Translations:Commons:Copyright rules by territory/Consolidated list Northern America/2/es

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Texto transcluido de
COM:Canada

Canadá

This page provides an overview of copyright rules of Canada relevant to uploading works into Wikimedia Commons. Note that any work originating in Canada must be in the public domain, or available under a free license, in both Canada and the United States before it can be uploaded to Wikimedia Commons. If there is any doubt about the copyright status of a work from Canada, refer to the relevant laws for clarification.

Background[edit]

Canada was formed as a federal dominion in 1867, became largely independent of the United Kingdom with the Statute of Westminster of 1931, and became fully independent with the Canada Act of 1982.

Canada has been a member of the Berne Convention since 10 April 1928, the Universal Copyright Convention since 10 August 1962, the World Trade Organization since 1 January 1995 and the WIPO treaty since 13 August 2014.[1]

As of 2018 the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), an agency of the United Nations, listed the Copyright Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. C-42) (consolidated version incorporating all amendments up to June 19, 2017) as the main copyright law enacted by the legislature of Canada.[1]

WIPO holds the text of this law in their WIPO Lex database.[2]

General rules[edit]

All photographs (except those subject to Crown Copyright, for which see below) taken before 1 January, 1949 are in the public domain. For works from after that time, or non-photographs, the Copyright Act states a copyright subsists for the life of the author plus 50 years following the end of the calendar year of death (section 6). If the work is anonymous or pseudonymous then the copyright lasts either 50 years following publication or 75 years after the making of the work, whichever is earlier (section 6.1), provided the authorship does not become known in that timeframe.

Works subject to Crown Copyright enter the public domain 50 years after publication, except for certain very rare exceptions (see Wikipedia Crown copyright).

Marcas de derechos de autor[edit]

  • {{PD-Canada}} – Imágenes con derechos de autor de la Corona publicada por primera vez hace más de 50 años, fotografía creadas antes de 1949 y otras obras en las que el autor ha muerto hace más de 50 años
  • {{PD-Canada-stamp}} – Sellos postales de más de 50 años de antigüedad
  • {{PD-Canada-anon}} – for works where the author or authors are unknown, and 50 years have passed since their publication or 75 since their creation
  • {{OGL-C}} for Government supplied information released under the Open Government License-Canada. Usually through the Open Data portal, http://data.gc.ca/eng/open-data, or the geogratis portal, http://geogratis.gc.ca/geogratis/Home?lang=en

Currency[edit]

OOjs UI icon close-ltr-destructive.svg  

"The Bank of Canada is the registered copyright owner of all design elements of Canadian bank notes [...] The Bank's written permission for the reproduction of bank note images must be obtained before the image is reproduced." The sole exception is that "It is not necessary to request the Bank's permission to use bank note images for film or video purposes, provided that the images are intended to show a general indication of currency, and that there is no danger that the images could be misused." Other images of Canadian currency might still be permitted on local Wikipedia projects under fair dealing.

Counterfeiting law will not apply to any printed replica of Canadian printed money that is "less than 3/4 or greater than 1 1/2 times the length or width of the bank note; and in black and white or only one-sided."[3]

Coins are copyrighted by the Royal Canadian Mint. There are charges for educational and commercial use, so they cannot be shown on Commons before the expiration of fifty years.[4]

De minimis[edit]

Subsection 30.7 of the Canadian Copyright Act, 1985 states:

It is not an infringement of copyright to incidentally and not deliberately

(a) include a work or other subject-matter in another work or other subject-matter; or

(b) do any act in relation to a work or other subject-matter that is incidentally and not deliberately included in another work or other subject-matter.

Freedom of panorama[edit]

OOjs UI icon check-constructive.svg   for 3D works and "works of artistic craftsmanship": {{FoP-Canada}}
OOjs UI icon close-ltr-destructive.svg   usually for 2D works

Under Section 32.2 (1)(b) of the Canadian Copyright Act 1985, it is not an infringement of copyright for any person to reproduce, in a painting, drawing, engraving, photograph or cinematographic work … (i) an architectural work (defined as any building or structure or any model of a building or structure"); or

  • (ii) "a sculpture or work of artistic craftsmanship or a cast or model of a sculpture or work of artistic craftsmanship, that is permanently situated in a public place or building".

Canadian law was originally derived from UK concepts and some of Commons:Copyright rules by territory/United Kingdom/es may therefore be of relevance, in particular the restricted legal meaning of "work of artistic craftsmanship". Some non-sculptural works can qualify for Canadian FOP under this clause, such as Body Shop Yonge.jpg for example. The freedom provided by the quoted section does not apply to typical two-dimensional works such as paintings, murals, advertising hoardings, maps, posters or signs. These cannot be uploaded to Commons without a license from the copyright holder even if they are permanently located in a public place, unless they are in the public domain.

Stamps[edit]

Copyrighted

There is no special provision in the copyright law for postage stamps. Section 12 of the 1921 Copyright Act of Canada states that for government works (work that is, or has been, prepared or published by or under the direction or control of Her Majesty or any government department) the copyright is 50 years following the end of the calendar year during which the work has been published. This is known as Crown copyright.

There are also special non-copyright regulations which apply: see https://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/regulations/C.R.C.,_c._1292/page-1.html.

For stamps published more than 50 years ago (before 1st of January 1972) use {{PD-Canada-stamp}}.

Threshold of originality[edit]

OOjs UI icon check-constructive.svg  

for images that are not creative in the sense of being a product of non-trivial "skill and judgment" as discussed below.

