User:Jastrow/Quand utiliser la licence PD-Art

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COM:PDART

NOTE: Please do not use this template directly! This is just for translation.

Pour faire court, {{PD-Art}} peut être utilisé lors de l'importation d'une photographie prise par un tiers pour indiquer que celle-ci n'est pas protégée par le droit d'auteur : c'est la reproduction fidèle d'une œuvre d'art en deux dimensions, ancienne et qui appartient au domaine public. Cette licence peut être utilisée pour toute photographie répondant à ces critères, quel que soit le pays d'origine, conformément à la prise de position officielle du Conseil d'administration (Board) de la Wikimedia Foundation en juillet 2008.

Utilisation pertinente de la licence PD-Art : une photographie américaine récente, trouvée sur Internet, d'un tableau dans le domaine public — une reproduction fidèle du tableau dans son ensemble
La licence PD-Art n'est pas pertinente : la photo est protégée du fait des choix artistiques du photographe, comme le cadrage et le point de vue
Cette photo est sous licence PD-Old plutôt que than PD-Art parce que le sujet de la photo (le cheval et son cavalier) ne sont pas des œuvres d'art.

Introduction[edit]

Dans la quasi-totalité des cas, les photographies bénéficient de la protection du droit d'auteur, dont le titulaire est généralement le photographe lui-même ou son employeur. Pour importer sur Commons la copie d'une photographie prise par un tiers, vous devez vous appuyer sur l'un des éléments suivants :

  • le titulaire du droit d'auteur a placé sa photographie sous une licence libre admise sur Commons ;
  • le droit d'auteur lié à cette photographie s'est éteint — en d'autres termes, elle est tombée dans le domaine public) ;
  • la photographie n'est pas suffisamment originale pour être protégée par le droit d'auteur.

C'est le troisième point qui nous intéresse ici.

Œuvre d'origine[edit]

La reproduction mécanique d'une autre image, telle que la photocopie non retouchée d'un dessin ou son scan, n'est pas en soi protégée par le droit d'auteur, parce qu'elle n'offre aucune originalité : c'est une simple copie. Ce principe s'applique de manière internationale et, sur Commons, est généralement tenu pour acquis.

La jurisprudence américaine Bridgeman v. Corel (1999)[edit]

Dans sa décision Bridgeman Art Library v. Corel Corp. (1999), la Cour de district des États-Unis pour le District Sud de New York arrête qu’« une photographie qui n'est que la simple copie d'une œuvre tierce, aussi fidèle que la science et la technologie le permettent, est dénuée d'originalité. Il ne s'ensuit pas que cette tâche est aisée ; néanmoins, elle n'est pas originale. » Malgré les efforts et la somme de travail que nécessite la création de diapositives de qualité professionnelle à partir d'œuvres d'art originales, la Cour ne reconnaît pas ces dernières comme protégeables, parce qu'elles ne sont que les copies serviles des œuvres d'art reproduites.

Cet arrêt exclut donc du champ du droit d'auteur les photographies destinées à n'être que les reproductions fidèles d'œuvres d'art en deux dimensions, comme les tableaux. Du moment que seule une expertise technique est requise — dans le cadre d'une prise de vue fidèle, ne laissant pas de place à l'interprétation ou à la subjectivité —, la photographie ne donne pas lieu au droit d'auteur sui generis. Cette jurisprudence étend aux reproductions fidèles créées aux États-Unis par le biais de la photographie le principe suivant lequel les documents scannés et les photocopies d'originaux bidimensionnels ne sont pas protégeables.

En conséquence, une personne prenant aux États-Unis une photographie banale (plein cadre, neutre) d'une œuvre d'art en deux dimensions ne verra pas son travail protégé. Si l'œuvre d'origine est suffisamment vieille pour être tombée dans le domaine publique, cette photographie pourra être librement importée sur Commons.

Dans les autres pays[edit]

L'arrêt Bridgeman s'applique seulement aux États-Unis. D'autres pays ont des approches juridiques différentes. Dans certains, notamment le Royaume-Uni, l'Espagne et les pays scandinaves, on a soutenu que les reproductions photographiques fidèles pouvaient revendiquer la protection du droit d'auteur, soit que la législation nationale leur reconnaisse une originalité, soit qu'elle accorde le bénéfice du droit d'auteur à un certain type de photographies « banales ».

Néanmoins, les règles de Commons autorisent l'usage du bandeau {{PD-Art}} pour les photographies qui sont des reproductions fidèles d'œuvres d'art en deux dimensions tombées dans le domaine public, même si elles sont susceptibles d'être protégées selon la réglementation du pays d'origine.

Il s'agit là d'une rare exception à la règle habituelle sur Commons, suivant laquelle toutes les images doivent être libres à la fois aux États-Unis et dans le pays d'origine.

Why do we allow the {{PD-Art}} tag to be used for photographs from any country?[edit]

The position of the WMF[edit]

Regardless of any local laws to the contrary, the Wikimedia Foundation has stated its opinion as follows :

To put it plainly, WMF's position has always been that faithful reproductions of two-dimensional public domain works of art are public domain, and that claims to the contrary represent an assault on the very concept of a public domain. If museums and galleries not only claim copyright on reproductions, but also control the access to the ability to reproduce pictures (by prohibiting photos, etc.), important historical works that are legally in the public domain can be made inaccessible to the public except through gatekeepers.
WMF has made it clear that in the absence of even a strong legal complaint, we don't think it's a good idea to dignify such claims of copyright on public domain works. And, if we ever were seriously legally challenged, we would have a good internal debate about whether we'd fight such a case, and build publicity around it. This is neither a policy change (at least from WMF's point of view), nor is it a change that has implications for other Commons policies.Erik Möller 01:34, 25 July 2008 (UTC)

Commons policy follows the WMF position[edit]

Following this statement, a poll was held to determine policy, and the overwhelming view was that Commons should accept the {{PD-Art}} tag as being valid for photographs from any country. In August 2008, policy was changed accordingly.

