textos, vídeo clips, e todo tipo de materiais multimedia útiles para calquera proxecto Wikimedia.

Cal é o obxectivo deste proxecto?

Pode cargar material neste wiki?

Abofé que pode! De feito, iso é o que queremos que faga. Comece cos Primeiros pasos para participar no proxecto.

Que ficheiros podo cargar?

Calquera ficheiro multimedia cunha licenza libre que sexa útil para calquera dos proxectos Wikimedia pode cargarse en Commons. Vexa tamén as preguntas sobre o copyright para as cuestións relativas ás licenzas.

Can I upload mobile apps that are suitable for teaching or demonstrating a concept?

No. See Commons:Project scope/gl and Commons:Tipos de ficheiros. Commons is not intended to be primarily a repository for software, it's intended to be a media repository. There are other projects (for example F-Droid, but see Category:Mobile software distribution platforms for more options) that may be much more suitable for sharing apps you have created.

Podo publicar texto se son o autor?

O fundamento de Commons son os ficheiros multimedia (imaxes, vídeo, son), non o texto. Se está disposto a licenciar os seus textos baixo a licenza GFDL, pode facelo, dependendo da forma e do contido, nalgún dos seguintes proxectos Wikimedia: Galipedia, Galizionario, Galifontes, Galilibros ou Galicitas.

What are 'gallery' (main namespace) pages for? How should they be designed?

Galleries are a complement to categories (primary way to organize and find files on the Commons), as another way of displaying media. They allow files to be annotated with captions, shown at better sizes than the category default, organized in tables, etc. Typically they begin with short captions that briefly introduce the topic in many languages (these can be automatically generated using MultiDesc), followed by headed sections that typically use the <gallery> tag (see meta page for guidance).

The files should be followed by interwiki links (also generated by Sum-it-up) and at least one category. Gallery pages must be in at least one category.

A good way to design a new gallery page is to adapt an existing one from a similar topic. Species (plants/animals) pages will necessarily be different to location (cities/countries) pages.


Cando debo usar unha galería ou cando unha categoría?

Os ficheiros deben engadirse sempre en categorías descritivas, posto que se só se engaden en galerías, as imaxes poden ser retiradas da galería dun xeito moi fácil e así "perderse". As categorías son útiles como sistema de clasificación en grandes "contedores" de imaxes sobre un tema. Galerías (nas páxinas de artigos) son útiles para amosar as mellores imaxes, máis ilustrativas, informativas e interesantes dunha categoría. Tamén son útiles para ordenar o material dunha forma lóxica, algo que as categorías poden facer dun xeito limitado. Por exemplo, compare Tennis con Category:Tennis. A información nas páxinas de galerías pode presentarse de forma xerarquizada, como en Pronunciation of Dutch municipality names e United States.

This is just advice for if you feel totally lost. Some topics have specific guidelines for the organisation of media, such as plants and animals which fall under the WikiProject Tree of Life. Unless you are interested in helping out with such projects, don't worry too much about finding out what the 'rules' are until someone tells you -- the people who take part in the project will fix things up.


Preguntas sobre o copyright

Que licenzas debo usar para os ficheiros que cargue?

Debe estar seguro de cada ficheiro que carga en Commons está no dominio público ou baixo unha licenza libre (tamén chamada copyleft) como a Licenza de Documentación Libre GNU ou CC-BY/BY-SA (para ampliar información vexa Commons:Licensing e Commons:Marcadores de dereitos de copia). Por favor non invente licenzas por arte de maxia. Moito do material que atope na Internet ten copyright. Non deduza o contrario a menos que teña unha boa razón para facelo. Cando publica as súas propias obras, pode poñelas no dominio público ({{PD-self}}), ou baixo unha licenza específica: {{self|nome da licenza}}, {{self2|licenza 1|licenza 2}} etc. Tamén escoller unha opción do menú despregable do selector de licenza en Special:Upload baixo "own work/obra propia".

Podo cargar imaxes dixitalizadas e imaxes doutros modificadas por min?