Unlike other common law countries, Canada's threshold of originality veers closer to that of the United States. CCH Canadian Ltd. v. Law Society of Upper Canada explicitly rejected the "sweat of the brow" doctrine for being too low of a standard, but at the same time, stated that the creativity standards for originality were too high:

A creativity standard implies that something must be novel or non-obvious — concepts more properly associated with patent law than copyright law. And for these reasons, I conclude that an “original” work under the Copyright Act is one that originates from an author and is not copied from another work. That alone, however, is not sufficient to find that something is original. In addition, an original work must be the product of an author’s exercise of skill and judgment. The exercise of skill and judgment required to produce the work must not be so trivial that it could be characterized as a purely mechanical exercise."

The same case also stated:

For a work to be “original” within the meaning of the Copyright Act, it must be more than a mere copy of another work. At the same time, it need not be creative, in the sense of being novel or unique. What is required to attract copyright protection in the expression of an idea is an exercise of skill and judgment. By skill, I mean the use of one’s knowledge, developed aptitude or practised ability in producing the work. By judgment, I mean the use of one’s capacity for discernment or ability to form an opinion or evaluation by comparing different possible options in producing the work. This exercise of skill and judgment will necessarily involve intellectual effort.

See also[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. a b Canada Copyright and Related Rights (Neighboring Rights)[1], WIPO: World Intellectual Property Organization, 2018
  2. Copyright Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. C-42) (consolidated version incorporating all amendments up to June 19, 2017)[2], Canada, 2017
  3. Bank of Canada - Reproduction of banknotes
  4. Royal Canadian Mint - Intellectual property
Caution: The above description may be inaccurate, incomplete and/or out of date, so must be treated with caution. Before you upload a file to Wikimedia Commons you should ensure it may be used freely. Véase también : Commons:Aviso legal
Texto transcluido de
COM:United States

Estados Unidos


Derechos de autores de EE. UU. para las obras primera publicadas en EE. UU., excluyendo obras de audio
Año de primer publicación
Nota: publicación no es creación
Duración del derecho de autor
  • Antes de 1927
  • Durante 1927-63: sin nota, o con nota pero no renovado dentro de 28 años de la primera publicación
  • Durante 1964-77: sin nota
  • De 1978 a 1 de marzo de 1989: sin nota y sin registro dentro de 5 años de la primera publicación
Obra ha entrada el dominio público de EE. UU.
  • Durante 1927-63: con nota y renovación
  • Durante 1964-77: con nota
Protegida para 95 años después de la primera publicación
  • De 1978 a 1 de marzo de 1989: pre-1978 creación con nota, o sin nota pero registrada dentro 5 años de la primera publicación
  • De 2 de marzo de 1989 a 2002: pre-1978 creación
  • Si el autor es sabido, protegida hasta la más tarde de 70 años pma o 31 de diciembre de 2047
  • Si el autor es desconocido o autoría corporativa, el más temprano de 95 años después de la primera publicación o 120 años después de la creación, pero no más temprano que 31 de diciembre de 2047
  • De 1978 a 1 de marzo de 1989: post-1977 creación con nota, o sin nota pero registrada dentro 5 años de la primera publicación
  • De 2 de marzo de 1989 a 2002: post-1977 creación
  • Inédito antes de 2003 (i.e. primera publicada después de 2002)
  • Si el autor es sabido, protegida para 70 años pma
  • Si el autor es desconocido o autoría corporativa, el más temprano de 95 años después de la primera publicación o 120 años después de la creación
pma: post mortem auctoris, o "después de la muerte del autor"

This page provides an overview of copyright rules of the United States relevant to uploading works into Wikimedia Commons.

General rules[edit]

  • Anything published before January 1, 1927 is in the public domain. For a definition of "publication" see e.g. Copyright Office circular 1: Copyright Basics, page 3.[1] This modern definition is only valid for 1978 and later, as the 1909 Copyright Act did not explicitly define it, though the concepts were similar.
  • Anything published before January 1, 1964 and whose copyright was not renewed is in the public domain (search the Copyright Renewal Database, Stanford University for books, The Online Books Page for magazines).
  • Anything published before January 1, 1978 with no copyright notice ("©", "Copyright" or "Copr.") plus the year of publication (may be omitted in some cases) plus the copyright owner (or pseudonym) is also in the public domain.
  • Anything published in or after 1978 but before March 1, 1989 with no copyright notice is in the public domain unless the work's copyright was registered within 5 years of the work's initial publication.
  • Works which were first published outside the US (and not subsequently republished in the US within 30 days) on or after January 1, 1927 may be copyrighted in the US by virtue of the URAA (Uruguay Round Agreements Act) even if the work's US copyright previously expired due to a failure to comply with US copyright formalities (copyright renewal and inclusion of a copyright notice.)[2] In general, such works had their US copyright restored if the work was out of copyright in the US due to noncompliance with US formalities but still under copyright in its country of origin on the URAA date. (For most countries, the URAA date is January 1, 1996.) Works first published in the US are not affected by the URAA.
  • The US copyright situation for sound recordings (including those published before 1927) is a special case. Recordings fixed on or after February 15, 1972 are subject to the same copyright rules as other works. Under the Music Modernization Act, which was signed into law in October 2018, recordings fixed prior to February 15, 1972 are subject to a copyright term that depends on when the recording was first published.
  • Recordings that were published prior to 1923 entered the public domain on January 1, 2022. Recordings that were published from 1923 through 1946 are copyrighted for a period of 100 years after first publication. Recordings that were published from 1947 through 1956 are copyrighted for a period of 110 years after first publication. Recordings that were published after 1956 and first fixed prior to February 15, 1972 will enter the public domain on February 15, 2067. These copyright terms for pre-1972 recordings apply regardless of any formalities (copyright notice, registration with the US copyright office, or copyright renewal.)
  • Works created after January 1, 1978 are protected for 70 years after the death of the creator.
  • Works created before 1978 and first published after or in 1978 are protected for the earlier of 95 years from publication or registration for copyright or 120 years from creation (for anonymous or corporate works) or 70 years after death of the creator for known authors; if it was published in 1978–2001, that copyright is extended to December 31, 2047 if it's shorter. (Thus no works first published with permission of the copyright holder between 1978 and 2001 in the US are out of copyright.)

