Skaneateles Conservation Area flora

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English: These plant photographs were taken at the Skaneateles Conservation Area, in the Town of Skaneateles, Onondaga County, New York. They are arranged in phylogenetic order, based on the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website Main Tree and Flora of New York on WikiBooks.


Balsam fir
Abies balsamea
Striped maple
Acer pensylvanicum
White baneberry
Actaea pachypoda
White snakeroot
Ageratina altissima
Annual ragweed
Ambrosia artemisiifolia
American hog peanut
Amphicarpaea bracteata
Sharp-lobed hepatica
Anemone acutiloba
Hemp dogbane
Apocynum cannabinum
Arisaema triphyllum
Artemisia vulgaris
Swamp milkweed
Asclepias incarnata
Common milkweed
Asclepias syriaca
Japanese barberry
Berberis thunbergii
Nodding beggar-ticks
Bidens cernua
Small-spike false nettle
Boehmeria cylindrica
Marsh marigold
Caltha palustris
American chestnut
Castanea dentata
Blue cohosh
Caulophyllum thalictroides
White turtlehead
Chelone glabra
Cichorium intybus
Virginia virgin's-bower
Clematis virginiana
Wild basil
Clinopodium vulgare
Canada horse-balm
Collinsonia canadensis
English hawthorn
Crataegus monogyna
Wild fuller's teasel
Dipsacus fullonum
Common boneset
Eupatorium perfoliatum
White wood aster
Eurybia divaricata
Fragrant bedstraw
Galium triflorum
American witch-hazel
Hamamelis virginiana
Bluntleaf waterleaf
Hydrophyllum canadense
American winterberry
Ilex verticillata
Orange jewelweed
Impatiens capensis
Pale jewelweed
Impatiens pallida
Harlequin blue flag
Iris versicolor
Black walnut
Juglans nigra
Common juniper
Juniperus communis
Lindera benzoin
Lobelia cardinalis
Bird's-foot trefoil
Lotus corniculatus
Purple loosestrife
Lythrum salicaria
False Solomon’s-seal
Maianthemum racemosum
Starry Solomon’s-seal
Maianthemum stellatum
White sweetclover
Melilotus albus
Canada moonseed
Menispermum canadense
Mitchella repens
European common reed
Phragmites australis
American pokeweed
Phytolacca americana
Scotch pine
Pinus sylvestris
Eastern cottonwood
Populus deltoides
Prunella vulgaris
White oak
Quercus alba
Red oak
Quercus rubra
Staghorn sumac
Rhus typhina
Allegheny blackberry
Rubus allegheniensis
Corkscrew willow
Salix matsudana
American black elderberry
Sambucus nigra
Sanguinaria canadensis
Oneseed burr-cucumber
Sicyos angulatus
Blue-stem goldenrod
Solidago caesia
Zigzag goldenrod
Solidago flexicaulis
Wrinkled-leaf goldenrod
Solidago rugosa
Staphylea trifolia
Skunk cabbage
Symplocarpus foetidus
Rue anemone
Thalictrum thalictroides
Poison ivy
Toxicodendron radicans
Orangefruit horse gentian
Triosteum aurantiacum
Tussilago farfara
Broadleaf cattail
Typha latifolia
Viburnum lentago
Cranberry-bush viburnum
Viburnum opulus
Bird vetch
Vicia cracca
Lesser periwinkle
Vinca minor
Pale swallowwort
Vincetoxicum rossicum

Scotch pine[edit]

Pinales: Pinaceae: Pinus sylvestris. These flowering, non-native Scotch pines were apparently planted during the 1970s, above the fishing pond at the Federal Farm.

Balsam fir[edit]

Pinales: Pinaceae: Abies balsamea, balsam firs, are native conifers.

Common, dwarf juniper[edit]

Pinales: Cuprecaceae: Juniperus communis var. depressa, common dwarf juniper, is a native conifer found at various Federal Farm locations.


Laurales: Lauraceae: Lindera benzoin, native spicebush is an early sign of Spring along the trail down to the Gully Road beaver pond from the Federal Farm.

Skunk cabbage[edit]

Alismatales: Araceae: Symplocarpus foetidus. native


Alismatales: Araceae: Arisaema triphyllum. native

Harlequin blue flag[edit]

Asparagles: Iridaceae: Iris versicolor (harlequin blue flag) is a native wildflower of fields and open wetlands.