Só aquel que produce o traballo orixinal, ou aqueles que posúan os dereitos da obra, poden licenciar dita obra. A dixitalización ou unha modificación non converte automaticamente o documento nunha obra propia. Iso significa que non pode coller un ficheiro da Internet e despois poñerlle unha licenza GFDL ou CC.

Por que Commons non inclúe material de fair use/uso lexítimo?

Un dos principios fundadores de Wikimedia Commons é "só contido libre". Este principio, o mesmo que o Punto de vista neutral na Galipedia, non vai mudar nunca. Ademais as leis referidas ao copyright varían de país en país. Así, as leis sobre o fair use/uso lexítimo cambian dun país a outro, con cada país cunha interpretación e xurisdicións distintas nas que non existe o concepto de fair use/uso lexítimo. Como resultado diso, o contido de uso lexítimi raramente pode usarse fóra dos Estados Unidos de América. Todo o contido de Commons debe estar dispoñible para calquera país, polo tanto Commons ten restricións legais para incluír este contido.

Podo usar ficheiros de Commons fóra dos proxectos Wikimedia?

Abofé que pode. En todo caso, debe comprobar a páxina de descrición da imaxe (pode vela premendo na propia imaxe) para ver baixo que condicións de licenza pode usala. Na maioría dos casos é suficiente con copiar da páxina de descrición da imaxe a información sobre o autor e a licenza, e publicala conxuntamente coa imaxe ou ficheiro multimedia. Vexa Commons:Reusing content outside Wikimedia para ver todos os detalles.

Que información debo incluír no resumo ou na páxina de descrición da imaxe?

Vexa o titorial en Primeiros pasos. Recoméndase usar o Modelo:Information para engadir a información na páxina de descrición da imaxe.

Where do I get credit for my images?

Some of our accepted licenses require attribution. This means that a photographer has to be given credit every time their picture is used. Please make sure you put the name you want to have mentioned in the description page of the image. Within Wikipedia articles, people who click your image in order to enlarge it will see your name.

What happens if a Flickr license changes?

System-search.svgSee also : Commons:Flickr images.

Authors may change their Creative Commons licenses and sometimes do, but their license at the time of verification cannot be revoked. (See the Creative Commons FAQ: What if I change my mind about using a CC license?) If an upload from Flickr has a verified CC BY or CC BY-SA license, the file remains on Commons. However, the template {{Flickr-change-of-license}} might be added. Works identified on the image page as a new version of a verified file also remain. Verification appears in a FlickreviewR, administrator or trusted user notice on the image page.

I have uploaded an image, can I revoke the license later?

The short answer is "No".

Free licenses are designed in such a way that once you release the work under them, you cannot later demand that people stop using that particular license to distribute the work. This is done to protect the users from putting their time and energy making what you upload better or developing something around that work, only to find out later than their work cannot be distributed at all because you have changed your mind. Also see the official Creative Commons FAQ topic “What if I change my mind about using a CC license?”, more info.

Please think hard before you upload images to Wikimedia Commons.

Having said that, on some occasions, such as when it is clear that a mistake was made, and the uploader requests the deletion right after the upload, images are deleted. But this is not a loop-hole that you can use if your upload has resided on Commons for a week or more.

I am not the author, but I have permission

If you are not the author but you have their permission to distribute under a free license (COM:L) please see Commons:Volunteer Response Team#Licensing images: when do I contact VRT?"

Preguntas técnicas

Does Commons use a special wiki engine?

No. It is the same MediaWiki as for most other Wikimedia sites, but with galleries instead of articles in the main namespace (see the question above). But this site has many heavily customized gadgets and most templates are unique to Commons and developed locally.

Que resolución deben ter as imaxes que carregue en Commons?

System-search.svgSee also : Commons:Preparing images for upload.

Canta maior resolución sexa posible. Non se preocupe polo espazo de disco nin polo tempo de carga das páxinas da Wikipedia que enlacen co ficheiro, o software xera e garda unha versión en miniatura (tal como se especifica en cada artigo).

However, scaling of images may fail if the image is very large and rendering takes too much time or memory (in that case, either no scaled image is shown, or the full image is served to the browser, often causing it to lock up). For PNG images, a hard limit of 25 megapixels is in effect. Large JPEGs are only problematic if they are saved in progressive mode, since the entire image has to be processed at once. Use baseline mode instead.