U.S. copyright law applies in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands, but does not apply in American Samoa. According to the U.S. Copyright Office 17 U.S.C. § 101 (defining use of the term "United States" in the Copyright Act of 1976): "The 'United States', when used in a geographical sense, comprises the several States, the District of Columbia and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the organized territories under the jurisdiction of the United States Government."[3] Of the organized territories, the United States Copyright Office says that: "U.S. federal copyright law applies in the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands but not in American Samoa."[4]

Full details of US Copyright Law (Title 17) are published by the U.S. Copyright Office.[5]

Works by the US Government[edit]

A work by the U.S. federal Government is in the public domain. This applies certainly within the United States; it may, however, not apply in other jurisdictions. See the CENDI Copyright FAQ list, 3.1.7, the U.S. Government's own statement to that effect, but also this discussion.

Example of public domain work created by NASA, a U.S. federal government agency
  • Images on government or government agency websites are not necessarily public domain; always look for copyright notices or similar. Especially the images on the favorite website "Astronomy Picture of the Day" are in most cases not within the public domain but copyrighted by their individual authors (so please do not upload images from there to Wikimedia Commons). Images on certain military websites (e.g. AKO) frequently are creations of military members in their individual capacities (e.g. soldiers on patrol using their personal cameras). These images may not be in the public domain, but they are very hard to distinguish from works of military photographers, and they rarely contain copyright information. Voice of America may sometimes use photos which are copyrighted by agencies like AP and Getty Images. As an exception to the rule, images submitted by individuals to the National Weather Service are public domain, as required as part of the photo submission process.
  • This does not include governments of the individual states. The work of most state and local governments are subject to copyright, but there are some exceptions.
    • More specifically, most works by government agencies in California and Florida are in public domain, except specified agencies as stated.
    • Edicts of state and local governments, including judicial opinions, administrative rulings, legislative enactments, public ordinances, and similar official legal documents, are also ineligible for copyright protection as per Template:PD-US-GovEdict, making them in US public domain.
  • This does not include government-funded corporations like Amtrak.
  • This does not include works of employees of the USPS, as exempted in 1976 [4]. In particular, the USPS holds exclusive copyright to all US postage stamp designs since 1978 [5] (older US stamps are all considered public domain).
  • This also does not include works commissioned by the US Government, but produced by contractors; in this case, the copyright may have been assigned to the US Government (for instance, the copyright of the official Ada programming language manual was assigned to the US Department of Defense).
  • Some US government agencies may work in cooperation with other agencies or corporations; this is in particular the case of NASA, which operates the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in cooperation with Caltech, and operates a number of space projects in cooperation with foreign agencies such as ESA and CNES. Only materials solely produced by NASA are in the public domain. The other agencies may hold copyright on some material, including material published on NASA sites (in these cases there will be copyright notices— please look for them to determine copyright status).
  • The government sometimes publishes images with statements about non-copyright restrictions (like the White House photostream). This does not affect copyright.
  • Commercial use of some federal images, such as identifying insignia or identification, is prohibited however. Fraudulent use (such as wearing military decorations without authorization) is also banned. However, restrictions of this nature are not within the scope of Commons policy.
  • The United States Army Institute of Heraldry—the official custodian of such images has addressed this issue with its Copyright statement, which informs the reader as to how to meet any commercial needs under this statute.

Edicts of Government[edit]

  • Edicts of government are always public domain in whole or in part and applies to such works whether they are federal, state, or local as well as to those of foreign governments. This includes judicial opinions, administrative rulings, legislative enactments (laws, statutes), public ordinances, regulations, and similar official legal documents. In this case, the idea (the edict) and its expression (the text of the edict) are inseparable, as to change the legal text would be to change the law itself. Edicts of government may or may not overlap with works by the U.S. Government.

Marcas de derechos de autor[edit]

  • {{PD-US}} – Imágenes que sólo son de dominio público en los Estados Unidos (es decir, publicadas antes de 1927 o que no pueden tener derechos de autor bajo las leyes de los Estados Unidos)
  • {{PD-US-expired}} – published anywhere before 1927 and public domain in the U.S. (preferred over {{PD-US}})
  • {{PD-1996}} – public domain in a source country on January 1, 1996 and in the U.S.
  • {{PD-US-not renewed}} – published and copyrighted in the United States between 1927 and 1963, with its copyright not renewed
  • {{PD-US-no notice}} – published in the U.S. between 1927 and 1978 but without copyright notice
  • {{PD-US-no notice advertisement}} – any advertisement published in the U.S. prior to 1978 in a collective work without a copyright notice specific to the advertisement
  • {{PD-US-1978-89}} – published in the United States between 1978 and March 1, 1989 but with neither copyright notice nor registration within 5 years
  • {{PD-US-unpublished}} – never published anywhere prior to 2003
  • {{PD-US-record}} – Grabaciones sonoras en el dominio público en los Estados Unidos (es decir, anteriores al 15 de febrero de 1972 y no basadas en material con derechos de autor; no se aplican en Nueva York).

