Commons:非版权限制

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This page is a translated version of a page Commons:Non-copyright restrictions and the translation is 69% complete. Changes to the translation template, respectively the source language can be submitted through Commons:Non-copyright restrictions and have to be approved by a translation administrator.

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虽然此图属于共有领域,但如果你用它来出售电脑发唱片的话,你仍可能面临法律纠纷

非版权限制是使用素材中不同于版权的一种限制,这样的限制可能适用于公有领域的作品(如作品不再受版权保护)或使用受版权保护的作品的额外限制。

尽管维基共享资源上的所有材料都或属于公有领域,或可在对应的版权协议下自由使用,但是一些材料仍可能会在某些情况下或者通过某种途径使用时出现额外的法律限制。这些限制可能是由商标专利人格权作者的精神权利政治审查或任何许多其他独立于作品的版权状态的法律因素产生的。除了一些关于可辨认身份的摄像作品的限制和一些让作品放在维基共享上触犯法律的限制以外,维基共享认为非版权因素的限制是属于摄像师、上传者需要考虑的因素而非将其从维基共享删除的理由。

维基共享储存的多媒体文件的再使用者需要确保他们自己不违反任何应用于多媒体文件的非版权限制。而维基共享难以提供关于全世界存在的非版权限制的详细指导(但是一些关于隐私与个人权利的指导也在关于可辨认身份的摄像作品的维基共享页面提供)。

非版权限制[edit]

尽管维基共享资源上的所有材料都可在对应的版权协议下自由使用,但是一些材料仍可能会在某些情况下或者通过某种途径使用时出现额外的法律限制。这些限制可能是由商标专利人格权政治审查或任何许多其他独立于作品的版权状态的法律因素产生的。

维基媒体基金会共享资源政策禁止不符合再使用限制的内容。但是,非版权限制与共享资源或维基媒体的自由使用要求无关。[1]

举一个极端例子:使用任何维基共享资源的任何画作来进行诈骗都是违法的,但这个事实并不意味着维基媒体的材料不是自由内容。类似地,使用注册商标或某个著名人物的图像来误导消费者是法律所禁止的,但这一禁令与作品的自由性并无冲突。在德国,在学术研究以外不能自由使用左旋符或其他纳粹标志,但这同样不是我们所说的材料限制。尽管维基共享的授权协议旨在尊重公众的自由,但我们的能力所及范围仅限于保障我们的内容没有与版权有关的限制。维基媒体共享不可能,也不期望让所有人不受约束他们的法律的限制。

作为许多教育和新闻项目选择的自由媒体库,维基媒体的项目与其大多数的再使用者均符合大多数法律产生的非版权限制。

Reusers who are in other jurisdictions, or who are using material in a considerably different manner than Wikimedia's projects, may find themselves in a less favorable position, but in almost all cases replacing an image with another substantially similar image would not change the situation, which is entirely unlike concerns arising from copyright considerations.

Although we do not consider these restrictions relevant to our policies we do occasionally add disclaimers such as {{Trademarked}} and {{Personality rights}} as a general public service. The omission of these disclaimers should not be taken to indicate an absence of possible legal obligations. As always, we cannot provide legal advice specific to your circumstances.

直接影响到维基共享资源的非版权限制[edit]

Some non-copyright restrictions, for example defamation or obscenity laws, might make it illegal to host certain images on Commons. Such images are of course not allowed, whether they have a free license or not. The most important such restrictions are personality/privacy laws which do not allow photographs of identifiable people which were made in a private place, unless the depicted person gives permission.

例子[edit]

"家规"[edit]

Even if the rules of a facility contractually place restrictions on photography (either forbidding it entirely, or only allowing the resulting photos to be used non-commercially), these normally do not change the copyright status of a work photographed inside. For instance, many museums restrict photography, and Australian law forbids use of images of Commonwealth reserves for commercial gain, although this is within the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Regulations 2000, REG 12.38 and not the intellectual property laws of the country.

商标法[edit]

Trademark laws control the commercial use of logos, terms, and names related to products and services. Commons hosts many images of trademarks, and as long as the images do not violate any copyright, they are OK here. That applies even though certain commercial use of this material may be trademark infringement. Trademarks may not be subject to copyright if, for example, they are too simple to acquire copyright protection ({{PD-ineligible}}), or the designs are old enough that copyright protection has expired.

个人权益[edit]

Laws pertaining to personality rights may affect specific uses of particular images by third-parties and by Commons.

数据库权利[edit]

Since 1996, the European Union has had so-called database right laws covering the copying and dissemination of information in computer databases. A database right is considered to be a property right, comparable to but distinct from copyright, that exists to recognize the investment that is made in compiling a database.

Database rights protect against extraction of substantial parts of the database; they do not cover the individual works contained in the database. Therefore, database rights do not affect the right to reuse an individual work on its own. Also note that since database rights are not recognized by US law, the Wikimedia Foundation is not required to honor them.

著作人的人格权[edit]

Most legal jurisdictions recognise authors' moral rights as distinct from economic rights. Moral rights are usually non-transferable, in many jurisdictions do not expire, and in many jurisdictions cannot be waived by the author. The Berne Convention's definition of these rights can serve as a general guide, but the details of moral rights vary substantially by jurisdiction. Article 6bis of the Berne Convention protects attribution and integrity, stating:

Independent of the author's economic rights, and even after the transfer of the said rights, the author shall have the right to claim authorship of the work and to object to any distortion, mutilation or other modification of, or other derogatory action in relation to the said work, which would be prejudicial to the author's honor or reputation.[2]

参见[edit]


参考资料[edit]

  1. "Some media may be subject to restrictions other than copyright in some jurisdictions, but are still considered free work.(一些多媒体文件在某些司法领域可能遵循版权以外的其他限制,但仍被视为自由作品。)"[1]
  2. [2], Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, September 9, 1886, art. 6bis, S. Treaty Doc. No. 27, 99th Cong., 2d Sess. 41 (1986).