In case the full scale original is too large to process for the software, upload it anyway, but then please overwrite it with a scaled down version (around 6 megapixels in size); the full scale version will still be available in the upload history, and you can add a reference to it in the image description.

Como podo usar o material de Commons nas Wikipedias?

Só enlace o nome da imaxe coma se fose unha imaxe local. Aviso: Pode haber un pequeno retardo na carga da imaxe na Wikipedia desde a que se enlace. Isto é debido ao retardo nas versións das imaxes gardadas en memoria e pode resolverse recargando a páxina unha vez que se visualiza completamente. Vexa tamén media help page in Meta-wiki, Wikipedia image markup page e Wikipedia picture tutorial.

How do I link to an image without showing it?

Use [[:File:Example.jpg]]. That shows up as: File:Example.jpg

Como podo cargar unha imaxe que estea na Wikipedia en Commons?

System-search.svgSee also : Commons:Moving files to Commons.

Se a imaxe está baixo unha licenza libre descargue ao seu ordenador a versión de maior resolución que haxa na wikipedia e deseguido cárguea en Wikimedia Commons. Unha vez feito iso copie a páxina de descrición da imaxe e verifique se contén o nome do autor e/ou o enderezo URL da orixe, a data e unha breve descrición. Engada o enderezo URL da páxina orixinal da Wikipedia, e o nome do usuario que cargou a imaxe por primeira vez. Comprobe que os marcadores de licenza e outros modelos son correctos en Commons.

Como podo renomear/mover unha imaxe ou outro ficheiro multimedia?

System-search.svgSee also : Commons:File renaming.

If you are the uploader and recently uploaded the file, review Commons:File naming and add the following template to the file description page: {{rename|1=new name.jpg|2=1|3=uploader request: please rename to fix .. }}, where |2= is a number from 1 to 7 (with 2=1 being for Uploader requested).

If you are not the uploader, check if the reason matches one outlined in Commons:File renaming. If yes, use {{Rename}} as well, stating the corresponding reason.

As páxinas de Galerías poden moverse por usuarios rexistrados usando a pestana "move" que se amosa por regra xeral na parte superior da páxina (iso depende da opción de presentación que use). Esta función non está dispoñible para usuarios novos; se o necesita, solicite a alguén que o faga por vostede.

How can I rename or move a category?

Como podo incluír unha imaxe ou categoría dentro dunha páxina?

Para engadir unha páxina ou unha imaxe a unha categoría Foo, engada o seguinte enlace na páxina (ou na páxina de descrición da imaxe): [[Category:Foo]]. Este é un enlace "especial", que fai a) aparecer unha caixa coa categoría na parte inferior da páxina e b) dá como resultado que a imaxe se amose na categoría.

Como podo clasificar mellor as miñas propias imaxes?

The Golden Gate Bridge is a bridge in San Francisco, United States. However, Category:Bridges, Category:San Francisco and Category:United States are too general. Look at Category:Golden Gate Bridge instead. As this is further subdivided, Category:Golden Gate Bridge from Fort Point is best suited for the above picture.

Categorization should answer "W-questions", most importantly: What is it? Where is it? A file should be put in the most specific category/categories that fit(s). We don't use general keyword tags like "nature" or "architecture" to organize files.

There are several ways to find appropriate categories (or gallery pages).

  • A clasificación en categorías ten que responder a certas preguntas, principalmente: Qué é? Onde está? Para atopar as categorías adecuadas (ou as páxinas de galerías), vexa a Portada, a páxina de busca e a ferramenta coa árbore de categorías. Vexa que categorías aparecen e vaia a aquela que se axuste máis á súa imaxe. Logo revise as subcategorías e as páxinas nesa categoría, e unha vez máis localice aquela que sexa a que se axusta mellor ao tema da súa foto. Repítao ata que non atope unha categoría específica mellor. Se non está seguro clasifique na categoría xeral. Axúdese da ferramenta CommonSense que suxire categorías baseandose nas palabras clave que vostede lle suministre.
  • Type the name (or location, or a short description) of the depicted motif into the search box. In the search results, look for a suitable category or pictures of the same motif that have already been properly categorized.
  • If your picture is suitable to illustrate a specific Wikipedia article, find out if there is a link to the corresponding Commons category (or gallery) in the article's "In other projects" or "External links" sections, and follow that link.