U.S. Government agencies[edit]

Shortcut
  • {{PD-USGov}} – Imágenes creadas por el gobierno de los Estados Unidos que no pueden tener derechos de autor.
Legislative Branch[edit]
Department of Agriculture[edit]
  • {{PD-USGov-USDA}} – Imágenes de dominio público del Departamento de Agricultura estadounidense.
Department of Commerce[edit]
  • {{PD-USGov-DOC}} – for public domain images from the Department of Commerce.
    • {{PD-USGov-DOC-Census}} – Imágenes de la Oficina del Censo estadounidense.
    • {{PD-USGov-NIST}} – Imágenes de dominio público del National Institute of Standards and Technology estadounidense.
    • {{PD-USGov-NOAA}} – Imágenes de dominio público de la Administración Nacional Oceánica y Atmosférica (NOAA) estadounidense.
      • {{PD-NWS}} – for public domain media from the National Weather Service.
    • {{PD-US-patent}} – Imágenes de dominio público publicadas bajo las normas de las patentes estadounidense.
Department of Defense[edit]
Department of Education[edit]
  • {{PD-USGov-ED}} – for public domain images from the Department of Education.
Department of Energy[edit]
  • {{PD-USGov-DOE}} – Imágenes de dominio público del Departamento de Energía estadounidense.
    • {{PD-LosAlamos}} – for DOE public domain images from the Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    • {{PD-USGov-ARM}} – for public domain images from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program.
Department of Health and Human Services[edit]
  • {{PD-USGov-HHS}} – Imágenes de dominio público del Departamento de Salud y Servicios Sociales estadounidense.
Department of Homeland Security[edit]
  • {{PD-USGov-DHS}} – for public domain images from the Department of Homeland Security.
    • {{PD-USCG}} – Imágenes de dominio público de la Guardia Costera estadounidense.
    • {{PD-USGov-FEMA}} – Imágenes de dominio público de la Agencia Federal de Gestión de Emergencias (FEMA) estadounidense.
Department of Housing and Urban Development[edit]
  • {{PD-USGov-HUD}} – for public domain images from the Department of Housing and Urban Development.
Department of the Interior[edit]
    • {{PD-USGov-Interior-BOEMRE}} – for public domain images from the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement.
    • {{PD-USGov-FWS}} – Imágenes de dominio público del Fish and Wildlife Service estadounidense.
    • {{PD-USGov-USGS}} – Imágenes de dominio público del Geological Survey estadounidense.
    • {{PD-USGov-Interior-HABS}} – Imágenes de dominio público del Historic American Building Survey del Servicio de Parques Nacionales estadounidense (vía la Biblioteca del Congreso).
    • {{PD-USGov-Interior-MMS}} – for public domain images from the Minerals Management Service.
    • {{PD-USGov-NPS}} - Imágenes de dominio público del Servicio de Parques Nacionales estadounidense.
      • {{PD-USGov-NPS-HAER}} - Imágenes de dominio público del Historic American Engineering Record del Servicio de Parques Nacionales estadounidense (vía la Biblioteca del Congreso).
Department of Justice[edit]
  • {{PD-USGov-DOJ}} – Imágenes de dominio público del Departamento de Justicia estadounidense.
    • {{PD-USGov-DEA}} – Imágenes de dominio público de la Drug Enforcement Administration estadounidense.
    • {{PD-USGov-FBI}} – for public domain images from the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
Department of Labor[edit]
Department of State[edit]
  • {{PD-USGov-DOS}} – Imágenes de dominio público del Departamento de Estado estadounidense.
    • {{PD-USGov-USIA}} – for public domain images from the now-defunct United States Information Agency.
Department of Transporation[edit]
  • {{PD-USGov-DOT}} – Imágenes de dominio público del Departamento de Transportes estadounidense.
    • {{PD-USGov-MUTCD}} – for images taken from the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices.
    • {{PD-USGov-FAA}} – Imágenes de dominio público de la Federal Aviation Administration estadounidense.
    • {{PD-USGov-NTSB}} – for public domain images from the National Transportation Safety Board.
Department of the Treasury[edit]
  • {{PD-USGov-Treasury}} – for public domain images from the Department of the Treasury.
    • {{PD-USGov-money}} – Imágenes de moneda oficial de los Estados Unidos que no pueden tener derechos de autor.
Department of Veterans Affairs[edit]
  • {{PD-USGov-DVA}} – for public domain images from the Department of Veteran Affairs.
Independent agencies[edit]
  • {{PD-USGov-BBG}} – for public domain images created by Broadcasting Board of Governors.
  • {{PD-USGov-CIA}} – Imágenes de dominio público de la Agencia de Inteligencia Central (CIA) estadounidense.
    • {{PD-USGov-CIA-WF}} – Imágenes de dominio público del World Factbook de la Agencia de Inteligencia Central (CIA) estadounidense.
  • {{PD-USGov-EPA}} – Imágenes de dominio público de la Agencia de Protección Medioambiental estadounidense.
  • {{PD-USGov-Federal Reserve}} – for public domain images from the Federal Reserve Board of Governors.
  • {{PD-USGov-NSF}} – for public domain images from the National Science Foundation.
  • {{PD-USGov-POTUS}} – Imágenes de dominio público de la Oficina Ejecutiva del Presidente de los Estados Unidos.
  • {{PD-USGov-SI}} – for public domain images from the Smithsonian Institution
  • {{PD-USGov-USAID}} – Imágenes de dominio público del USAID.
  • {{PD-USGov-USTR}} – for public domain images from the Office of the United States Trade Representative.
  • {{PD-USGov-WPA}} – for public domain images from the defunct Works Progress Administration.
  • {{PD-USGov-TVA}} – for public domain images from the Tennessee Valley Authority.
  • {{PD-USGov-Award}} – for an image of an award or decoration of an agency of the federal government of the United States.

