Skaneateles Conservation Area flora
Pinales: Pinaceae: Pinus sylvestris. These flowering, non-native Scotch pines were apparently planted during the 1970s, above the fishing pond at the Federal Farm.
Pinales: Pinaceae: Abies balsamea, balsam firs, are native conifers.
Pinales: Cuprecaceae: Juniperus communis var. depressa, common dwarf juniper, is a native conifer found at various Federal Farm locations.
Laurales: Lauraceae: Lindera benzoin, native spicebush is an early sign of Spring along the trail down to the Gully Road beaver pond from the Federal Farm.
Alismatales: Araceae: Symplocarpus foetidus. native
Alismatales: Araceae: Arisaema triphyllum. native
Asparagles: Iridaceae: Iris versicolor (harlequin blue flag) is a native wildflower of fields and open wetlands.
Asparagles: Asparagaceae: Maianthemum racemosum, false Solomon’s-seal, is a native woodland wildflower.
Asparagles: Asparagaceae: Maianthemum stellatum. A large patch of native Starry Solomon’s-seal was discovered after clearing a thicket of exotic bush honeysuckle from one of the clearings in the woods between the fishing pond and Scout Field. However this patch quickly began to be consumed by pale swallowwort and other weeds.
Poales: Typhaceae: Typha latifolia. The native broadleaf cattail is prevalent primarily around the fishing pond on the Federal Farm.
Poales: Poaceae: Phragmites australis subsp. australis or European common reed is a highly invasive grass that has infested several wetland areas at the Skaneateles Conservation Area.
Ranunculales: Berberidaceae: Berberis thunbergii Japanese barberry, is a very highly invasive shrub that is quite common at the conservation area.
Ranunculales: Menispermaceae: Menispermum canadense, Canada moonseed, a native vine, along the north-south trail that separates the Federal Farm from the transfer station.
Ranunculales: Berberidaceae: Caulophyllum giganteum. A native early spring wildflower.
Ranunculales: Ranunculaceae: Thalictrum thalictroides. A native early spring wildflower. Its leaf-shape is similar to, but much smaller than blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides).
Ranunculales: Ranunculaceae: Actaea pachypoda, white baneberry or doll's eyes, is a native woodland wildflower.
Ranunculales: Ranunculaceae: Caltha palustris. These native marsh marigolds were in the bog on the west side of the beaver pond along Gully Road,
Ranunculales: Ranunculaceae: Anemone acutiloba, sharp-lobed hepatica, is a native, early-Spring woodland wildflower.
Ranunculales: Ranunculaceae: Clematis virginiana. Native Virgin's-bower vines were growing on exotic honeysuckle bushes on the west edge of scout field until the bushes were removed over the winter of 2014 and 2015.
Ranunculales: Ranunculaceae: Sanguinaria canadensis. Bloodroot is a native, early-Spring woodland wildflower. It derives its name from the deep red, caustic sap the flows through its roots.
Saxifragales: Hamamelidaceae: Hamamelis virginiana, American witch-hazel, is a native understory tree.
Malpighiales: Salicaceae: Populus deltoides, eastern cottonwood, is a large native tree in the poplar genus, with triangular leaves.
Malpighiales: Salicaceae: Salix matsudana, corkscrew willow is a non-native tree from Asia, occasionally used for marsh restoration or as an ornamental tree. These trees rarely if ever naturalize in this area, so this one is assumed to have been planted.
Fabales: Fabaceae: Amphicarpaea bracteata. The American hog peanut is a native herbacious twining vine that is found climbing shrubs, grape vines, and goldenrod along mostly-wooded trails in the Federal Farm, It flowers in late August. It is closely related to the highly invasive kudzu (Pueraria montana), an Asian vine which hasn't been know to naturalize in this vicinity as of yet.
Fabales: Fabaceae: Lotus corniculatus. Bird's-foot trefoil is a common exotic and moderately invasive weed in the fields of the Federal Farm.