False Solomon’s-seal[edit]

Asparagles: Asparagaceae: Maianthemum racemosum, false Solomon’s-seal, is a native woodland wildflower.

Starry Solomon’s-seal[edit]

Asparagles: Asparagaceae: Maianthemum stellatum. A large patch of native Starry Solomon’s-seal was discovered after clearing a thicket of exotic bush honeysuckle from one of the clearings in the woods between the fishing pond and Scout Field. However this patch quickly began to be consumed by pale swallowwort and other weeds.

Broadleaf cattail[edit]

Poales: Typhaceae: Typha latifolia. The native broadleaf cattail is prevalent primarily around the fishing pond on the Federal Farm.

European common reed[edit]

Poales: Poaceae: Phragmites australis subsp. australis or European common reed is a highly invasive grass that has infested several wetland areas at the Skaneateles Conservation Area.

Japanese barberry[edit]

Ranunculales: Berberidaceae: Berberis thunbergii Japanese barberry, is a very highly invasive shrub that is quite common at the conservation area.

Canada moonseed[edit]

Ranunculales: Menispermaceae: Menispermum canadense, Canada moonseed, a native vine, along the north-south trail that separates the Federal Farm from the transfer station.

Blue cohosh[edit]

Ranunculales: Berberidaceae: Caulophyllum giganteum. A native early spring wildflower.

Rue anemone[edit]

Ranunculales: Ranunculaceae: Thalictrum thalictroides. A native early spring wildflower. Its leaf-shape is similar to, but much smaller than blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides).

White baneberry[edit]

Ranunculales: Ranunculaceae: Actaea pachypoda, white baneberry or doll's eyes, is a native woodland wildflower.

Marsh marigold[edit]

Ranunculales: Ranunculaceae: Caltha palustris. These native marsh marigolds were in the bog on the west side of the beaver pond along Gully Road,

Sharp-lobed hepatica[edit]

Ranunculales: Ranunculaceae: Anemone acutiloba, sharp-lobed hepatica, is a native, early-Spring woodland wildflower.

Virginia virgin's-bower[edit]

Ranunculales: Ranunculaceae: Clematis virginiana. Native Virgin's-bower vines were growing on exotic honeysuckle bushes on the west edge of scout field until the bushes were removed over the winter of 2014 and 2015.


Ranunculales: Ranunculaceae: Sanguinaria canadensis. Bloodroot is a native, early-Spring woodland wildflower. It derives its name from the deep red, caustic sap the flows through its roots.

American witch-hazel[edit]

Saxifragales: Hamamelidaceae: Hamamelis virginiana, American witch-hazel, is a native understory tree.

Eastern cottonwood[edit]

Malpighiales: Salicaceae: Populus deltoides, eastern cottonwood, is a large native tree in the poplar genus, with triangular leaves.

Corkscrew willow[edit]

Malpighiales: Salicaceae: Salix matsudana, corkscrew willow is a non-native tree from Asia, occasionally used for marsh restoration or as an ornamental tree. These trees rarely if ever naturalize in this area, so this one is assumed to have been planted.

American hog peanut[edit]

Fabales: Fabaceae: Amphicarpaea bracteata. The American hog peanut is a native herbacious twining vine that is found climbing shrubs, grape vines, and goldenrod along mostly-wooded trails in the Federal Farm, It flowers in late August. It is closely related to the highly invasive kudzu (Pueraria montana), an Asian vine which hasn't been know to naturalize in this vicinity as of yet.

Bird's-foot trefoil[edit]

Fabales: Fabaceae: Lotus corniculatus. Bird's-foot trefoil is a common exotic and moderately invasive weed in the fields of the Federal Farm.

White sweetclover[edit]

Fabales: Fabaceae: Melilotus albus. White sweetclover is a biennial forage crop that is native to Eurasia and has become a widespread weed in disturbed sites like the Federal Farm, It moves in quickly when other invasive plants are removed from an open area. Some sources treat Melilotus albus as conspecific with Melilotus officinalis, yellow sweetclover, but others have found them to be incompatible.

Bird vetch[edit]

Fables: Fabaceae: Vicia cracca, bird vetch, is considered to be moderately invasive in New York State.

