General phonetics

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This is an article on general phonetics intended as an easy way of finding samples of specific sounds.

See also: International Phonetic Alphabet

Consonants (pulmonic)[edit]

Blab. Ldent. Dent. Alv. Palv. Ret. Pal. Velar Uvular Phar. Glot.
Nasal m ɱ   n   ɳ ɲ ŋ ɴ  
Plosive p b     t d   ʈ ɖ c ɟ k g q ɢ     ʔ  
Fricative ɸ β f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ h ɦ
Approximant   ʋ   ɹ   ɻ j ɰ      
Trill ʙ     r         ʀ    
Tap or Flap       ɾ   ɽ          
Lateral Fricative   ɬ ɮ            
Lateral Approximant     l   ɭ ʎ ʟ    
Lateral flap ɺ ɺ̢ ʎ̯
  • Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant.
  • Shaded areas indicate articulations judged impossible.

Consonants (non-pulmonic)[edit]

Blab. Ldent. Dent. Alv. Palv. Ret. Pal. Velar Uvular
Implosives ƥ ɓ     ƭ ɗ     ƈ ʄ ƙ ɠ ʠ ʛ
Ejective plosives       ʈʼ
Ejective fricatives ɸʼ θʼ ʃʼ ʂʼ çʼ χʼ
Central clicks ʘ   ǀ   ǃ   ǂ    
Lateral clicks     ǁ          

Vowels[edit]

edit •discuss •enlarge ] Front Near- front Central Near- back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.png
i · y
ɨ · ʉ
ɯ · u
ɪ · ʏ
e · ø
ɘ · ɵ
ɤ · o
ɛ · œ
ɜ · ɞ
ʌ · ɔ
a · ɶ
ɑ · ɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open


Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel.

Other symbols[edit]

ʍ Voiceless labial-velar fricative
w Voiced labial-velar approximant
ɥ Voiced labial-palatal approximant
ɫ Velarized alveolar lateral approximant
ʜ Voiceless epiglottal fricative
ʢ Voiced epiglottal fricative
ʡ Epiglottal plosive
ɕ ʑ Alveolo-palatal fricatives
ɺ Alveolar lateral flap
ɧ Simultaneous ʃ and x

Affricates and double articulations can be represented by two symbols joined by a tie bar if necessary, or represented by a ligature in the case of the eight commonest affricates:

Ligature Tie bar Description
ʦ t͡s voiceless alveolar affricate
ʧ t͡ʃ voiceless palato-alveolar affricate
ʨ t͡ɕ voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate
ʈ͡ʂ voiceless retroflex affricate
ʣ d͡z voiced alveolar affricate
ʤ d͡ʒ voiced post-alveolar affricate
ʥ d͡ʑ voiced alveolo-palatal affricate
ɖʐ ɖ͡ʐ voiceless retroflex affricate

Due to a bug in the font Arial Unicode MS, these incorrectly formed character combinations may look better in your browser: ts͡ tʃ͡ tɕ͡ dz͡ dʒ͡ dʑ͡ kp͡ .