File:Han foreign relations CE 2.jpg

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This map shows the world as was known to Han Dynasty China in 2 CE. Names of non-Chinese peoples and states have been purposely left with their Chinese names, (e.g. Dayuan instead of Fergana; Gaogouli instead of Goguryeo), to reflect the fact that our knowledge of participants in the Han world order comes almost exclusively from Chinese sources.


Territorial garrisons[edit]

The headquarters of chief commandants (都尉) are shown in yellow. Chief commandants commanded territorial garrisons and were responsible for the supression of local armed threats and supervision of recruitment for military service. Note that these were concentrated on the frontiers, especially on the northern border region. When in the interior of the Han empire, they were often placed near iron or salt industries, or on important communication routes. A few dependent states (屬國) are shown in green. These were usually mixed settlements of Chinese and Xiongnu or more commonly, Qiang, under Han administration.

Routes of communication[edit]

The broad outline of communication and transport routes from the capital Chang'an is marked in white. These were based on Qin Dynasty imperial highways, Han roads (such as the Chang'an-Anyi-Taiyuan-Yu road) and navigable riverways (such as the Chenliu and Shouchun river routes). The long road, often known as the Silk Road, extended west from Chang'an to the "Western Regions".

These are based in part on the reconstruction of early Chinese roads and waterways by Joseph Needham in Science and Civilisation, Vol. IV, 1954-, and the additions of Rafe de Crespigny in Generals of the South, 1992. The northern and southern routes of the Silk Road in the Western Regions is based on Map 16 in Cambridge History of China, vol. 1, 1986.

The Western Regions[edit]

From the end of the 2nd century CE, Han China fought with the Xiongnu over control of the "Western Regions". By the time that they established the office of Protector General of the Western Regions (at Wulei) in 60 BCE or 59 BCE, the entire region was dominated by the Chinese. Tributary city-states, in light orange, sent periodic tribute to Chang'an and were rewarded by the Han court.

License and Source[edit]

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Source: English Wikipedia, original upload see version history

File history english Wikipedia[edit]

(del) (cur) 04:28, 10 April 2005 . . Yu Ninjie . . 965x650 (571826 bytes) (free "documentation")
(del) (rev) 03:05, 9 April 2005 . . Yu Ninjie . . 965x650 (576822 bytes) (fixed up key)
(del) (rev) 02:52, 9 April 2005 . . Yu Ninjie . . 965x650 (571794 bytes) (more rivers)
(del) (rev) 09:49, 8 April 2005 . . Yu Ninjie . . 965x650 (566080 bytes) (More non-Chinese peoples; also cleaned up the rivers.)
(del) (rev) 23:10, 3 April 2005 . . Yu Ninjie . . 965x650 (559685 bytes) (fixed up key)
(del) (rev) 07:36, 3 April 2005 . . Yu Ninjie . . 965x650 (552630 bytes) (correction to rivers)
(del) (rev) 07:10, 3 April 2005 . . Yu Ninjie . . 965x650 (554025 bytes) (Han Great Wall shown.)
(del) (rev) 05:23, 3 April 2005 . . Yu Ninjie . . 965x650 (549512 bytes) (Han foreign relations CE 2)

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