File:Goldene Handfeste Berns.jpg

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Original file(2,206 × 2,730 pixels, file size: 1.31 MB, MIME type: image/jpeg)

Summary[edit]

Description

The Golden Charter (Goldene Handfeste) of Bern, dated to 1218, but likely a forgery. Established Bern's de facto independence as an Imperial Free City.

Date
Source Scanned from Rainer C. Schwinges (ed.), Berns mutige Zeit: Das 13. und 14. Jahrhundert neu entdeckt, Bern, Schulverlag blmv AG und Stämpfli Verlag AG, Bern 2003, ISBN 3-292-00030-0 and ISBN 3-7272-1272-1, p. 231.
Author
Permission
(Reusing this file)

Public domain.

Licensing[edit]

Public domain

This photograph was first published in Switzerland. It does not have the individual character required for copyright protection under Art. 2 par. 1 of the Swiss Copyright Act. See Wikipedia for details.

According to applicable case law, the individual expression of thought required for protection is present if the photograph is given an individual character e.g. by the choice of framing, the use of camera settings or the editing of the image. Conversely, it is not present, irrespective of the object and the setting, if the image is a mere "point-and-click" image with no individual characteristics. See Blau Guggenheim v. British Broadcasting Corporation BBC, BGE 130 (2004) III S. 714-720.

According to the Public Domain FAQ published by the Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property on its website, "the individuality required for copyright protection is commonly lacking for reproductions [of public domain works] which are as true as possible to the original. In contrast, an artistic photograph of a public domain work can be protected by copyright as a so-called 'derivative work'. [...] Whether a work is two or three-dimensional is irrelevant." (Version of 15 March 2015).


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Date/TimeThumbnailDimensionsUserComment
current19:07, 26 March 2006Thumbnail for version as of 19:07, 26 March 20062,206 × 2,730 (1.31 MB)Sandstein (talk | contribs){{Information| |Description=The Golden Charter (''Goldene Handfeste'') of Bern, dated to 1218, but likely a forgery. Established Bern's ''de facto'' independence as an Imperial Free City. |Source=Scanned from ''Rainer C. Schwinges (ed.), Berns mutige Zeit
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