- 1 Drawings
- 2 Equipment
- 3 Installations
- 4 Bad examples (Building and Fire Code Violations)
- 5 Proper Firestops
- 6 Building Joint Firestops Requiring Materials also tested as Penetration Seals
- 7 Firestop Tags
- 8 Fire tests
- 9 Also see
Plan view of Certification listing seal design UL C-AJ-8073
Certification listing seal design UL C-AJ-8073 Configuration A
listing seal design UL C-AJ-8073 Configuration B
Certification listing seal design UL C-AJ-8073 Configuration C
Certification listing seal design UL C-AJ-8073 Configuration D
Certification listing seal design UL C-AJ-8073 Configuration E
Certification listing seal design UL C-AJ-8073 Configuration F
Certification listing seal design UL C-AJ-8073 Configuration G
Positive displacement mixer/feeder firestop mortar pump. The premixed dry powder is dumped into the hopper and fed by a screw towards a rotor/stator assembly. In front of the assembly it is mixed with water, then squeezed through the assembly and into the hose.
Bad examples (Building and Fire Code Violations)
No firestop at all
Improper breach of fire-resistance rated drywall assembly, August 2000, Cambrian College, Greater Sudbury, Ontario, Canada.
Fireproofing applied at the wrong time, avoiding code compliance with firestops. The steel beam is also a penetrant and its transit through this wall needs to be firestopped properly, as does the HOW joint, none of which happened here, at Cambrian College, Greater Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, August 2000.
Missing firestops at Cambrian College], Greater Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, August 2000.
Missing firestops at Cambrian College, Greater Sudbury,e caused significant damage to the station. This picture was taken in a power plant in Nova Scotia, where it was subsequently removed and replaced with firestop mortar. The Browns Ferry fire caused significant remedial work to be conducted with all Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees.
Improper Firestop and Fireproofing interface, August 2000, Cambrian College, Greater Sudbury, Ontario, Canada
The "I-was-there-first-scenario", resulting in improper drywall firestops with plastic piping. The floor penetrations are proper. The drywall penetrations are being set up to be done by only drywall mud. That is not proper because drywall mud will not choke off the plastic pipes when they melt in a fire.
Certified Products But Wrong Installation
This firestop is missing the proprietary coating that is intended to be applied on both sides. That step was omitted as a cost-cutting measure. The seal is only listed for maximum 1.1ft² openings, a point of interest during the Select Committee on Ontario Hydro Nuclear Affairs.
Inoperable firestop made of self-leveling intumescent caulking applied in a wall at Grand Coulee Dam.
Intumescent collar is applied at the bottom of the plastic pipe penetration. The problem is that the slab is not smooth and the fire can go straight through to the pipe above the collar. This firestop is inoperable.
Faulty Sakno Silicone Foam Installation in a Calgary sewage treatment plant in the 1980s.
Re-entered but not properly resealed
Re-entered Cable tray Penetration With Tagged Firestop Mortar Seal.
Improper and Unenforced Specifications (No speciality subcontractor = up to 15 trades doing firestopping on one site)
Too many trades doing the work:The plumber hangs a pointless sleeve, which is an unnecessary heatsink. The insulator caulks the hole for the plumber. Then there's a mess AROUND the sleeve, which is yet another penetrant reequiring firestopping. Each trade absolves itself of responsibility for the mess by having followed instructions, instead of having one firestop speciality subcontractor so the result meets the code.
Improper Firestop and Fireproofing interface, August 2000, Cambrian College], Greater Sudbury, Ontario, Canada
White Pipe Through-Penetration Firestop
Mechanical pipe through-penetrations in 2 hour fire-resistance rated concrete floor slab with metallic piping, covered through the thickness of the firestops with 25mm thick rockwool pipe covering with foil scrim kraft facing. Running the pipe covering through the firestop maintains the vapour barrier. A weak link in the vapour barrier is the cutting and fitting required around riser clamps. Rockwool, foam glass, calcium silicate, perlite and vermiculite pipe covering can survive a fire test with a hose-stream. Foamed plastic, rubber and fibreglass require either removal or wrapping with an intumescent layer to be sure that as the pipe covering disappears during a fire, the vacated space is occupied by solid matter that can withstand the fire test and hose stream test, all subject to bounding.
