Commons:Briefmarken

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This page is a translated version of a page Commons:Stamps/Public domain and the translation is 89% complete. Changes to the translation template, respectively the source language can be submitted through Commons:Stamps/Public domain and have to be approved by a translation administrator.
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Ein Bild einer Briefmarke muss public domain oder frei lizenziert sein, bevor es in Wikimedia Commons hochgeladen werden kann.

Die Urheberrechtsregeln für Briefmarken sind von Land zu Land unterschiedlich. Briefmarken können als staatliche Werke betrachtet werden, die nicht urheberrechtlich geschützt sind, obwohl es Commons:Nicht-urheberrechtliche Beschränkungen gibt, in denen die Stempel verwendet werden können. Sie können als staatliche oder korporative Werke betrachtet werden, die für einen definierten Zeitraum, beispielsweise 50 Jahre nach ihrer Herausgabe, urheberrechtlich geschützt sind. Der Copyright-Begriff kann sich auf die Lebensdauer der Mitwirkenden am Stempeldesign beziehen und kann sich nach dem Tod des letzten Überlebenden auf 70 Jahre oder mehr erstrecken.

Ziel dieser projektseite ist es die urheberrechtliche situation von briefmarken zu klären. Es enthält informationen, die von seiten aufgeschlüsselt werden und die für jedes Land relevanten Regeln beschreiben.

Siehe auch: Commons:Stamps/Public domain templates

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COM: Abkhazia

Abchasien

Public domain use {{PD-AB-exempt}}
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Abkhazia

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COM: Afghanistan

Afghanistan

Copyright expires 50 years after first put in circulation.[2008 Article 16.1.6] Use {{PD-Afghanistan}}.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Afghanistan

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COM: Albania

Albanien

Public domain verwende {{PD-Albania-exempt}}
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Albania

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COM: Algeria

Algerien

Keine Information verfügbar
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Algeria

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COM: Angola

Angola

Keine Information verfügbar
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Angola

Copyrighted Public domain for the stamps published before 1 January 1969 (older than 50 years) if the work is anonymous. See {{PD-Antigua and Barbuda}}.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Antigua and Barbuda

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COM: Argentina

Argentinien

Copyrighted The basic copyright law of Argentina is Law No. 11.723 of September 28, 1933, on Legal Intellectual Property Regime (Copyright Law, as last amended by Law No. 26.570 of November 25, 2009). There is no mention of stamps or official works in the law, but Article 8 (as translated) says that "The ownership of anonymous intellectual works belonging to institutions, corporations or legal persons shall last for 50 years from the date of publication of those works." The government of Argentina is an institution and not a natural person so assume that where a stamp is anonymous, it is out of copyright after 50 years. Use {{PD-AR-Anonymous}} where applicable. If the designer of the stamp is shown, the stamp will remain in copyright for seventy years after death.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Argentina

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COM: Armenia

Armenien

Public domain verwende {{PD-AM-exempt}}.

Stamps appear to qualify as "state symbols and signs", which are not subject to copyright under the 2013 version of the copyright law [2013 Article 4.1(d)].
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Armenia

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COM: Azerbaijan

Aserbaidschan

Public domain use {{PD-AZ-exempt}}

An exception is File:1995 John Lennon..jpg.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Azerbaijan

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COM: Ethiopia

Äthiopien

Red copyright.svg. There are no specific laws on the copyright status of stamps. Ethiopian stamps are in the public domain 50 years after the date of issue, per the Copyright and Neighbouring Rights Protection Proclamation No. 410/2004, which states that "Economic rights shall belong to the author during his lifetime and to the heirs or legatees for fifty years from the date of death of the author" (Art. 20) and "The economic rights relating to an audiovisual work shall be protected for fifty years beginning from the date of making of the work or communication of the work to the public, which ever date is the latest."
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Ethiopia

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COM: Bahrain

Bahrain

Keine Information verfügbar
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Bahrain

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COM: Bangladesh

Bangladesch

Red copyright.svg. Vor 2032 dürfen keine Bilder von bangladeschischen Briefmarken hochgeladen werden, da die ersten Briefmarken am 29. Juli 1971 ausgegeben wurden und die Urheberrechte 60 Jahre, gerechnet nach dem Erstveröffentlichungsdatum, gültig sind. Briefmarken aus dem Jahr 1971 können ab dem Jahr 2032 hochgeladen werden.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Bangladesh

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COM: Barbados

Barbados

Keine Information verfügbar
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Barbados

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COM: Belgium

Belgien

Red copyright.svg In Belgium an image of a stamp is copyright free when the following conditions are fulfilled:

70 years after La Poste / De Post have issued the stamp AND 70 years after the designer of the image on the stamp has died.

The works of the following artists are in public domain because the artist died before 31 December 1945.

The work of the following artists will be in public domain on 1 January following 70 years after their death

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COM: Belize

Belize

Copyrighted According Belize's Copyright Act of 2000, where a protected work has been made by or under the direction or control of the Government and, apart from this subsection no copyright would subsist in the work, then copyright shall subsist therein by virtue of this subsection and shall initially belong to the State.[Cap.252/2000 Section 25(4)]

No special terms are specified for stamps or other government works, so standard copyright rules apply.

