File:Hitchcock Hedren Marnie Publicity Photo.jpg
English: Alfred Hitchcock & Tippi Hedren publicity photo for the film Marnie, 1964
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This is a publicity photo taken to promote a film actor. As stated by film production expert Eve Light Honthaner in The Complete Film Production Handbook, (Focal Press, 2001 p. 211.):
Nancy Wolff, includes a similar explanation:
Film industry author Gerald Mast, in Film Study and the Copyright Law (1989) p. 87, writes:
Kristin Thompson, committee chairperson of the Society for Cinema and Media Studies writes in the conclusion of a 1993 conference with cinema scholars and editors, that they "expressed the opinion that it is not necessary for authors to request permission to reproduce frame enlargements ... [and] some trade presses that publish educational and scholarly film books also take the position that permission is not necessary for reproducing frame enlargements and publicity photographs." ("Fair Usage Publication of Film Stills" by Kristin Thompson, Society for Cinema and Media Studies)
Note on non-renewalː The back of the photo indicates that the Minneapolis Journal received the photo in November 1936, but did not use it for publication until February 17, 1937. A check of publications renewals for the Minneapolis Journal for the years 1964 and 1965 showed that the paper did not renew any issues during those two years.
This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published in the United States between 1923 and 1977 without a copyright notice. See Commons:Hirtle chart for further explanation. Note that it may still be copyrighted in jurisdictions that do not apply the rule of the shorter term for US works (depending on the date of the author's death), such as Canada (50 p.m.a.), Mainland China (50 p.m.a., not Hong Kong or Macao), Germany (70 p.m.a.), Mexico (100 p.m.a.), Switzerland (70 p.m.a.), and other countries with individual treaties.
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