Fabales: Fabaceae: Melilotus albus. White sweetclover is a biennial forage crop that is native to Eurasia and has become a widespread weed in disturbed sites like the Federal Farm, It moves in quickly when other invasive plants are removed from an open area. Some sources treat Melilotus albus as conspecific with Melilotus officinalis, yellow sweetclover, but others have found them to be incompatible.
Fables: Fabaceae: Vicia cracca, bird vetch, is considered to be moderately invasive in New York State.
Rosales: Rosaceae: Rubus allegheniensis, Allegheny blackberry, is a native blackberry, common along lightly-shaded woodland trails.
Rosales: Rosaceae: Crataegus monogyna. There are about 50 taxa of hawthorns listed in New York State (including some subspecies and hybrids). Of these, only Crataegus monogyna is not native to the Northeast, and it seems to be the most common hawthorn species found at the conservation area.
Small-spike false nettle
Rosales: Urticaceae: Boehmeria cylindrica, small-spike false nettle, is a native wetland plant, similar to the American stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) without the stinging hairs.
Cucurbitales: Cucurbitaceae: Sicyos angulatus, one-seeded burr-cucumber, is a native vine.
Fagales: Fagaceae: Quercus alba, white oak, a native tree.
Fagales: Fagaceae: Quercus rubra, red oak, a native tree.
Fagales: Fagaceae: Castanea dentata. These native, pure American chestnut trees were planted sometime around 2003. The year 2012 appears to be the only time that they flowered and produced nuts. Most of the original trees have died, but a few are left and others have been planted.
Fagales: Juglandaceae: Juglans nigra. This is the native black walnut tree on the east side of the observation deck on the Federal Farm.
Myrtales: Lythraceae: Lythrum salicaria, purple loosestrife is is found in many sunny wetland areas at the SCA.
Crossosomatales: Staphyleaceae: Staphylea trifolia. The Native bladdernut shrubs are common along the edges of wooded areas at the Federal Farm.
Sapindales: Anacardiaceae: Rhus typhina, staghorn sumac, is a small Native tree, common on roadsides and forest edges.
These staghorn sumac leaves are hosting Melaphis rhois (staghorn sumac aphid) galls. The tree is located on the edge of a clearing in the woods just south of the fishing pond on the Federal Farm, 28 Aug. 2015.
Sapindales: Anacardiaceae: Toxicodendron radicans. Native but poisonous.
Sapindales: Sapindaceae: Acer pensylvanicum.
Caryophyllales: Phytolaccaceae: Phytolacca americana, American pokeweed, is a native, perennial herbaceous plant.
Ericales: Balsaminaceae: Impatiens capensis, orange jewelweed, is a native plant, common in moist wooded areas.
Ericales: Balsaminaceae: Impatiens pallida, jewelweed, is a native plant common in moist wooded areas.
Gentianales: Rubiaceae: Galium triflorum is native woodland Galium species at the Guppy Farm, 24 Aug. 2014
Gentianales: Rubiaceae: Mitchella repens, the native partridgeberry, seems to trive in the shade of hemlocks.
Gentianales: Apocynaceae: Vinca minor, common periwinkle or myrtle, is an ornamental evergreen ground cover that was imported from Europe in the 1700s. It has escaped cultivation and become quite invasive in the vicinity the old homesteads on the Guppy and O'loughlin properties.
Gentianales: Apocynaceae: Apocynum cannabinum, hemp dogbane, is a native relative of milkweed.
Gentianales: Apocynaceae: Asclepias incarnata. A native milkweed.
Gentianales: Apocynaceae: Asclepias syriaca, common milkweed and other native milkweeds are larval hosts for monarch butterflies.
Gentianales: Apocynaceae: Vincetoxicum rossicum, pale swallow-wort is a very highly invasive exotic relative of common milkweed. It has become quite common on the Federal Farm section of the conservation area. Besides enveloping and displacing native plants, it is reported to be attractive to monarch butterflies as an alternative egg-laying site. However, only milkweed species will support the monarch larvae, so eggs deposited on swallowwort are wasted.