If unsure, choose a more general category. However, unless a picture has additional important elements to it that are currently missing their own subcategories, avoid categorizing pictures into both a subcategory and one of this subcategory's more general parent categories. See Commons:Categories for more information.

Why might a category list not be up to date?

Sometimes, pages are placed in categories not manually by Commons editors, but by means of a special editing tool called a template, which can be used to place identical information (including category membership information) on many different pages at once. When the information on such a template is edited, the pages containing that template are not necessarily updated immediately. This means that pages might not always appear in the most current categories. However, this problem usually affects project maintenance categories rather than the categories used for browsing.

Various other temporary delays may sometimes mean that lists of category members or subcategories, or the page counts given, are not completely up to date. So if you are editing Commons and find that your page hasn't yet shown up in a category or been removed from an old category, don't panic! The problem will probably resolve itself within minutes, or after a longer time in rare cases.

Como están organizadas as categorías?

System-search.svgSee also : Commons:Categories.

Trate de repetir a estrutura existente cando deesenvolva as categorías. Asegúrese de cada nova categoría colga dunha categoría superior. Vexa se a zona e que traballa ten un esquema de categorías, ou hai algún modelo que poida seguir. En especial para especies e países, a estrutura debe seguir as convencións das estruturas pre-existentes. Para ampliar información sobre as categorías en Commons, vexa Commons:Categories.

Como podo facer unha galería para as miñas imaxes?

Pode crear unha galería de usuario como subaáxina da páxina de usuario (por exemplo se vostede é o usuario Foo, cree a súa páxina de galería en User:Foo/gallery), ou como unha categoría (chamada cun nome algo así como Category:Pictures by Foo). Todas as galerías de usuario deben estar en Category:User galleries - vexaa para algúns exemplos. Para atopar todas as imaxes que cargou en Commons, pode utilizar o rexistro de carga ou ver unha Galería xerada automaticamente cunha das ferramentas de xestión de Commons (basta con que poña como wiki commons.wikimedia.org e introduza o seu nome de usuario).

Como podo crear unha galería?

Vexa meta:Help:Images and other uploaded files#Gallery tag, category, table of images para obter información sobre como crear galerías dun xeito sinxelo usando a marca <gallery>.

Porque vexo na miña pantalla a versión antiga e non a nova dunha imaxe que acabo de cargar?

Intente borrando a memoria caché do navegador co botón actualizar. Asegúrese de premer "Control" cando o faga. Ás veces hai un retardo cando se xera unha nova miniatura a partir dunha versión nova da imaxe.

See Help:Purge, en:WP:BYPASS, and en:WP:PURGE for more details.

Can I upload video and/or audio?

Yes! Take a look at our guides about video and audio.

Porque ás veces non podo ver a versión de "alta resolución" dunha imaxe?

Unha posibilidade é que imaxe fora bloquedada polo seu programa anti-virus/anti-adware/navegador. Por exemplo, o enderezo URL completo de Image:Map mn khuvsgul aimag.png é http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ad/Map_mn_khuvsgul_aimag.png . Algúns programas bloquean este enderezo URL porque contén na ruta o cartafol "ad". Se ese non é o problema, envie unha mensaxe describindo o problema a Commons:Help desk.

The file may be too large to give a thumbnail (e.g., a large JPG in progressive mode). See: Commons:Tipos de ficheiros#Size and scaling.

Como podo buscar imaxes?

Busque con Special:Search e siga os resultados e enlaces que aparecen. Tamén pode ir aos artigos relacionados nas diferentes Wikipedias e ver que imaxes están usando. Algunhas xa deben de estar en Commons e ademais clasificadas en categorías, dese xeito pódese acceder a outras imaxes.