For stamps issued before 2000, crown copyright applies.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Belize

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COM: Benin

Benin

Keine Information verfügbar
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Benin

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COM: Bolivia

Bolivien

Red copyright.svg The Law No.1322 of April 13, 1992 on Copyright states that copyright protection expires 50 years after the author's death calculated from 1 January following the year of death.[1322/1992 Article 18]

For "anonymous works ... and in pseudonymous works, the economic rights shall last 50 years after the works have been made known" also calculated from 1 January of the following year.[1322/1992 Article 19]

Use {{PD-Bolivia}} for stamps published more than 50 years ago.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Bolivia

Keine Information verfügbar
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Bosnia and Herzegovina

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COM: Botswana

Botswana

Keine Information verfügbar
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Botswana

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COM: Brazil

Brasilien

Before 1983

PD-icon.svg use {{PD-BrazilGov}}

After 1983

Red copyright.svg
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Brazil

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COM: Brunei

Brunei

Keine Information verfügbar
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Brunei

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COM: Bulgaria

Bulgarien

Keine Information verfügbar
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Bulgaria

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COM: Burkina Faso

Burkina Faso

Keine Information verfügbar
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Burkina Faso

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COM: Burundi

Burundi

X mark.svg Nicht OK - Stamps are not included among the types of work for which copyright does not apply.[Act 1/021 2005 Article 7]

If the author is known, a stamp would be protected for life + 50 years.[Act 1/021 2005 Article 58] Otherwise, as an anonymous or collective work it would be protected for publication + 50 years.[Act 1/021 2005 Article 60–61]
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Burundi

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COM: Chile

Chile

Keine Information verfügbar
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Chile

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COM: Costa Rica

Costa Rica

Red copyright.svg The basic copyright law of Costa Rica is: Ley Nº 6683 - Ley de Derechos de Autor y Derechos Conexos. There are no specific provision for copyrights of postage stamps, but all works are copyrighted until 70 years after the author's death. In the case of government agencies and other public entities the copyrights of official works expired after 25 years, and in special cases after 50 years (i.e. books), both since the original publication date.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Costa Rica

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COM: Germany

Deutschland

Red copyright.svg

According to a decision by a German regional court (Landgericht Berlin) in a case of the heirs of German artist Loriot against the Wikimedia Foundation, announced 27 March 2012, German postage stamps are not "official works" according to § 5 I or II UrhG and are therefore not in the public domain, as previously assumed on Commons.

Stamps of other private entities are copyrighted as well. However, the usual German copyright expiration term applies - copyright expires 70 years after 1 January after death of the creator. Some individual stamps may be copyright-free for other reasons (e.g. simple graphic design). For a further discussion, see Wikilegal/Copyright of Images in German Postage Stamps

Veraltete Lizenzvorlagen, die gelöscht oder geändert werden sollen

Siehe Commons:WikiProject Public Domain/German stamps review.

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COM: Ecuador

Ecuador

Copyrighted Under the Intellectual Property Law (Codification No. 2006­-13) there is no exception for stamps, which would be protected for 70 years from publication.

  • Protected works shall include, inter alia, the following: ... works of painting, drawing, engraving and lithography ....[2006­-13 Art.8(f)]
  • The employer or commissioner owns copyright in works by made employees or commissioned.[2006­-13 Art.16]
  • Where the holder of rights in a work from the time of creation of the work is a legal person, the period of protection shall be 70 years from the making, disclosure or publication of the work, whichever is the later.[2006­-13 Art.81]
    Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Ecuador
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COM: El Salvador

El Salvador

Copyrighted According to the 2017 revision, works owned by legal entities are protected for 70 years counted from 1 January of the year following that of first publication.[2017 Article 86(c)]

Translation of the specific permission to use images of postage stamps for non-commercial educational, philatelic and cultural purposes was contained in an email message dated 11 January 2007 from Silvia María Orantes, Head of the Philatelic Office, Government of El Salvador but commercial restriction images are not permitted here.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of El Salvador

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COM: Finland

Finnland

Issued before 1990

Public domain use {{PD-FinlandStamp}}.

They are parts of decisions by an authority of Finland. The Finnish copyright law of 2005 specifies that no copyright exists in decisions or statements by an authority of Finland.[404/1961–2015 Sec.9]

Issued 1990 onwards

Copyrighted. Postage stamps first published after 1989, issued by Itella, are not in the public domain, and they should not be uploaded. Note however that Åland has its own stamps, which are not handled by Itella and different considerations apply. Because Posti- ja telelaitos, the authority for mail services, was changed from an authority to a company in the beginning of 1990, postage stamps published by Posti- ja telelaitos were not anymore parts of decisions by an authority. Most probably the copyright owner of postage stamps published after 1989 are the corporation Posti Group or the stamps' designer. A picture of a Finnish postage stamp first published after 1989 should be speedily deleted, unless permission has been granted by Posti Group, the designer of the postage stamp or a possible other copyright owner.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Finland

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COM: France

Frankreich

Red copyright.svg According to La Poste, French stamps have the same legal status as any other work of art. Stamps by designers deceased more than 70 years ago (plus years of war) are public domain.[1]

The names of the artists are generally printed at the bottom of the stamps or its main picture. Check the individual artists death dates in the frwiki category: Dessinateur de timbres/Stamp designers and also the French Phil-ouest website that lists many more than have wiki articles.[2]

On 1st January 2015, it appears that all postage stamps of France issued until 1922 are in the public domain (doubts about the 1919 stamp known as "The Two Orphans" - cause: no information found on the date of death of Surand and Jarraud).