The "I-was-there-first-scenario", resulting in improper drywall firestops with plastic piping.The floor penetrations are proper. The drywall penetrations are being set up to be done by only drywall mud. That is not proper because drywall mud will not choke off the plastic pipes when they melt in a fire.
Building Joint Firestops Requiring Materials also tested as Penetration Seals
Fire-resistance rated mechanical shaft with HVAC sheet metal ducting and copper piping, as well as "HOW" (Head-Of-Wall) joint between top of concrete block wall and underside of concrete slab, firestopped with ceramic fibre-based firestop caulking on top of rockwool. The picture illustrates that building joints are routinely penetrated by mechanical and electrical penetrants or services, requiring joint firestops to be compatible with mechanical, electrical and structural penetrants, both in fire testing and under common operational conditions, such as expansion and contraction of mechanical systems due to temperature changes.
"HOW" (Head Of Wall) Building Joint: Concrete Masonry Unit Wall stopping short of the underside of a concrete slab above. The joint is penetrated both by electrical conduit (EMT = Electrical Metallic Tubing) and a steel pipe. Building joints are routinely penetrated by mechanical and electrical penetrants. For that reason, joint firestops that are also qualified to be used in mechanical, electrical and structural through-penetration firestop systems provide the best evidence of building code compliance because they have demonstrated the ability to cope with the heat that travels through to the unexposed side during an accidental or test fire exposure - without spontaneous ignition or degradation that would fail the hose-stream test or permit smoke migration.
Private fire test furnace in Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA. This furnace is used primarily for internal Research and Development but may also be used for third party testing, if the test is witnessed by Underwriters Laboratories. There is an adjustable opening on this furnace that can be used for 4' x 4' as well as 6' x 6' slabs. The furnace can also be tilted 90° to be able to test either wall assemblies or floor assemblies. The laboratory is also equipped with a full 30PSI hose stream capability.
Fire test preparation for proven re-entry procedure with firestop mortar.
Fire test preperation with re-entry of firestop mortar, re-sealing using intumescent firestop caulking for fire-test-proven compatibility between mortar and caulking in the same certification listing.
Fire test preparation: reentry of firestop mortar with cable and re-sealing with intumescent firestop putty for fire-test-proven compatibility between mortar and putty.
Post fire test pictures showing how 3/4 in. thick acrylonitrile butadiene/polyvinyl chloride (AB/PVC) flexible foam pipe covering can go through the seal unhindered. It was wrapped inside the mortar with an intumescent wrap strip, which stopped the fire. There was no autoignition of the insulation due to flame retardants inherent in its organic composition.
Intumescent repair: Cable was pulled from the fire test assembly after it has passed the fire and hose stream tests. This is proven compatibility between the original seal and the repair method. This formed part of UL Firestop Certification Listing C-AJ-8073 Configuration E.
Underside of Assembly for UL certification listing C-AJ-8073 Configuration D, the mortar is intact, the fibreglass has disappeared and the intumescent wrap strip has occupied the space formerly held by the insulation.
Underside of cable tray penetration after fire and hose stream testing leading to UL Firestop Certification Listing C-AJ-8073.
Fire test assembly after having passed fire and hose stream testing to achieve listing status under UL Certification Listing C-AJ-8073.
Penetrants being hung.
Penetrants have been hung.
Furnace used in fire testing. Bottom pipes are gas jets. Middle row of pipes are shield for thermocouples.
The hose stream passed except for two locations where the water came through, making a fire-resistance rating impossible in the US, but not in Canada. The two penetrations shown were filled with intumescent laced rockwool, sealed on top with silicone caulking. The caulking let go from the sleeves during the hose.