U.S. Library of Congress public domain collections[edit]

Véase también : Commons:Library of Congress

  • {{PD-LOC-911}} – for the 250 images from the Collection of unattributed photographs of the September 11th terrorist attack on the World Trade Center, New York City.
  • {{PD-Abdul Hamid}} – for images from the Abdul-Hamid II Collection.
  • {{PD-Bain}} – for images from the George Grantham Bain Collection.
  • {{PD-Brady-Handy}} – for images from the Brady-Handy Collection.
  • {{PD-Carpenter}} – for images from the Carpenter Collection.
  • {{PD-CQ Roll Call}} – for public domain photos from the CQ Roll Call Photograph Collection.

US States and Territories[edit]

Work of Organized Territories has less clear status; the first link in this section shows strong evidence that Puerto Rico's works are in the public domain, while the second link prevaricates. Flags and coats of arms seem to follow the same laws as the U.S.[8]

Miscellaneous[edit]

Moneda[edit]

Coins

OOjs UI icon check-constructive.svg OK for some but not all

Many but not all coins or bills produced by the United States Mint are in the public domain as works of the Federal Government. Some were designed by third parties who assigned rights to the Mint. These are typically commemorative coins for special occasions and the copyright is described in their marketing materials; another example is the obverse of the golden dollar.[7] The status of each coin or bill should be assessed individually. Please see Commons:Determining if U.S. coins are free to use for help in determining the copyright status of U.S. coinage.

Banknotes

OOjs UI icon check-constructive.svg  

"Color illustrations" of banknotes appear to be permitted if they respect the following conditions (from 18 U.S. Code § 504 and 31 CFR § 411.1):

  • the illustration is of a size less than three-fourths or more than one and one-half, in linear dimension, of each part of the item illustrated;
  • the illustration is one-sided; and
  • all negatives, plates, positives, digitized storage medium, graphic files, magnetic medium, optical storage devices and any other thing used in the making of the illustration that contain an image of the illustration or any part thereof are destroyed and/or deleted or erased after their final use.

Please use {{PD-USGov-money}} for relevant US currency images.

Véase también : Category:United States currency-related deletion requests

De minimis[edit]

The United States courts interpret the de minimis defense in three distinct ways:

  1. Where a technical violation is so trivial that the law will not impose legal consequences;
  2. Where the extent of copying falls below the threshold of substantial similarity (always a required element of actionable copying); and
  3. In connection with fair use (not relevant here, since Commons does not allow fair use images).

It is the first of these that is often of particular concern on Commons.

As found in Ets-Hokin v. Skyy Spirits, Inc., a photograph of a bottle is not a derivative work of its label (though in this particular case, the label also happened to be below the threshold of originality):

We need not, however, decide whether the label is copyrightable because Ets-Hokin's product shots are based on the bottle as a whole, not on the label. The whole point of the shots was to capture the bottle in its entirety. The defendants have cited no case holding that a bottle of this nature may be copyrightable, and we are aware of none. Indeed, Skyy's position that photographs of everyday, functional, noncopyrightable objects are subject to analysis as derivative works would deprive both amateur and commercial photographers of their legitimate expectations of copyright protection. Because Ets-Hokin's product shots are shots of the bottle as a whole—a useful article not subject to copyright protection—and not shots merely, or even mainly, of its label, we hold that the bottle does not qualify as a "preexisting work " within the meaning of the Copyright Act. As such, the photos Ets-Hokin took of the bottle cannot be derivative works.

Libertad de panorama[edit]

OOjs UI icon check-constructive.svg OK for buildings only {{FoP-US}}

Buildings are works subject to copyright in the U.S. according to 17 USC 102(a)(8) since the Architectural Works Copyright Protection Act was passed in 1990. It applies to all buildings that were completed after December 1, 1990, even if begun before, or where the plans were published after that date.

However, the U.S. federal copyright law explicitly exempts "pictures, paintings, photographs, or other pictorial representations" of copyrighted buildings from the copyright of the building in 17 USC 120(a). Anyone may paint, draw, or photograph buildings from public places. This includes such interior public spaces as lobbies, auditoriums, etc. The creator holds the exclusive copyright to such an image (the architect or owner of the building has no say whatsoever), and may publish the image in any way. 17 USC 120 applies only to architectural works, not to other works of visual art, such as statues or sculptures.

This means that for buildings completed before December 1, 1990, there is complete FoP, without regard to whether the building is visible from a public place, because the building is public domain, except for the plans. For photos of such buildings, the license tag {{PD-US-architecture}} can be used (along with a license tag for the photo.) For buildings completed after December 1, 1990, freedom is given only to photograph such a building. This includes style elements such as gargoyles and pillars, which are protected only from three-dimensional reproduction (Leicester v. Warner Bros.).

Note that copyright applies only to "buildings".

"The term building means structures that are habitable by humans and intended to be both permanent and stationary, such as houses and office buildings, and other permanent and stationary structures designed for human occupancy, including but not limited to churches, museums, gazebos, and garden pavilions."

All such works are copyrighted and, therefore, covered by the FOP exemption only if they are visible from a public place.

