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The lituus was a cult instrument in Roman religion, used by augurs to mark out a ritual space in the sky (a templum). The passage of birds through this templum indicated divine favor or disfavor for a given undertaking.

The lituus is also used as a symbol of office for the college of the augurs to mark them out as a priestly group.

For the math function with the same name see Lituus (function)