Hai software adaptado para optimizar a interacción co proxecto?

Vexa Commons:Tools, Commons:Gadgets e Commons:Bugs.

Teño unha chea de ficheiros. Podo facer unha carga masiva en troques de facelo un a un?

System-search.svgSee also : Commons:Upload tools.

Yes. The UploadWizard allows you to upload a batch of files at the same time.

Si. Commonist é unha ferramenta cun interfaz gráfico baseada en Java/BeanShell. Hai informes de que funciona ben en Linux e MacOS, e debe funcionar en Windows tamén (aínda que hai persoas que informan dalgúns problemas baixo Windows).

If you use Lightroom, Darktable or Digikam, there are even extensions for directly uploading (batches of) images from within your editing software available.

Para aqueles que se manexen ben coa liña de comandos de Unix, Eloquence escribiu un script para cargar ficheiros en Perl, apropiado para moitos sistemas Unix, Unix-like, Linux ou Mac OS X. Tamén pode usalo para converterse nun voluntario do a servizo de carga de ficheiros.

Un ficheiro ou unha imaxe necesitan renomerase ou moverse. Pode facerse?

Artigos: si. Aquelas contas de usuario cunha antigüidade superior a catro días poden volver a nomear os artigos coa pestana 'move' na parte superior da páxina. Para títulos en diferentes linguas, as redireccións deben crearse despois de mover a páxina.

Files (Images): Yes, but only by administrators or users with the filemover permission. Please see § How can I rename/move an image or other media file?.

Categorías: non. Se a categoría co nome incorrecto é posible (e non un simple erro de escritura), pode converterse nunha redirección do software marcándoa con {{Category redirect}}. As imaxes na categoría deben moverse manualmente á nova categoría. Teña en conta que por limitacións técnicas as categorías deben nomearse en inglés.

When I tried to upload my file, I get this error: "." is not an allowed file format. See Commons:File types for more information.

Make sure that the file you're uploading has an extension and that it is one of the allowed types. Make sure also that you have not left a space either before or after the point.

Be sure to include an extension in the Destination filename: field as well. For example, write "Orange grove in summer.jpg" not just "Orange grove in summer".

What does the upload error This file contains HTML or script code that may be erroneously interpreted by a web browser. mean?

The file you tried to upload contains some HTML code in its metadata. Most likely, you tried to upload a JPG file, and the HTML is contained in the file's Exif data. Because of security concerns, such files cannot be uploaded.

You'll have to remove the HTML code from the file's metadata. You will need to have access to software that allows you to edit such metadata. One way to do this is via exiftool. This is a very powerful command-line program to edit image metadata. If you're using a computer running the Windows operating system, there is also a graphical user interface to that tool called ExiftoolGUI.

If the file you tried to upload is from Flickr, you can view (but not edit) the metadata on Flickr. For instance, this Flickr image does have HTML in its metadata and will thus provoke this error message. You can view the metadata by appending "/meta" to the URL: this image's metadata. The "Caption-Abstract" metadata entry contains HTML-code: <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napier,_New_Zealand#1931_earthquake">Wikipedia</a>. That's the bit you'd need to remove. (Yes, that's just a harmless link. But with HTML, one could try to do more nefarious things, and thus our software simply forbids any HTML in image metadata.) Download the Flickr file to your computer and then remove the HTML from the metadata.

Once you have removed the HTML from the image's metadata, you should be able to upload the file. (Do not upload this sample file from Flickr, though, it already exists as File:Central Hotel, Napier 05.jpg.)

I want to use a Commons image, but there is already a file at my local wiki with the same name which is blocking it. How can I access the Commons file?

Unfortunately at this time, the only options are to have the local file deleted, or re-upload the Commons image under another name, or ask for either the local image or the Commons image to be moved to another name. If the local image is renamed, the leftover redirect may need to be deleted as well.

How can I upload a new version of a file?

Firstly, you can only do this if your account is older than 4 days.

Secondly, consider uploading to a separate file unless the changes are relatively minor. See Commons:Overwriting existing files.