The following list of artists whose works are in public domain because they died before 31 December 1948 is non-exhaustive:

Works by the following artists will be in public domain on 1 January following 70 years after their death:

  • Cortot, Henri (1892-1950)[3] @2022
  • Ouvré, Achille (1872-1951) @2022
  • Hourriez, Georges (1878-c1952)[4] @c2023
  • Dulac, Edmond (1882-1953) @2024
  • Nézière, Raymond de la (1865-1953) @2024
  • Feltesse, Émile Henri (1881-1955) @2026
  • Barlangue, Gabriel Antoine (1874-1956) @2027
  • Dufresne, Charles Paul (1885-1956) @2027
  • Lemasson, Henri (1870-1956) @2027
  • Cheffer, Henry (1880-1957) @2028
  • Rigal, Louis Pierre (1888-1959) @2030
  • Munier, Pierre (1889-1962) @2033
  • Cocteau, Jean (1889-1963) @2034
  • Mazelin, Charles (1882-1964) @2035
  • Louis, Robert (1902-1965) @2036
  • Serres, Raoul (1881-1971) @2042
  • Cami, Robert (1900-1973) @2044
  • Lemagny, Paul Pierre (1905-1977) @2048
  • Spitz, André (1883-1977) @2048
  • Piel, Jules (1882-1978) @2049
  • Picart Le Doux, Jean (1902-1982) @2053
  • Monvoisin, Michel (1932-1982) @2053
  • Miró, Joan (1893-1983) @2054
  • Fernez Louis (1900-1984) @2055
  • Decaris, Albert (1901-1988) @2059
  • Delpech, Jean (1916-1988) @2059
  • Haley, Claude (1923-1988) @2059
  • Gandon, Pierre (1899-1990) @2061
  • Pheulpin, Jean (1907-1991) @2062
  • Cottet, René (1902-1992) @2063
  • Combet, Jacque (1920-1993) @2064
  • Peynet, Raymond (1908-1999) @2070
  • Hundertwasser, Friedensreich (1928-2000) @2071
  • Leguay, Marc (1910-2001) @2072
  • Durrens, Claude (1921-2002) @2073
  • Hertenberger, Claude (1912-2002) @2073
  • Bridoux, Charles (1942-2003) @2074
  • Dessirier, René (1919-2003@2074
  • Guillame, Cécile (1933-2004) @2075
  • Folon, Jean-Michel (1934-2005) @2076
  • Forget, Pierre (1923-2005) @2076
  • Lacaque, Eugène (1914-2005) @2076
  • Slania, Czeslaw (1921-2005) @2076
  • Schach-Duc, Yvonne (1933-2009) @2080
  • Saison, Huguette (1929-2011) @2082
  • Mathieu, Georges (1921-2012) @2083
  • Béquet, Pierre (1932-2012) @2083
  • Leliepvre, Eugène (190-2013) @2084
  • Wou-Ki, Zao (1920-2013) @2084
  • Markó, Serge (1926-2014) @2085
  • Taraskoff, Mark (1955-2015) @2086
  • Quillivic, René (1925-2016) @2087
  • Andréotto, Claude (1949-2017) @2088


Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of France

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COM: Faroe Islands

Färöer

Public domain use {{PD-Faroe stamps}}

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COM: Georgia

Georgien

PD-icon.svg verwende {{PD-GE-exempt}}.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Georgia

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COM: Greece

Griechenland

Copyrighted Stamps by artists deceased more than 70 years ago (or pseudonymously designed more than 70 years ago, before 1 January 1949) are free. The copyright status of all other stamps issued before 1970 is disputed (possibly {{PD-GreekGov}} as government administrative documents). Stamps issued since 1970 follow the 70 years pma rule.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Greece

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COM: Haiti

Haiti

Red copyright.svg. Stamps by artists deceased more than 60 years ago (or pseudonymously designed more than 60 years ago, before 1 January 1959) are free.[2005 Article 20–23]
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Haiti

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COM: India

Indien

PD-icon.svg: Stamps are now covered under {{GODL-India}}. In addition, all Indian stamps older than 60 years are in the public domain. See en.wikipedia discussion here and here.

Use either {{GODL-India}} or {{PD-India}} where appropriate. Material issued by the Government of India before independence may be covered by {{PD-UKGov}}.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of India

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COM: Indonesia

Indonesien

Public domain use {{PD-IDGov}}.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Indonesia

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COM: Iraq

Irak

Red copyright.svg: All stamps published in Iraq before 1 January 1969 are in the public domain. Use {{PD-Iraq}} to tag them.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Iraq

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COM: Iran

Iran

Red copyright.svg: Alle Briefmarken, die vor dem 22. März 1989 ausgegeben wurden, sind gemeinfrei, da nach dem Gesetz zum Schutz der Rechte von Autoren, Komponisten und Künstlern iranische Briefmarken, die vor dem 22. März 1989 entworfen wurden, nach 30 Jahren gemeinfrei werden, wegen "In den folgenden Fällen werden Bilder nach 30 Jahren, gerechnet vom Zeitpunkt der Veröffentlichung oder Aufführung gemeinfrei werden (Artikel 16): In Fällen, in denen das Urheberrecht einer Rechtsperson gehört, oder auf eine solche übertragen wurde." Iranische Briefmarken sind urheberrechtlich geschützt und das Urheberrecht gehört der Iranischen Post, die eine "Rechtsperson" darstellt.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Iran

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COM: Ireland

Irland

Red copyright.svg Irish stamps issued by the Department of Posts and Telegraphs before 1984 are official works and those over 50 years old are in the public domain (published before 1 January 1969). Use {{PD-IrishGov}} to tag them. Since 1 January 1984, when An Post was established Irish stamps are copyright to the company.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Ireland