Allegheny blackberry[edit]

Rosales: Rosaceae: Rubus allegheniensis, Allegheny blackberry, is a native blackberry, common along lightly-shaded woodland trails.

English hawthorn[edit]

Rosales: Rosaceae: Crataegus monogyna. There are about 50 taxa of hawthorns listed in New York State (including some subspecies and hybrids). Of these, only Crataegus monogyna is not native to the Northeast, and it seems to be the most common hawthorn species found at the conservation area.

Small-spike false nettle[edit]

Rosales: Urticaceae: Boehmeria cylindrica, small-spike false nettle, is a native wetland plant, similar to the American stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) without the stinging hairs.

One-seeded burr-cucumber[edit]

Cucurbitales: Cucurbitaceae: Sicyos angulatus, one-seeded burr-cucumber, is a native vine.

White oak[edit]

Fagales: Fagaceae: Quercus alba, white oak, a native tree.

Red oak[edit]

Fagales: Fagaceae: Quercus rubra, red oak, a native tree.

American chestnut[edit]

Fagales: Fagaceae: Castanea dentata. These native, pure American chestnut trees were planted sometime around 2003. The year 2012 appears to be the only time that they flowered and produced nuts. Most of the original trees have died, but a few are left and others have been planted.

Black walnut[edit]

Fagales: Juglandaceae: Juglans nigra. This is the native black walnut tree on the east side of the observation deck on the Federal Farm.

Purple loosestrife[edit]

Myrtales: Lythraceae: Lythrum salicaria, purple loosestrife is is found in many sunny wetland areas at the SCA.


Crossosomatales: Staphyleaceae: Staphylea trifolia. The Native bladdernut shrubs are common along the edges of wooded areas at the Federal Farm.

Staghorn sumac[edit]

Sapindales: Anacardiaceae: Rhus typhina, staghorn sumac, is a small Native tree, common on roadsides and forest edges.

These staghorn sumac leaves are hosting Melaphis rhois (staghorn sumac aphid) galls. The tree is located on the edge of a clearing in the woods just south of the fishing pond on the Federal Farm, 28 Aug. 2015.

Poison ivy[edit]

Sapindales: Anacardiaceae: Toxicodendron radicans. Native but poisonous.

Striped maple[edit]

Sapindales: Sapindaceae: Acer pensylvanicum.

American pokeweed[edit]

Caryophyllales: Phytolaccaceae: Phytolacca americana, American pokeweed, is a native, perennial herbaceous plant.

Orange jewelweed[edit]

Ericales: Balsaminaceae: Impatiens capensis, orange jewelweed, is a native plant, common in moist wooded areas.

Pale jewelweed[edit]

Ericales: Balsaminaceae: Impatiens pallida, jewelweed, is a native plant common in moist wooded areas.

Fragrant bedstraw[edit]

Gentianales: Rubiaceae: Galium triflorum is native woodland Galium species at the Guppy Farm, 24 Aug. 2014


Gentianales: Rubiaceae: Mitchella repens, the native partridgeberry, seems to trive in the shade of hemlocks.

Lesser periwinkle[edit]

Gentianales: Apocynaceae: Vinca minor, common periwinkle or myrtle, is an ornamental evergreen ground cover that was imported from Europe in the 1700s. It has escaped cultivation and become quite invasive in the vicinity the old homesteads on the Guppy and O'loughlin properties.

Hemp dogbane[edit]

Gentianales: Apocynaceae: Apocynum cannabinum, hemp dogbane, is a native relative of milkweed.

Swamp milkweed[edit]

Gentianales: Apocynaceae: Asclepias incarnata. A native milkweed.

Common milkweed[edit]

Gentianales: Apocynaceae: Asclepias syriaca, common milkweed and other native milkweeds are larval hosts for monarch butterflies.

Pale swallowwort[edit]

Gentianales: Apocynaceae: Vincetoxicum rossicum, pale swallow-wort is a very highly invasive exotic relative of common milkweed. It has become quite common on the Federal Farm section of the conservation area. Besides enveloping and displacing native plants, it is reported to be attractive to monarch butterflies as an alternative egg-laying site. However, only milkweed species will support the monarch larvae, so eggs deposited on swallowwort are wasted.

White turtlehead[edit]

Lamiales: Plantaginaceae: Chelone glabra, white turtlehead, is a native wetland plant that flowers in late summer. Wet area on the Guppy Farm red trail and around beaver pond on Gully Road.