"Bridges, cloverleafs, dams, highways or walkways are not ‘buildings’ under the definition of architectural works."

In the U.S., such works do not have a copyright and therefore may be photographed freely, whether or not from a public place. For images of such works, {{PD-structure|USA}} can be used. They do have copyrights in many other countries.

Originality requirement for architecture[edit]

This discussion must be considered qualified by the requirement under US law that a work, including a derivative work, must display originality to be protectable under copyright law. See Feist Publications, Inc., v. Rural Telephone Service Co. in the English Wikipedia. More specifically, in the case of derivative works, it has been held, in Durham Industries, Inc. v. Tomy Corp.[9] and earlier in L. Batlin & Son, Inc. v. Snyder.[10] that a derivative work must be original relative to the underlying work on which it is based. Otherwise, it cannot enjoy copyright protection and copying it will not infringe any copyright of the derivative work itself (although copying it may infringe the copyright, if any, of the underlying work on which the derivative work was based). For further discussion of this issue, see the Wikipedia article Derivative work.

Artworks and sculptures[edit]

OOjs UI icon close-ltr-destructive.svg Not OK. {{NoFoP-US}} (category-only template)

Note: Please tag United States no-FoP for public art deletion requests: <noinclude>[[Category:United States FOP cases/pending]]</noinclude>

For artworks, even if permanently installed in public places, the U.S. copyright law has no similar exception, and any publication of an image of a copyrighted artwork thus is subject to the approval of the copyright holder of the artwork. However, public artwork installed before 1927 is considered to be public domain, and can be photographed freely. In addition, any public artwork installed before 1978 without a copyright notice is also in the public domain (unless the copyright owner actively prevented anyone from copying or photographing the work until 1978). In these situations, document the date of installation and the creator (sculptor) of the pictured work as much as possible. (A good resource for finding information about U.S. sculptures is the Smithsonian Art Inventories Catalog.)

Applicable templates:

The line of argument that a large sculpture or memorial is a building and therefore covered by the FOP exemption was specifically rejected in Federal claims court (Gaylord v. The United States, 2008), which noted that the building exemption to the Architectural Works Copyright Protection Act (AWCPA) does not extend to "The Column" sculpture in the Korean War Veterans Memorial because "[t]he structures used in the definition of 'building' by the Copyright Office are intended to house individuals; either for the sake of providing shelter or for another purpose such as religious services."[8] While the court ruled in favor of the defendant under a fair use rationale it was later overturned in favor of the plaintiff; the photograph was deemed a derivative work. The court also contended that had Congress intended to extend the AWCPA to monuments and memorials, the law would have been drafted to reflect that in the first place.

For further legal discussion, see Wikilegal/Copyright of Images of Memorials in the US.

Examples[edit]

Charging Bull

Cloud Gate

Korean War Veterans Memorial

Portlandia

Statue of Liberty replica, New York-New York Hotel & Casino, Las Vegas

For foreign works considered under US law:[edit]

Foreign works from countries that have a relevant freedom of panorama may fall under US law for copyright issues within the US. Under the choice-of-law principle lex loci protectionis, U.S. courts might apply U.S. freedom of panorama standards in such cases, rather than the standards of the source country. However, in practice, it is unsettled whether and how this approach would be applied in real-world U.S. legal cases involving freedom of panorama elements.

Stamps[edit]

According to Title 17 of the United States Code, the copyright status of stamps depends on when they were first issued.

Before 1978
Public domain In the public domain as a work of the federal government. Use {{PD-USGov}}
1978 onward
Copyrighted Copyrighted by the United States Postal Service after 1 January 1978 (the date on which the Copyright Act of 1976 went into effect).[11] Written permission is needed.[12]


Threshold of originality[edit]

These images are OOjs UI icon check-constructive.svg OK to upload to Commons, because they are below the threshold of originality required for copyright protection.

Despite repeated requests, the U.S. Copyright Office found the Vodafone speechmark (shaded version) ineligible for copyright protection. It cannot, however, be uploaded to Commons because it's a UK logo.

These are OOjs UI icon close-ltr-destructive.svg Not OK to upload to Commons (unless published under a free license by the copyright holder), because they are above the threshold of originality required for copyright protection.
  • These two "no soliciting" signs, although arguably relatively simple, have been issued copyright registration numbers by the United States Copyright Office, which means that they have been reviewed and determined to be eligible for copyright protection. It should be noted that the copyright registration applies to the images as a whole, including their borders.
  • A variant of File:CarCreditCity.png with an extra border.
  • American Airlines flight symbol VA0002130520; Copyright Office initially refused copyright as being just below the threshold, but upon a higher-resolution submission of the artwork, decided that the shading plus the arrangement pushed the logo just above the threshold and granted a registration. (DR)
Paintings

OOjs UI icon close-ltr-destructive.svg Not OK for most paintings.

Even seemingly simple paintings consisting of geometric shapes are often copyrighted due to details that may not be immediately obvious to the viewer.

  • Photographic reproductions of paintings by Mark Rothko have been granted registration by the U.S. Copyright Office, so it is reasonable to assume that the original works are also copyrighted.
Other

Although the threshold of originality for non-graphic works (such as architecture and sound recordings) follow the same standards, such cases can be difficult to determine.