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COM: Iceland

Island

Keine Information verfügbar
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Iceland

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COM: Israel

Israel

Copyrighted Paragraph 51 of Israeli Postal Services Statute 1986, in its 2004 revised version stipulates that the State owns full copyrights for Israeli stamps. The Israeli copyright statute from 2007 determines that the State's copyrights expire on 1 January of the 51st year after the creation of the work. Hence, only stamps created 50 or more years ago are in the public domain. Template:PD-IsraelGov would be appropriate to indicate their copyright status.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Israel

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COM: Italy

Italien

Copyrighted Until specific information becomes available, apply the 70 years pma rule (or 70 years after issue for anonymous/pseudonymous stamps), so stamps by designers deceased more than 70 years are public domain. Where there are joint authors, such as an engraver and a designer, the copyright term starts following the death of the last survivor.

{{PD-Italy}} does not apply to Italian stamps. The law contains no exceptions to standard copyright law for stamps.

Stamps sometimes contain date and author. The Stamp Art blog, while not necessarily reliable, does list designers and some engravers of Italian stamps and Italian stamp designers, so may be worth reviewing.[5]

The following list of artists whose works are in public domain because they died on or before 31 December 1948 is non-exhaustive:

Works by the following artists will remain protected until 70 years after their death:

The following artists have unknown death dates:

  • Liana Ferri (stamp designs 1934)[6]
  • Gustavo Petronio (active c1920s–1950s)[7]
  • Alberto Repettati (c.1896-1940s)
  • Dino Tofani (1895–?1930)
  • C. Vincenti (1930s)
    Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Italy
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COM: Japan

Japan

Copyrighted Stamps more than 70 years old or published before 1 January 1968 are in the public domain, per {{PD-Japan}}.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Japan

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COM: Canada

Kanada

Copyrighted There is no special provision for postage stamps. Section 12 of the 1921 Copyright Act of Canada states that for government works (work that is, or has been, prepared or published by or under the direction or control of Her Majesty or any government department) the copyright is 50 years following the end of the calendar year during which the work has been published. This is known as Crown copyright.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Canada

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COM: Kazakhstan

Kasachstan

Public domain use {{PD-KZ-exempt}}

Pursuant to Article 8 of Law No. 6-I of the Republic of Kazakhstan On Copyright and Associated Rights dated June 10, 1996, "official symbols and signs (flags, coats of arms, decorations, bills and coins and other official symbols and signs)" are not copyrighted.[419/2015 Article 8] Pursuant to Article 1 of Law No. 386-II of Kazakhstan On Post dated February 8, 2003, official signs of postage include "stamps, souvenir sheets, stamped covers, postcards, postage meter marks and other signs introduced into circulation by the authorised agency, which confirm that postal operator services have been paid."
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Kazakhstan

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COM: Kenya

Kenia

Copyrighted. The Copyright Act 1966 states that "any work eligible for copyright which has been created pursuant to a commission from the Government" is copyrighted "until the end of the expiration of fifty years from the end of the year in which it was first published" [1]. For stamps published before 1 January 1969 use {{PD-Kenya|1}}.

Public domain (if prior to December 1965) per {{PD-UKGov}}
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Kenya

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COM: Colombia

Kolumbien

Copyrighted Stamps appear to be out of copyright after 70 years. If stamp is published before 1 January 1949 please use {{PD-Colombia}}.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Colombia

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COM: Cuba

Kuba

Copyrighted Modern stamps of this country are not in public domain or their status is unknown. Cuba was under Spanish control until 1898 and then under U.S. control until the Republic was established on May 20, 1902. Accordingly, the copyright applicable to stamps issued during those time periods would be Spain and the U.S.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Cuba

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COM: Laos

Laos

Copyrighted. Law No. 38/NA of November 15, 2017, on Intellectual Property does not mention stamps, and nothing that could be interpreted as stamps is included in the list of unprotected works.[38/NA/2017 Article 94]
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Laos

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COM: Latvia

Lettland

Public domain use {{PD-LV-exempt}}

According to the Copyright Law of the Republic of Latvia: of April 6, 2000, Section 6, "State approved, as well as internationally recognised official symbols and signs" are "Non-Protected Works", therefore all stamps are in Public Domain.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Latvia

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COM: Liechtenstein

Liechtenstein

Public domain? According to the Law of May 19, 1999, on Copyright and Neighboring Rights, "Copyright protection shall not subsist in ... means of payment".[1999-2006 Art.5]

However, Liechtenstein generally emulates Swiss law, and Liechtenstein's Copyright Act is based on the Swiss text. The majority of Swiss copyright law commentaries does not consider stamps "means of payment".[8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15]It is therefore likely that Liechtenstein stamps are protected by copyright as well.