Lamiales: Plantaginaceae: Chelone glabra, white turtlehead, is a native wetland plant that flowers in late summer. Wet area on the Guppy Farm red trail and around beaver pond on Gully Road.
Lamiales: Lamiaceae: Collinsonia canadensis, native.
Lamiales: Lamiaceae: Clinopodium vulgare, native (circumboreal) weed.
Lamiales: Lamiaceae: Prunella vulgaris, self-heal, is a widespread weed. It seems possible based on leaf shape that these are the native var. lanceolata plants rather than the more common Eurasian var. vulgaris.
Boraginales: Boraginaceae: Hydrophyllum canadense, Bluntleaf waterleaf, is a native woodland ground cover.
Aquifoliales: Aquifoliaceae: Ilex verticillata. A pair of native winterberry bushes (one male and one female) were planted near the pavilion by the fishing pond in the early 2000ies.
Asterales: Campanulaceae: Lobelia cardinalis, cardinalflower is is found occasionally around the beaver pond on Gully Road.
Asterales: Asteraceae: Cichorium intybus, chicory, was introduced from Eurasia. It is a common roadside weed that flowers in late summer. Its roots are the source of the coffee additive of the same name.
Asterales: Asteraceae: Tussilago farfara, coltsfoot, is a common non-native weed whose flowers appear in early spring and leaves appear later in the season.
Asterales: Asteraceae: Solidago caesia, blue-stem goldenrod, is one of the common native woodland goldenrods at the conservation area.
Asterales: Asteraceae: Solidago flexicaulis, zigzag goldenrod, is another common native woodland goldenrod at the conservation area.
Asterales: Asteraceae: Solidago rugosa, wrinkled-leaf goldenrod is a native goldenrod found in both fields and wooded areas.
White wood aster
Asterales: Asteraceae: Eurybia divaricata. White wood aster is a native woodland wildflower.
Asterales: Asteraceae: Artemisia vulgaris, mugwort or common wormwood, is considered to be a highly invasive exotic weed.
Asterales: Asteraceae: Bidens cernua , nodding beggar-ticks, are late-summer native wildflowers that appear at water's edges.
Asterales: Asteraceae: Ambrosia artemisiifolia, annual ragweed, is a native weed that commonly grows on exposed dry soil along roads and agricultural fields. Its pollen is an allergen that is dispersed by the wind and partly to blame for the bad reputation of goldenrod whose pollen is too large to be allergenic.
Asterales: Asteraceae: Ageratina altissima. White snakeroot is a toxic native woodland plant that is the source of "milk sickness" when consumed by cattle. It is a very common late summer wildflower in the more-wooded parts of the conservation area.
Asterales: Asteraceae: Eupatorium perfoliatum, common boneset, is a native plant that is common in old fields.
Dipsacales: Adoxaceae: Viburnum lentago, nannyberry, is a native shrub or small tree.
Dipsacales: Adoxaceae: Viburnum lantanoides, hobblebush, is a native shrub.
Dipsacales: Adoxaceae: Viburnum opulus. Cranberry-bush viburnum (also called guelder-rose or highbush cranberry) is quite plentiful on the Federal Farm section of the conservation area. It often grows along with the even-more plentiful exotic bush honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.) and when only the stems are observed they can be easily mistaken for honeysuckle. Although there are native cranberry-bush viburnums (Viburnum trilobum = Viburnum opulus var. americanum = Viburnum opulus ssp. trilobum), ours all appear to be V. opulus var. opulus, the European variety. We have not discovered any with petiole glands that are consistently stalked and convex, which would indicate the native variety.
American black elderberry
Dipsacales: Adoxaceae: Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis, American black elderberry, is a native shrub.
Orange-fruited horse gentian
Dipsacales: Caprifoliaceae: Triosteum aurantiacum, orange-fruited horse gentian, is a native plant, also known as wild coffee and coffee tinker's weed.
Wild fuller's teasel
Dipsacales: Caprifoliaceae: Dipsacus fullonum, is a non-native weed that is common in the area.