  • The five-note melody that typically accompanies Intel's logo was granted copyright protection because it "combined and blended synthesized, digital sounds" and was "refined and mastered with a special spatial enhancer." [15]
  • Anish Kapoor's Cloud Gate is a relatively simple 3D sculpture that was deemed eligible for copyright (VA0001983425)
  • The replica of public domain object Statue of Liberty in New York-New York Hotel and Casino is deemed eligible for copyright, also The United States Postal Service is being sued for copyright infringement for famously (and mistakenly) using this statue instead of the real Statue of Liberty on its Forever stamps. (VAu001149387 and VA0001882070) also see (DR1) (DR2)

Signatures[edit]

OOjs UI icon check-constructive.svg OK for a typical signature. In Copyright circular Number 1 the US Copyright Office sets out a list of things on which copyright protection cannot be granted, including "Titles, names, short phrases, and slogans; familiar symbols or designs; and mere variations of typographic ornamentation, lettering, or coloring."

The US Copyright Compendium, chapter 503.02(2) states that copyright will be denied to a character of Chinese calligraphy painted upon horizontally striated grass cloth. It states that "like typography, calligraphy is not copyrightable as such, notwithstanding the effect achieved by calligraphic brush strokes across a striated surface". Thus, it appears that calligraphy cannot be protected and, by analogy, signatures.

In Commons talk:Licensing/Archive 11#Autographs.2Fsignatures, there is a reference to User:BrokenSphere having sent an email to the U.S. Copyright Office, and receiving the reply "A signature is not protected by copyright".

If the signature is sufficiently complex to be considered a protectable artistic work in the US (akin to a non-trivial drawing), it cannot be hosted on Commons regardless of the position under local law unless it has been licensed under a compatible license or would have fallen into the public domain under some other rule (e.g. expiration of copyright).

Copyright formalities[edit]

Works published in the United States before certain dates require an increasingly stringent level of compliance with copyright formalities in order to remain copyrighted; otherwise, they fall into the public domain. This section attempts to describe these cases in detail.

Not renewed (before 1964)

In order to conclude that a work is {{PD-US-not-renewed}}, a thorough search of the copyright registry must be performed.

If a work is based on a previously published work which has been renewed, failure to renew copyright in the derivative work would only cause the additional expression present in the derivative work to fall into the public domain, so the derivative work as a whole remains copyrighted. An example is It's a Wonderful Life#Ownership and copyright issues, where the film's copyright failed to be renewed due to a clerical error, but as it was based on a short story called The Greatest Gift which was properly renewed, the film remains copyrighted. For this specific case, it is generally acceptable to upload individual screenshots of the film since their reliance on the story is minimal, but not video of the film.

No notice (before 1978)

In order to conclude that a work is {{PD-US-no notice}}, care must be exercised to ensure that the work truly has no copyright notice. In general, finding an image of a two-dimensional work (which would fall under {{PD-scan}} if the original work is public domain) on the Internet with no notice does not prove that it has no notice, as there could be a notice on the original hard copy, such as on a part of the page cropped out of the scan, on the back side of the page, or on a different page if the work came from a book/pamphlet. For memorabilia such as postcards, auction sites such as eBay can be a good resource to find images of the full item on both sides. For public art installed prior to 1978, the mere act of placing it in public view where people can make copies constitutes publication. For a photo of public art, a combination of the photo itself, other photos on the Internet (which need not be freely licensed, so long as there is no reason to doubt their authenticity), and mapping services like Google Street View can be used to establish the lack of a copyright notice. The Smithsonian Art Catalog is a useful resource for finding information about artworks. See Commons:Public art and copyrights in the US for more details.

The situation can become extremely complicated if a work is distributed via multiple authorized channels, only some of which carry a notice. According to the Copyright Act of 1909, "Where the copyright proprietor has sought to comply with the provisions of this title with respect to notice, the omission by accident or mistake of the prescribed notice from a particular copy or copies shall not invalidate the copyright or prevent recovery for infringement against any person who, after actual notice of the copyright, begins an undertaking to infringe it, but shall prevent the recovery of damages against an innocent infringer who has been misled by the omission of the notice; and in a suit for infringement no permanent injunction shall be had unless the copyright proprietor shall reimburse to the innocent infringer his reasonable outlay innocently incurred if the court, in its discretion, shall so direct."[16] The 1973 Copyright Compendium explains in greater detail:[17]

  1. If the Office is informed that the great bulk at the published copies of a work bore an appropriate notice, but that the notice was accidentally omitted from a very few of the published copies, registration may be made. In such cases, if the deposit copies do not bear the notice, copies with the notice will be requested.
  2. If a considerable number of copies have been pub­lished without notice, registration will be denied.
  3. If the entire first edition of a work was published without notice, registration will be denied even if the first edition consisted of a relatively small number of copies.

As in the renewal case, failure to include a notice on a derivative work does not invalidate the copyright on the original work,[18] so in such a case neither the original nor the derivative can be uploaded to Commons. However, a fully original portion of the derivative work (if possible to isolate, which is not always the case) would be acceptable.

If there is a notice but it fails to comply with certain constraints, it may fall under {{PD-US-defective notice}}. The most basic requirements are given in the text of the copyright tag, but for more details see the 1973 Copyright Compendium.[19]

No notice and unregistered (before March 1989)

In order to conclude that a work is {{PD-US-1978-89}}, the requirements of the previous section must be met, and a thorough search of the copyright registry over the next five years must be performed.

Regarding the specific definition of "no notice", the 1984 Copyright Compendium is similar to the 1973 edition:[20]

Omission of copyright notice. Where the notice is omitted from more than a relatively small number of copies or phonorecords distributed by authority of the copyright owner, and registration is being made within five years of the date of publication without notice, the Copyright Office may warn that the law requires, in addition to registration, that a reasonable effort must be made to add the notice to all copies or phonorecords that are distributed to the public in the United States after the omission has been discovered. See 17 U.S.C. 405(a).