In the past, {{PD-Liechtenstein}} was used for uploads of stamps from Liechtenstein, but this should not be done in the future, unless it's possible to produce evidence for the public domain claim.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Liechtenstein

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COM: Lithuania

Litauen

Public domain use {{PD-LT-exempt}}.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Lithuania

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COM: Malawi

Malawi

Copyrighted Under Malawi's Copyright Act, 2016, the copyright term for works by the government is 50 years from the date of first publication and for works by individual authors is life of the author plus fifty years.[26/2016 Section 35(1a),(1e)] Since the first stamps of Malawi were issued on 6 July 1964, the earliest any stamp of Malawi will be PD is 2015 (and even then only if the artwork depicted on the stamp is a government work).
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Malawi

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COM: Malaysia

Malaysia

Red copyright.svg According to article 23 of The Copyright Act 1987 (act 332), works by the Government Organizations are subject to copyright until the beginning of the year following 50 years after publication, so only stamps more than 50 years old may be uploaded and they should use the template {{PD-Malaysia}}. This applies until 1992 when the Malaysian post office was corporatized as Pos Malaysia, so the normal artistic copyright term likely applies (life plus 50 years), unless as a corporate work the term of publish plus 50 years applies.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Malaysia

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COM: Manchukuo

Mandschukuo

Public domain verwende {{PD-Manchukuo-stamps}}.

As China has always claimed Northeast China without recognizing Manchukuo, any copyright of Manchukuo stamps would have expired no later on 1 January 1996. China limits corporate copyright to 50 years since publication, and it is no longer known who designed the stamps.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Manchukuo

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COM: Mexico

Mexiko

Keine Information verfügbar
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Mexico

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COM: Mozambique

Mosambik

Copyrighted Mozambique copyright law instituted in 2001 states that copyright subsists for 70 years following completion for "works of applied art" which appears to cover stamps.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Mozambique

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COM: Myanmar

Myanmar

Red copyright.svg Under S.18 of the Copyright Act of 1911 (promulgated 1914 and sometimes known as the 1914 Act), Government works of Myanmar are copyright for 50 years from first publication (before 1 January 1969).
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Myanmar

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COM: Namibia

Namibia

Copyrighted According to the Copyright and Neighbouring Rights Protection Act 6 of 1994, copyright of government-produced work is held by the state, and lasts for a period of 50 years after publication [6/1994 Section 6(5)]. The Namibian post was originally a department of the government's Ministry of Works, Transport and Communication, and became Namibia Post Ltd, or NamPost, in 1992. Before its independence in 12 June 1968 {{PD-SAGov}} may apply.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Namibia

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COM: New Zealand

Neuseeland

Copyrighted

In New Zealand, the Crown Copyright is defined by Sections 2(1), 26 et 27 of the 1994 Copyright Act. It lasts 100 years, with exceptions. It protects the work created by a person employed or engaged by the Crown, Ministers of the Crown, offices of Parliament and government departments. See Wikipedia:Crown copyright [in English].

According to this law, images of New Zealand stamps are in the public domain :

  • 50 years after issue for stamps issued before 31 December 1944 (Template:PD-NZ-50-years on the Wikipedia in English). Use {{PD-NZ-50-years}}. All stamps from 1944 and before are thus in the Public Domain.
  • 100 years after issue for stamps issued between 1 January 1945 and the 31 March 1987 by the New Zealand Post Office as a Department of the Government. No stamps from 1945 onward will therefore become public domain before 1 January 2045.
    Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of New Zealand
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COM: Nicaragua

Nicaragua

Red copyright.svg Stamps are not mentioned among the works not subject to copyright.[312/1999 Article 16]
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Nicaragua

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COM: Netherlands

Niederlande

Red copyright.svg See nl:Wikipedia:Beleid voor gebruik van media/Postzegels (In Dutch).

Prior to 1 January 1989, the government-owned corporation PTT considered Dutch stamps as being created by the PTT company and as such was considered their author. In The Netherlands copyright expires 70 years after the death of the author. With stamps issued prior to 1989, copyright expires 70 years after publication.

From 1 January 1989 onwards, the PTT became the private company TNT Post. The rules are sometimes different compared to the period before 01-01-1989; for example, when there is more than one author of a stamp.

Public domain As of 2019 Dutch stamps created in the period 1852-1948 are considered to be Public Domain.

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COM: North Korea

Nordkorea

Copyrighted. According to North Korean copyright law as of 2006, "the property rights to a copyrighted work or a copyrighted visual art work whose author is an institution, enterprise or organization shall be protected for up to 50 years from the moment of its publication."[1532/2006 Article 24]

If published before 1 January 1969 use {{PD-DPRKOld}}
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of North Korea

Public domain use {{PD-Ottoman}}.

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COM: Austria

Österreich

Red copyright.svg The Austrian postal service (Österreichische Post) has limited copyright for all stamps and the displayed images. The stamps can be used for sale, manufacture and advertising. For all other imaging requests (such as printing works, books or encyclopedias) the respective postage stamp designer needs to be contacted, since it is not advertising. This eliminates a general license as template for the German stamps. For each stamp a release must be obtained individually. The contact addresses of the designers are subject to data privacy.

See de:Wikipedia:Briefmarken#.C3.96sterreichische_Post.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Austria

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COM: Pakistan

Pakistan

X mark.svg Nicht OK. Use {{PD-Pakistan-stamp}} for stamps whose copyright has expired

Copyright ownership of stamps is maintained by the Government of Pakistan, as stamps in Pakistan are issued by Pakistan Post, which works under the Government of Pakistan. According to Pakistan's Copyright Ordinance, 1962, stamps can be classified as artistic:

  • "artistic" work' means: ... a painting, a sculpture, a drawing (including a diagram, map, chart or plan), an engraving or a photograph, whether or not any such work possess artistic quality.[XXXIV/2000 Section 2(c.i)]
  • "Government work" means a work which is made or published by or under the direction or control of ... the Government or any department of the Government.[XXXIV/2000 Section 2(m)]
  • in the case of a Government work, Government shall, in the absence of any agreement to the contrary, be the first owner of the copyright therein.[XXXIV/2000 Section 139(d)]
  • Copyright in a Government work shall, where Government is the first owner of the copyright therein, subsist until 50 years from the beginning of the calendar year next following the year in which the work is first published.[XXXIV/2000 Section 22(1)]
    Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Pakistan
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COM: Panama

