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Public domain This work is in the public domain because its copyright expired in Eritrea.

This is because its author has died, and 50 years have passed since publication, by the virtue of Articles 1653 and 1670 of the Eritrean Civil code. In the case of anonymous works, the publisher becomes the copyright holder per Article 1667.

Eritrean photographs are only protected if they are part of a collection or book, or bear the name and address of the author or their agent. In all other cases, photographs are not protected by copyright (Article 1662).

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Copyright notes

Copyright notes

Per U.S. Circ. 38a., the following countries are not a participant in the Berne Convention or any other treaty on copyright with the United States:

  • Eritrea, Ethiopia, Iran, Iraq, Kiribati, Nauru, Palau, San Marino and Somalia.

As such, works published by citizens of these countries in these countries are usually not subject to copyright protection outside of these countries. Hence, such works may be in the public domain in most other countries worldwide.

  • Works published in these countries by citizens or permanent residents of other countries that are signatories to the Berne Convention or any other treaty on copyright will still be protected in their home country and internationally as well as locally by local copyright law.
  • Similarly, works published outside of these countries within 30 days of publication within these countries will also usually be subject to protection in the foreign country of publication. When works are subject to copyright outside of these countries, the term of such copyright protection may exceed the term of copyright inside them.
  • Unpublished works from these countries may be fully copyrighted.
  • A work from one of these countries may become copyrighted in the United States under the URAA if the work's home country enters a copyright treaty or agreement with the United States and the work is still under copyright in its home country.

Eritrea has enacted Provisional Commercial Code of Eritrea and Provisional Civil Code of Eritrea (Extracts relating to Intellectual Property rights) which came into force on 1993.