- 1 Electricity and other things from electrical engineering
- 1.1 Navigation
- 1.2 Fluorescent light
- 1.3 Invertors for low-voltage lamps
- 1.4 Osram LED
- 1.5 Simple timer for lamps
- 1.6 Distribution board
- 1.7 Load switches
- 1.8 Residual current devices
- 1.9 Circuit breakers
- 1.10 Terminals
- 1.11 Other panel products
- 1.12 Earthing
- 1.13 Wiring
- 2 Other
Electricity and other things from electrical engineering
My age is near 25 and experience of working with lethally danger voltage exceeds 10 years. Contradictionaly, but my destiny had disposed so.
Electric devices shown here have been assembled using my own money. In difference from licensed contactors, I'll spend salary for assembling such appliences in future instead of saying flattery words, cause I do my work honestly.
As I've heard lot of obscene words into my own address cause of it during too long time, I recommend to avoid any problems with me to officials; cause seeing photos below, you'll understand, that I can easily upload here more photos causing obscene words into your address. Thanks for understanding, that is not joke.
- Defects and other failures
- Virtual college
- For cowboys, amateurs and homeowners
- Desgining electrical installations
- Done by my hands while I had free time
- NB! Those are examples to illustrate way of working! Doing such experiments yourself, first assemble and hide metal parts to dielectric box (that nobody can touch it), only then energize. And never put your fingers or other body parts to the voltaged metal parts. Keep on safe distance from it while it is working to have possibility realise yourself from lethal voltage! If you're staying near experimental beedroom, you risk to limit your possibilities to turn lethal voltage off.
Overview video about widespread compact fluorescent lamps you can find here
Invertors for low-voltage lamps
Lamps with mains AC working voltage can't be used in some places, like bathroom. But how to convert voltage from mains AC to 12? But installing it, don't mistakes, it should be installed in dry room with normal ventilation.
Worked only 1 day, next day there burned capacitor.
Simple timer for lamps
They are panel products for subpanels, where begining of the line is protected by fuse or circuit breaker to avoid duplication of fuses or circuit breakers.
All load switches shown in this section of gallery keeping firmly in "OFF" position, so casual switching-on like in Ensto is excluded.
Residual current devices
Busbars for circuit breakers
It is often said, that zero (neutral) and ground have the same potential, but wiring rules forbid any bridges between zero and ground inside your home or workplace. So, from substation to main distribution board your energy company delivers PEN (both are combined, which is named TN-C), but in the main distribution board PEN-conductor is divided to the neutral and earth (TN-S). Generally it is named TN-C-S system.
Other panel products
Cases for DIN rail
Widespread mistakes in earthing
- don't create bridges in outlet, put separated GND wire;
- don't join zero (blue wire) and ground (yellow-green wire) together;
- don't use pipes for the earthing
- each outlet should be protected by RCD
- bathrooms and other wet rooms should be protected by RCD
- there shouldn't be any wires in radius 3 meters near water (like baths), which forms "zone 0"
- above the water can be used only 12V lights, which forms "zone 1"
- 230V applences might be used only far from water 3 meters long only with protection at least IP44 or higher (zone 2)
I have seen lot of mistakes in earthing during my long practice in old buildings. People buy new home appliences where is reqired ground wire, but ground wire usually is missing in old houses. Some people begin to create bridges between neutral. But neutral is not ground: if neutral breaks, all metal covers will have lethal voltage on them. Some of people make bridge between ground contact and pipe. It is also danger, cause pipes will not provide reliable contact and nieghbors can get shock.
How to be?
- 1) Private houses have main panel with earthed neutral busbar. Everything is clear there. You can easily line ground wire and connect it to busbar where are connected earthing electrodes.
- 2) But apartment blocks have only subpanels in apartments, here is need to line separate wire into subpnels. If there is no ground wire, don't make bridge between neutral! Use RCD and create 000 class instead of danger TN-C system or defective 01 class.
Some equipment for earthing
Fuse boxes in TN-C-S
Both ways are correct
Wiring for licensed specialists
- ..."Don't forget to employ licensed shopper, when you'll go to the nearest shop"...
- ..."Don't forget to employ licensed roadcrosser, when you'll cross the road"...
- ..."Don't forget to employ licensed eater, when you'll be hungry"...
- ..."Don't forget to employ licensed sleeper, when you'll feel yourself sleepy"...
- ..."Don't forget to employ licensed clockwather, When you'll want to know what time"...
There are too much pretentious speeches, that simple works could be done only by licensed specialists with related permission. As my long experience of talking with licensed specialists shows, that 99.9% of them badly know Ohm's law, few of them know about Kirchhoff's circuit laws and 1 from 100 had heard about transients. Well, to fix such problem let's show them some educational illustrations:
Wago 222. How to wire them you can find here
How to NOT wire
Don't do this mistakes next time, cause society trust to all of you!
- Fail 1: "Lamps is blinking due to poor contact somewhere" (how is about wire gauge and voltage squating in old building???)
- Fail 2: "How much squares goes to 100 Amps?" (I always thought, that it depends on distance and transformer's resistance)
- Fail 3: "Why there is need Residual-Current device, if you have equipotential bonding" (I always thought, that RCD may protect against small leakages, which will make unneccessare money for your energy company).
- Fail 4: "Why company appoints young persons to responsible works?" (why old farters with 30 years of experience replace light switches instead of designing nuclear reactors for power plant???)
- Fail 5: "Thyristor? What is thyristor? No, I mean circuit driving by low current" (ahahahahahaha :lol: no comments)
- Fail 6: "You can check presence of all 3 phases by circuit breaker" (hey, if the one of hot wires interrupt somewhere out of circuit breaker???)
- Epic fail:
- -"Cause this work should be done by liscenzed specialist, which I have"
- -"Ok, why can't I calculate circuits with mutual coils by nodal potential way?"
- -"Don't you know, that consultations cost big money?"
- -"Ok, don't worry"
- -"Take your money back, I'm not qualified to reply on your question."
Wiring for tradesmans
- NB! I live in Europe, so I know good only European wiring rules. As for other countries, I can't be sure.
- Where to line the cables?
- -Well, there is two answers to this question.
- 1) If you go by modern European rules, they allow to install 230V sockets on altitude available to touch by babies. Other big safety lack of modern European wiring is way of lining, cause it provides lining from the floor to up. Parents, who have little children understand this problem.
- 2) As usual, I go by ex-USSR way of wiring, where duct with 230/400V cables goes near ceiling and power going from ceiling to down. This way 230V sockets are installed on altitude 130cm and little babies can't put anything metal to the voltaged parts.
- How to be with water heaters?
- -Yes, the were too much lethal accidents with boilers. And reason hides in corrosion on the ground terminal. Usually I install it out of bathroom and use additional ground if the pipes are metal. Inspecting of ground terminal I make every 2 years for free for my consumers. It takes less than 15 minutes.
- Why only 12V in bathroom?
- -Lot of homeowners prefer to dry hairs or shave while taking bath. Especially it is danger in old houses, where RCD is missing. In death accidents I've seen extension cord near swimming in bath corpse. To reduce temptation to a minimum I install only 12V light fixtures in bathroom. If someone wants, let buy wireless shaver.
Color codes in EU
Working and protecting zeros
- Don't ever join them together!
- Don't ever create ground by bridge or other crosspieces between N and PE terminals in outlet!