Panama

Copyrighted Under the Law No. 64 of October 10, 2012, stamps are not excluded from protection (e.g. as official texts).[64/2012 Article 13]

Copyright lasts for 70 years after death of the author or coauthor, or 70 years from publication if the work is anonymous or pseudonymous [64/2012 Article 59–60]. However, the economic rights for works created by authors who died before Law 15 of 8 August 1994 came into force will have the duration of 80 years as provided for in the Administrative Code of 1917.[64/2012 Article 194] In effect, works by authors who died after 1938 are still protected. For older stamps, if applicable, use {{PD-Panama}}.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Panama

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COM: Paraguay

Paraguay

Copyrighted: Stamps are not mentioned in Law No. 1328/98 on Copyright and Related Rights, and are not included in the categories that are not protected.[1328/1998 Article 8]
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Paraguay

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COM: Peru

Peru

Red copyright.svg The basic law on copyright in Peru is contained in Legislative Decree No. 822 of April 23, 1996.

There is no special mention of stamps in this law.[822/1996 Art.9] Copyright lasts for 70 years from death, calculated from the 1 January following the year of death, or for 70 years from the year of disclosure for anonymous and pseudonymous works.[822/1996 Art.52–53]

There is no PD template for Peru so use {{PD-old-auto}} where applicable.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Peru

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COM: Philippines

Philippinen

Public domain verwende {{PD-PhilippineGov}}

Works by the government of the Philippines are not protected by copyright. A prior approval of the government is necessary for exploitation of such works for profit. However, the clause for prior approval is determined to be a non-copyright restriction and can be safely ignored for the purposes of Wikimedia Commons by policy. See discussion).

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COM: Poland

Polen

Unclear According to Article 4, case 2 of the Polish Copyright Law Act of February 4, 1994 "normative acts and drafts thereof as well as official documents, materials, signs and symbols are not subject to copyrights".

Such materials should use {{PD-Polishsymbol}}. Unfortunately it is unclear if Polish stamps and banknotes are considered official materials, signs or symbols by Polish law. In 2009 about 900 files with Polish stamps were deleted (see Commons talk:Stamps/Public domain#Polish stamps are copyrighted for the discussion).
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Poland

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COM: Moldova

Republik Moldau

Keine Information verfügbar
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Moldova

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COM: Romania

Rumänien

Public domain verwende {{PD-RO-exempt}}.

According to the Romanian Law on Copyright and Neighboring Rights Law no. 8/1996 of 14 March 1996 with further amendments Chapter 3 Article 9 "means of payment" shall not benefit from the legal protection accorded to copyright; therefore images of stamps are deemed to be in the public domain.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Romania

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COM: Russia

Russland

Public domain use {{PD-RU-exempt|stamps}}

Pursuant to Article 1259.6 of Part IV of the Civil Code (No. 230-FZ) of the Russian Federation dated 8 December 2006, official symbols and signs (flags, emblems, orders, banknotes, and the like), as well as symbols and signs of municipal formations are not copyrighted. Pursuant to Article 2 of Federal Law No. 176-FZ of the Russian Federation On Postal Service dated July 17, 1999, official signs of postage include "postage stamps and other signs put on mail that give evidence that postage has been paid".

Article 1.1 of Official Postage Signs and Special Postmarks Regulations, put into force on 26 May 1994 by Order 115 of the Ministry of Communication of the Russian Federation, defines the official postage signs concretely and labels postage stamps, souvenir and miniature sheets, stamped envelopes, and postal stationery cards as the postage signs. Even works still under copyright can be used by the Russian post, without altering the copyright status of the work used.[16]

A copyrighted painting can be used on an envelope or such and {{PD-RU-exempt}} will apply, without turning the painting into a Public Domain work. Prerequisite is that the Russian post acquired permission from the copyright-holder. We can safely assume that the Russian post has come to an agreement with the copyright-holder of such work.

Tuva stamps

Public domain use {{PD-RU-exempt}}.

From 1921 to 1944, Tuva constituted a sovereign, independent nation under the name of Tannu Tuva, officially, the Tuvan People's Republic, or the People's Republic of Tannu Tuva. The independence of Tannu Tuva, however, was recognized only by its neighbors: the Soviet Union and Mongolia.[17] Since 1944 Tuva has been part of the Russian Federation.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Russia

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COM: Sweden

Schweden

Red copyright.svg Swedish stamps do not seem to have a copyright exception in Sweden, so stamps are in PD 70 years after the death of the engraver. See also: Category talk:Stamps of Sweden.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Sweden

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COM: Switzerland

Schweiz

Red copyright.svg According to Article 5 of the Federal Act on Copyright and Related Rights, Copyright does not protect .. means of payment. However, stamps are not considered means of payment and do not fall under any other exemption clause.

They therefore enjoy copyright protection.[18]
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Switzerland

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COM: Seychelles

Seychellen

Before June 1976

Public domain use {{PD-UKGov}} Seychelles was a British colony until June 1976; its stamps of the colonial era are covered by the "Crown Copyright", which expires after 50 years and puts the stamps in the public domain (see Crown copyright [in English] and {{PD-UKGov}}).