If you are still intent on uploading a new version of a file, you should have the new version of the file saved to your computer, then navigate to the image page here on Commons. Under the subhead "File history", there is a link that says "Upload a new version of this file". Click on this link. You will be taken to a page titled "Upload file". Scroll down to the middle of this page to a box labeled "Source file". Next to the words Source filename is a button marked Browse.... Click on this button and browse your computer to find the new version of the file. Do not alter the entry under Destination filename:. Under File changes, indicate what changes you have made (e.g., "hi-res version" or "removed background noise" or "fixed colour balance")— just one line is enough to say what changes your new version contains. Lastly, click the Upload file button. A warning will appear telling you that you are replacing an existing file— as that is what you want to do, you should continue.

Avoid overwriting images with different images of the same topic.

Where can I see where my file is being used?

Below the "File history" section are two "file usage" sections, one titled File usage on Commons and another titled File usage on other wikis. These two sections will list all instances on Wikimedia Foundation projects where your file is currently in use.

Why is the text of my new uploads corrected soon after upload?

In last couple of years Wikimedia Commons has been working hard on localization or internationalization (aka. i18n) of most of the text a user might see on any page. The goal is to show the content in the language of the user's choice. The current upload process, which creates a lot of new text visible on each page, was written before the current push for internationalization and creates all the headers and other standard texts in the language of the uploader, and since the software supports many different languages, new images are created daily with text in all those languages. In order to correct the problem, some automatic processes (aka bots) patrol new uploads, changing the text to code which will automatically show the text in the language of the user's choice. Some of the changes you might expect to see on files uploaded (using English language for these examples) are:

  • Summary{{int:filedesc}}
  • [[Commons:Copyright tags|Licensing]]{{int:license}}
  • Own work{{Own}}

Some discussions on the subject can be found here and here.

Can't the upload process be fixed so it creates the correct wiki-text?

As explained in the above section, the wiki-text of the new file uploads is created directly by the server-side upload program (a php script). It can only be fixed by changing the Mediawiki code. The problem is well known, but it is unclear if there are plans to fix it (as of Nov 2009). Some recent discussions on the subject can be found here.

Why did my image rotate after I uploaded it?

This is most likely the result of an error in the file's EXIF data (also called its "metadata"). See Commons:Rotation for information about fixing this problem.

How do I fix the orientation of an image?

If your image appears upside down or needs to be turned by 90°, click on the Edit tab on the top of the file page. Then scroll down and type {{Rotate}} somewhere in the edit window. This will add a "rotation" template to your file (if you know exactly how you would like the image rotated, add that information to the template per the instructions below). Finish by clicking Save page at the bottom of the page. After a couple of hours, a bot will automatically rotate the image (losslessly, if possible).

RotateLink is a default gadget to add a link “(Silk arrow rotate clockwise.png request rotation)” to file pages, which allows you to easily (automatically) request any rotation.

Manual way:

Template Rotation
{{rotate|90}} Arrow Right 90°.svg 90 degrees clockwise
{{rotate|180}} Arrow Right 180°.svg 180 degrees
{{rotate|270}} Arrow Left 90°.svg 270 degrees clockwise (90° anticlockwise)

If you request a rotation by another value (e.g. 5°), the image will be placed in Category:Images requiring rotation for processing by humans. Maybe an editor will take the time to rotate it – can take some longer time.

My camera puts a timestamp on photos. Good?

No. Not good. Turn it off. It's much better to just let your camera store things like this in the file's Exif data – most devices will do that automatically.

What are the strangely named components in file paths?

And how are they computed?

If you go to some file on a MediaWiki installation, say File:Spelterini Blüemlisalp.jpg, and you click to view the full version, you may discover that the file resides at the URL https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ae/Spelterini_Bl%C3%BCemlisalp.jpg. (The "%C3%BC" part is just the result of url-encoding the Umlaut "ü".)