Canada horse-balm[edit]

Lamiales: Lamiaceae: Collinsonia canadensis, native.

Wild basil[edit]

Lamiales: Lamiaceae: Clinopodium vulgare, native (circumboreal) weed.


Lamiales: Lamiaceae: Prunella vulgaris, self-heal, is a widespread weed. It seems possible based on leaf shape that these are the native var. lanceolata plants rather than the more common Eurasian var. vulgaris.

Bluntleaf waterleaf[edit]

Boraginales: Boraginaceae: Hydrophyllum canadense, Bluntleaf waterleaf, is a native woodland ground cover.

American winterberry[edit]

Aquifoliales: Aquifoliaceae: Ilex verticillata. A pair of native winterberry bushes (one male and one female) were planted near the pavilion by the fishing pond in the early 2000ies.


Asterales: Campanulaceae: Lobelia cardinalis, cardinalflower is is found occasionally around the beaver pond on Gully Road.


Asterales: Asteraceae: Cichorium intybus, chicory, was introduced from Eurasia. It is a common roadside weed that flowers in late summer. Its roots are the source of the coffee additive of the same name.


Asterales: Asteraceae: Tussilago farfara, coltsfoot, is a common non-native weed whose flowers appear in early spring and leaves appear later in the season.

Blue-stem goldenrod[edit]

Asterales: Asteraceae: Solidago caesia, blue-stem goldenrod, is one of the common native woodland goldenrods at the conservation area.

Zigzag goldenrod[edit]

Asterales: Asteraceae: Solidago flexicaulis, zigzag goldenrod, is another common native woodland goldenrod at the conservation area.

Wrinkled-leaf goldenrod[edit]

Asterales: Asteraceae: Solidago rugosa, wrinkled-leaf goldenrod is a native goldenrod found in both fields and wooded areas.

White wood aster[edit]

Asterales: Asteraceae: Eurybia divaricata. White wood aster is a native woodland wildflower.


Asterales: Asteraceae: Artemisia vulgaris, mugwort or common wormwood, is considered to be a highly invasive exotic weed.

Nodding beggar-ticks[edit]

Asterales: Asteraceae: Bidens cernua , nodding beggar-ticks, are late-summer native wildflowers that appear at water's edges.

Annual ragweed[edit]

Asterales: Asteraceae: Ambrosia artemisiifolia, annual ragweed, is a native weed that commonly grows on exposed dry soil along roads and agricultural fields. Its pollen is an allergen that is dispersed by the wind and partly to blame for the bad reputation of goldenrod whose pollen is too large to be allergenic.

White snakeroot[edit]

Asterales: Asteraceae: Ageratina altissima. White snakeroot is a toxic native woodland plant that is the source of "milk sickness" when consumed by cattle. It is a very common late summer wildflower in the more-wooded parts of the conservation area.

Common boneset[edit]

Asterales: Asteraceae: Eupatorium perfoliatum, common boneset, is a native plant that is common in old fields.


Dipsacales: Adoxaceae: Viburnum lentago, nannyberry, is a native shrub or small tree.


Dipsacales: Adoxaceae: Viburnum lantanoides, hobblebush, is a native shrub.

Cranberry-bush viburnum[edit]

Dipsacales: Adoxaceae: Viburnum opulus. Cranberry-bush viburnum (also called guelder-rose or highbush cranberry) is quite plentiful on the Federal Farm section of the conservation area. It often grows along with the even-more plentiful exotic bush honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.) and when only the stems are observed they can be easily mistaken for honeysuckle. Although there are native cranberry-bush viburnums (Viburnum trilobum = Viburnum opulus var. americanum = Viburnum opulus ssp. trilobum), ours all appear to be V. opulus var. opulus, the European variety. We have not discovered any with petiole glands that are consistently stalked and convex, which would indicate the native variety.

American black elderberry[edit]

Dipsacales: Adoxaceae: Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis, American black elderberry, is a native shrub.

Orange-fruited horse gentian[edit]

Dipsacales: Caprifoliaceae: Triosteum aurantiacum, orange-fruited horse gentian, is a native plant, also known as wild coffee and coffee tinker's weed.

Wild fuller's teasel[edit]

Dipsacales: Caprifoliaceae: Dipsacus fullonum, is a non-native weed that is common in the area.