Before 1994

Public domain use {{PD-Seychelles}}.

After 1994

Copyrighted Postage stamps first published 25 years ago or earlier are not in the public domain, and should not be uploaded.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Seychelles

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COM: Singapore

Singapur

Red copyright.svg All stamps are under the copyright of the Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore (IDA). No stamps may be reproduced without paying royalties to the IDA, if requested.

According to Singapore's copyright law, stamps become public domain 70 years after the death of the engraver or 70 years after their issuance, if governmental work. Use {{PD-SG-artisticwork}}.

The Singapore Philatelic Museum has been appointed to administer approval for reproduction.[19]
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Singapore

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COM: Soviet Union

Sowjetunion

Public domain verwende {{PD-RU-exempt|stamps}}

Since, according to intergovernmental and international treaties, Russian Federation is a legal successor to the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the tag {{PD-RU-exempt}} (please see "Russia" above) also applies to images of postage stamps, stamped covers and stamped post cards (postal stationery) of the RSFSR and USSR.

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COM: Spain

Spanien

Red copyright.svg.

Communication with Spain's Philatelic Bureau suggests no public domain. Permission to scan images of Spanish stamps requires a specific request to the, Sociedad Estatal de Correos y Telégrafos.

According to Spanish copyright law, while most official works are not protected by copyright, standalone images are specifically exempted, and the author retains copyright. So it is safe to assume that Spanish stamps are copyright their designers, in which case they are protected for 70 years after the author's death, or 80 years if the author died before 1988. If the designer is unknown, the stamp falls into the public domain 70 years after it was issued, or 80 years if issued before 1987.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Spain

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COM: Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka

Copyrighted. The Intellectual Property Act No 36 of 2003 is silent on stamps, so assume copyrighted until general term of protection expires. It seems that stamps would be public domain if published before 1 January 1949, use {{PD-Sri Lanka}}.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Sri Lanka

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COM: South Africa

Südafrika

Copyrighted South African stamps older than 50 years (published before 1 January 1969) are in the public domain, use {{PD-SAGov}}
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of South Africa

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COM: South Korea

Südkorea

Copyrighted According to Articles 39 to 44 of the Copyright Act of the Republic of Korea, copyrighted works enter the public domain 70 years after publication when made public in the name of an organization. Use {{PD-South Korea}} if published before 1 January 1963.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of South Korea

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COM: Tajikistan

Tadschikistan

Public domain use {{PD-TJ-exempt}}.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Tajikistan

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COM: Thailand

Thailand

Copyrighted The copyright of postage stamps is held by Thailand Post and lasts 50 years. Public domain for stamps published before 1 January 1969.[2537/1994 Sec.23]
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Thailand

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COM: Tonga

Tonga

PDmaybe-icon.svg The copyright situation is unclear.

The Post Office Act (1933, 1977) does not mention copyright.[20]The Copyright Acts 2002 states that,

  • For a collective work other than a work of applied art ... the economic and moral rights are protected for fifty years from the date on which the work was either made, first made available to the public, or first published, whichever date is the latest.[2002 Sec.18]
  • A "work of applied art" is an artistic creation with utilitarian functions or incorporated in a useful article, whether made by hand or produced on an industrial scale.[2002 Sec.2] The economic and moral rights are protected for twenty five years the making of the work.[2002 Sec.18]

Thus, any stamp published more than 50 years ago should be in the public domain.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Tonga

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COM: Czech Republic

Tschechien

Copyrighted Postal stamps of Czechia (they are since 1993) are copyrighted 70 years after the author's death by both authors: an engraver and a graphic artist. They are not official works. Stamps are officially announced in Poštovní věstník (Postal bulletin, it is published at least since 2000) and texts in this bulletin is public domain but the stamps are copyrighted.

Copyrighted Postage stamps of Czechoslovakia (published in 1918-1939 and in 1945-1992) are copyrighted 70 years after the author's death by both authors: an engraver and a graphic artist. (see overview of artists)
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Czechoslovakia

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COM: Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan

Public domain According to Law No. 257-IV of January 10, 2012, Article 7, state symbols and signs (flag, coat of arms, anthem, awards, banknotes and other signs) are not copyrightable; therefore the postage stamps of Turkmenistan are in public domain. Use the {{PD-TK-exempt}} tag for each image.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Turkmenistan

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COM: Turkey

Türkei

Red copyright.svg Under Law No. 5846 of December 5, 1951 (as amended up to Law No. 6552 of September 10, 2014),

  • The rights in works created by civil servants, employees and workers during the execution of their duties shall be exercised by the persons who employ or appoint them; provided that the contrary may not be deduced from a special contract between such persons or from the nature of the work.[6552/2014 Article 8]
  • If the first author is a legal person, the term of protection shall be 70 years from the date on which the work was made public.[6552/2014 Article 27]

The copyright for stamps therefore belongs to the Turkish government and lasts 70 years from publication. Thus, any stamp issued 70 or more years ago (published before 1 January 1949) is public domain.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Turkey

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COM: Ukraine

Ukraine

Public domain use {{PD-UA-exempt}}.

According to the Article 10 of the Law of Ukraine on Copyright and Related rights, all Ukrainian stamps are in the public domain. They are defined as "state signs" in the Law of Ukraine On Postal Service (4 October 2001) :

  • Postage stamp means a state sign manufactured according to the procedure set forth by legislation, with specified face value and state, serving as the tool of payment for postal services provided by the national operator.[21]
    Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Ukraine
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COM: Hungary

Ungarn

Red copyright.svg Stamps of Hungary are probably not in the public domain.