Registration. Registration is not possible for works published without notice or with a fatally deficient notice by authority of the copyright owner, if more than five years have elapsed since such publication. There are, however two exceptions to this general rule: 1) where the notice has been omitted from no more than a relatively small number of copies or phonorecords distributed to the public; or 2) where the notice has been omitted in vio­lation of an express requirement in writing that, as a condition of the copyright owner's authorization of the public distribution of copies or phonorecords, they contain the prescribed copyright notice. In these two instances, there is no need for registration to correct the omission. Registration in these cases may be made at any time during the subsistence of the copyright. See 17 U.S.C. 405(a).

If there is a notice but it fails to comply with certain constraints, it may fall under {{PD-US-defective notice-1978-89}}. The basic requirements are given in the text of the copyright tag.

Citations[edit]

  1. Circular 1: Copyright Basics. US Copyright Office. Retrieved on 2019-03-14.
  2. Hirtle, Peter (2018-11-06). Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States. Retrieved on 2018-12-10.
  3. Copyright Law of the United States (Title 17) Chapter 1 Subject Matter and Scope of Copyright 101 Definitions. U.S. Copyright Office. Retrieved on 2019-03-14.
  4. Circular 38a: International Copyright Relations of the United States 14. U.S. Copyright Office. Retrieved on 2019-03-14.
  5. Copyright Law of the United States ( (Title 17)). U.S. Copyright Office. Retrieved on 2019-03-14.
  6. Compendium II: Copyright Office Practices, § 1102.08(b)
  7. W:Compendium II: Copyright Office Practices, § 206.02(e)
  8. Ley Núm. 70 de 2006 -Ley para disponer la oficialidad de la bandera y el escudo de los setenta y ocho (78) municipios. (in es). LexJuris (Leyes y Jurisprudencia) de Puerto Rico. Retrieved on 24 September 2020.
  9. 630 F.2d 905 (2d Cir, 1980), available at http://www.altlaw.org/v1/cases/551553 and http://cases.justia.com/us-court-of-appeals/F2/630/905/238194/
  10. 536 F.2d 486 (2d Cir.) (en banc), available at http://www.altlaw.org/v1/cases/554959 and http://www.coolcopyright.com/cases/fulltext/batlinsnydertext.htm
  11. http://about.usps.com/corporate-social-responsibility/stamp-collecting.htm#asc8
  12. http://about.usps.com/doing-business/rights-permissions/welcome.htm USPS site
  13. Omega S.A., v. Costco Wholesale Corp., 541 F.3d 982, 983.
  14. Fishman, Stephen (2014) The Public Domain: How to Find & Use Copyright-Free Writings, Music, Art & More, Nolo, p. 183 Retrieved on 29 August 2014. ISBN: 1413320287.
  15. [3]
  16. 17 U.S.C. § 21 (1947).
  17. Copyright Compendium I (1973), 4-5 to 4-6.
  18. 17 U.S.C. § 7 (1947)
  19. Copyright Compendium I (1973), 4-8 to 4-45.
  20. Copyright Compendium II (1984), 1000-13.

External links[edit]

Caution: The above description may be inaccurate, incomplete and/or out of date, so must be treated with caution. Before you upload a file to Wikimedia Commons you should ensure it may be used freely. Véase también : Commons:Aviso legal
Texto transcluido de
COM:Greenland

Groenlandia

Otra región, por ejemplo dependencia, unión, antiguo país

Greenland on the globe (Greenland centered).svg

Greenland is an autonomous constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark. On 21 June 2009 Greenland gained self-rule with provisions for assuming responsibility for self-government of judicial affairs, policing, and natural resources.

Greenland and the Faroe islands are members of WIPO and party to most international treaties, but are not members of the European Union. Denmark has harmonized most of its intellectual property laws with the rest of Europe, and as of 2019 the laws of Greenland have been brought into conformance with Denmark.[1]

As of 2019, the copyright law of Greenland is effectively in accordance with the Copyright Act of Denmark, and therefore Danish copyright templates will be applicable, including for public documents.

Freedom of panorama[edit]

Greenlandic freedom of panorama, found at Section 24 (2 and 3) is identical to the Danish freedom of panorama. OOjs UI icon check-constructive.svg   for buildings, and OOjs UI icon close-ltr-destructive.svg   for any public art still in copyright (for noncommercial only, incompatible with Commons:Licensing).

See also[edit]

Citations[edit]

Caution: The above description may be inaccurate, incomplete and/or out of date, so must be treated with caution. Before you upload a file to Wikimedia Commons you should ensure it may be used freely. Véase también : Commons:Aviso legal
Texto transcluido de
COM:Saint-Pierre and Miquelon

San Pedro y Miquelón

Otra región, por ejemplo dependencia, unión, antiguo país

Location of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon

Saint-Pierre and Miquelon is a self-governing territorial overseas collectivity of France. It is in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean near the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.

The same copyright laws apply as in the rest of France.

Copyright tags[edit]

Further information: Commons:Copyright rules by territory/France/es#TAG

Currency[edit]

Further information: Commons:Copyright rules by territory/France/es#CUR

Freedom of panorama[edit]

Further information: Commons:Copyright rules by territory/France/es#FOP

Stamps[edit]

Further information: Commons:Copyright rules by territory/France/es#Sellos postales

See also[edit]

Citations[edit]

Caution: The above description may be inaccurate, incomplete and/or out of date, so must be treated with caution. Before you upload a file to Wikimedia Commons you should ensure it may be used freely. Véase también : Commons:Aviso legal