Where does that "/a/ae" part come from?
The "a" and "ae" denote some subdirectories that are used to avoid problems with directories containing too many files. Imagine all the millions of files at the Commons in one directory! Some operating systems have problems dealing with directories with many files. (Try working with a folder containing a few thousand files on Windows…)
Can it be calculated from the file name?
Yes. It's the first and the first two characters of the MD5 hash of the filename (blanks replaced by underscores) without namespace part. The file name "Spelterini_Blüemlisalp.jpg" has the MD5 hash "ae1a26d34d6a674d4400c8a1e6fe73f8".
MediaWiki installations can be configured on how to generate these filenames and directory structures. Any MediaWiki installation has one or more file repositories, which may be local or not. First, such subdirectories are used only if the global server-side configuration setting $wgHashedUploadDirectory is true (or $wgHashedSharedUploadDirectory for shared repositories). Then, for each file repository, there is a property called hashLevels that determines how deep the directory structure shall be. If zero, no such intermediary directories are used. If set to e.g. 3, three levels of directories are used; for the example above, one would get "/a/ae/ae1".
This method of storing files has been in MediaWiki since version 1.1 (and possibly even earlier), though it became a bit more configurable over time; initially, it was hardcoded to use two hash levels.
You can check what the file URL for a given file name will be at Special:FilePath. The file path can also be queried through the MediaWiki API using e.g. a query like https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/api.php?action=query&titles=File:Spelterini_Bl%C3%BCemlisalp.jpg&prop=imageinfo&iiprop=url. Both these methods, however, work only for existing files.
Online MD5 calculators differ in the way they treat UTF-8 input. Two that return values consistent with the way MediaWiki hashes UTF-8 strings are helloacm.com/md5/ and md5.cz.

How do I translate the subtitles on a video?

You can create a copy of the timed text page containing the transcribed subtitles, changing the language code in the timed text page to your language code. Then you simply translate the text. See Commons:Timed Text#Internationalization.

Internal error: bad token

When uploading a file you may see an Internal error: Bad token. error message. This will usually be fixed by logging out of Commons, closing your browser, and starting again. If not, you may additionally delete all cookies (or just the wikimedia.org cookie) and purge your browser's cache before trying again. If this still does not solve the issue, try turning off ad blockers or network filters (sometimes the token could look like an advert URL).

How do I close my account?

If you want to stop using Commons, then no special procedure is needed: simply stop visiting the site. Accounts cannot be removed completely, but some measures can be taken for privacy. See Right to vanish.

How do I request file deletion?

See the pages listed at Commons:Deletion.

Why can't I upload?

In some cases, uploads can be blocked by Commons:Filtro de Abusos.

Preguntas acerca da comunidade de Commons

Que e un administrador e como se converte un usuario nun deles?

Vexa Commons:Administrators.

Onde podo preguntar as miñas dúbidas?

Se quere preguntar sobre algún tema do que pense que houbo preguntas noutras ocasións, use Commons:Help desk. Se quere preguntar unha cuestión que posiblemente sexa nova, ou procurara a atención da comunidade, use o Commons:Village pump (en inglés. En galego dispón da Taberna).

Como colabora Commons con proxectos semellantes?

Commons está moi interesado en colaborar con proxectos con principios semellantes. Vexa, por exemplo, Commons:10,000 paintings from Directmedia e Commons:Collaboration with ourmedia. FlickrLickr é un éxito.

Que pode facer se unha páxina ou fichero ten que borrarse?

Vexa Commons:Propostas de borrado e Commons:Deletion policy.

Porque non se poden cargar por omisión todas as imaxes de todos os proxectos Wikimedia en Commons?

O máis importante: Algunhas Wikipedias teñen unha política de licenzas de imaxe menos estricta ca Commons, así algunha simaxes que non son aceptables en Commons poden selo alí. Commons non permite (e non pode permitir) contido fair use/uso lexítimo, como fan algunhas Wikipedias.

Que lingua se usa en Commons?

En teoría calquera lingua que queira usar. Vexa Commons:Política de idiomas. Na práctica por razóns técnicas as categorías teñen que estar en inglés.

Quen non fale inglés teno difícil en Commons. Commons trata de sumnistrar información en moitas linguas, pero as páxinas en linguas distintas ao inglés tenden a estar incompletas ou sen actualizar. Tamén outras cousas, como os nomes das categorías, non poden (agora) utilizar a lingua local.