Although Hungarian copyright law denies copyright protection for "means of state direction" (Act No. LXXVI. of 1999], I.4), the recommendation by the Council of Copyright Experts rejects a similar arguments for banknotes and suggests that "means of state direction" applies to specific, "official" uses of a work.[22][23] The same logic is presumed to apply to stamps as well. Assume copyrighted until general term of protection expires.

Also refer to Commons talk:Stamps/Public domain#Hungary and Commons:Undeletion requests/Archive/2013-10#File:1888 Kodaly 500.jpg
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Hungary

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COM: Uzbekistan

Usbekistan

Public domain use {{PD-UZ-exempt}}.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Uzbekistan

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COM: Venezuela

Venezuela

Red copyright.svg Stamps are not mentioned in the Law on Copyright 1993, and do not qualify as an excluded category.[1993 Article 4]

Copyright lasts for 60 years from death, calculated from the 1 January following the year of death [1993 Article 25]. The copyright in anonymous or pseudonymous works shall expire after 60 years counted from January 1 of the year following that of the first publication thereof.[1993 Article 27]

Use template {{PD-Venezuela}} where applicable.
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Venezuela

Copyrighted The 2002 UAE law states that such works as stamps are protected for 50 years starting from 1 January of the publication year. Yet the 1992 law gave a 25 years copyright protection (starting from the publication date). This means that all UAE postage stamps printed before 1977 are in public domain. Stamps issued after that year should wait 50 years.

One may tag Template:PD-United Arab Emirates stamp to any such image.

Vor 1978

Public domain verwende {{PD-USGov}}

Title 17 of the United States Code (source : en:United States Postal Service) :

  • public domain if issued before 31 December 1977
1978 onward

Copyrighted

Copyrighted by the United States Postal Service after 1 January 1978 (the date on which the Copyright Act of 1976 went into effect).[24] Written permission is needed[25].

Red copyright.svg. Many British stamps are "Crown Copyright", that expires after 50 years and puts the stamps in the public domain. (See Crown copyright [in English].) This also applies to the stamps of the various territories of the British Empire prior to their independence.

Following the privatisation of Royal Mail as a separate legal entity in 2012 the copyright of new British stamps has been held by Royal Mail in its own right, so in general no stamp may be uploaded.

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COM: Belarus

Weißrussland

Public domain verwende {{PD-BY-exempt}}

According to the Law of the Republic of Belarus No. 262-Z of May 17, 2011, "state symbols and signs (flag, coat of arms, anthem, awards, banknotes and other signs)" are not copyrightable.[262-Z/2011 Art.7(2)] According to the Postage Law of the Republic of Belarus No. 258-З of December 15, 2003, "postage stamp is an official (state) sign of postage printed on paper and carrying an artwork, and inscriptions "БЕЛАРУСЬ", "BELARUS", year of issue (in Arabic letters) and a par value (in Arabic figures). The par value of postage stamp may be designated in letters."[26]
Siehe auch: Category:Stamps of Belarus

Weltpostverein / WADP / WNS

Copyrighted The Universal Postal Union, in conjunction with the World Association for the Development of Philately (WADP), has developed the WADP Numbering System (WNS), launched on 1 January 2002. The web site (www.wnsstamps.ch/en/) has entries for some 160 countries and emitting postal entities, with over 25,000 registered stamps since 2002. Many of them have images, which generally remain copyrighted by the issuing country, but which the UPU and WADP permit to be downloaded.

Einzelnachweise

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  8. Cherpillod in Müller/Oertli, Urheberrechtsgesetz, 2nd ed. 2012, Art. 5 para. 3
  9. Barrelet/Egloff, Das neue Urheberrecht, 3rd ed. 2008, Art. 5 para. 5
  10. von Büren/Meer in von Büren/David, SIWR II/1, 3rd ed. 2014, para. 379
  11. Hilty, Urheberrecht, 2011, para. 130
  12. Dessemontet, Le droit d'auteur, 1999, para. 413
  13. Gilliéron in Werra/Gilliéron, Propriété intellectuelle, 2013, Art. 5 LDA para. 9
  14. von Büren, Urheberrecht und verwandte Schutzrechte, ZSR 1993, 193-222, 200
  15. disagreeing: Rehbinder/Viganò, URG, 3rd ed. 2008, Art. 5 para. 3 [included by analogy]
  16. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named RF115
  17. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Tuva1992
  18. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named barrelet
  19. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named SingPhil
  20. Tonga Consolidated Legislation: Post Office Act Acts 12 of 1933 and 29 of 1977. Pacific Islands Legal Information Institute. Retrieved on 2019-03-16.
  21. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named ZakonPost
  22. A Szerzői Jogi Szakértő Testület szakvéleményei. Bankjegy-, illetve pénzérme-kép szerzői jogi védelme, felhasználása; a szerzői jogok jogosultja. Ügyszám: SZJSZT (September 2001).]
  23. Council of Copyright Experts. Hungarian Intellectual Property Office. Retrieved on 2019-03-26.
  24. http://about.usps.com/corporate-social-responsibility/stamp-collecting.htm#asc8
  25. http://about.usps.com/doing-business/rights-permissions/welcome.htm USPS site
  26. 15 декабря 2003 г. № 258-З О почтовой связи – Postage Law of the Republic of Belarus No. 258-З of December 15, 2003 (in Russian). Retrieved on 2019-02-05.