This does not apply to photographs of 3D works of art[edit]

When a photograph demonstrates originality (typically, through the choice of framing, lighting, point of view and so on), it qualifies for copyright even if the photographed subject is itself uncopyrighted. This is typically the case for photographs of three-dimensional objects, hence the rule of thumb that "2D is OK, 3D is not".

So, what does the {{PD-Art}} tag mean?[edit]

Use of the {{PD-Art}} tag implies:

  • That the Commons file is a copy of a photograph taken by someone other than the uploader; and
  • That the photograph was a mere record copy (a faithful reproduction) of a two-dimensional work of art which is itself in the public domain.

When should the PD-Art tag not be used?[edit]

The {{PD-Art}} tag should not be used:

  • When you yourself personally took the photograph
In such a case, simply add the {{PD-Old}} tag to show that the work of art is itself in the public domain.
  • When the work of art shown in the photograph is in three dimensions
{{PD-Art}} does not apply to 3D works of art such as sculptures, since the photographer was able to generate originality by virtue of a choice of viewpoints and lighting arrangements. Anything that could cast a shadow is excluded.
  • When the photograph shows a 2D work of art within a 3D frame
If the frame is 3D, the previous point applies and the image cannot be accepted on Commons. Please crop to remove the frame and upload a version which shows the 2D work of art on its own.
  • When the original work of art is not in the public domain.
If copyright still subsists in the work of art but has been released under a free license, please use that license instead of the {{PD-Art}} tag.

Examples[edit]

Photograph of an Old Master found on the Internet[edit]

✓OK as long as the image is or appears to be a faithful reproduction of a 2D public domain work of art.

Photograph of an Old Master scanned in from a recently published book[edit]

✓OK. The WMF takes the view that as long as the reproduction is a faithful reproduction of the original it falls into the public domain.

Photograph of an old sculpture found on the Internet, or in a book[edit]

X mark.svg Not OK. {{PD-Art}} cannot be used for 3D objects such as sculpture, even if the sculpture is very old. If the photograph itself is provably old enough to be in the public domain, use {{PD-old}}.

Photograph of an old coin found on the Internet[edit]

X mark.svg Not OK. Coins are essentially 3D articles, and there is likely to be sufficient creativity in the lighting arrangements for the photographer to obtain a new copyright on the image. The WMF General Counsel has indicated that in his view coin images do not fall under Bridgeman v. Corel and hence are copyrighted [1]. There can, however be no copyright if the coin has merely been placed onto a scanner (unless, of course, the coin itself is copyrighted).

Copy of an old public domain photograph that you have scanned in from a recently published book[edit]

Use {{PD-Old}} rather than {{PD-Art}} provided you are happy that the book publishers have not significantly modified the photograph for publication, e.g. by adding artificial colour. If the old photograph was eg a portrait, {{PD-Art}} does not apply as there was no underlying work of art. If the photograph was of an earlier work of art such as an old painting, {{PD-Art}} could be used but is not needed as it no longer matters whether the photograph at the time attracted copyright or not.

Reusing content tagged with the PD-Art tag[edit]

Please be aware that depending on local laws it may not always be possible in your country to re-use content held on Commons under this policy. For a brief country-by-country review, see Commons:Reuse of PD-Art photographs.

Usage examples[edit]

{{PD-Art}} - the default[edit]

For use when the original work of art is public domain under {{PD-Old}}:

This is a faithful photographic reproduction of a two-dimensional, public domain work of art. The work of art itself is in the public domain for the following reason:
Public domain

This work is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 70 years or less.


Dialog-warning.svg You must also include a United States public domain tag to indicate why this work is in the public domain in the United States. Note that a few countries have copyright terms longer than 70 years: Mexico has 100 years, Jamaica has 95 years, Colombia has 80 years, and Guatemala and Samoa have 75 years. This image may not be in the public domain in these countries, which moreover do not implement the rule of the shorter term. Côte d'Ivoire has a general copyright term of 99 years and Honduras has 75 years, but they do implement the rule of the shorter term. Copyright may extend on works created by French who died for France in World War II (more information), Russians who served in the Eastern Front of World War II (known as the Great Patriotic War in Russia) and posthumously rehabilitated victims of Soviet repressions (more information).

This file has been identified as being free of known restrictions under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights.
The official position taken by the Wikimedia Foundation is that "faithful reproductions of two-dimensional public domain works of art are public domain".
This photographic reproduction is therefore also considered to be in the public domain in the United States. In other jurisdictions, re-use of this content may be restricted; see Reuse of PD-Art photographs for details.
{{PD-Art}} template without license parameter: please specify why the underlying work is public domain in both the source country and the United States
(Usage: {{PD-Art|1=|deathyear=''year of author's death''|country=''source country''}}, where parameter #1 can be PD-old-auto, PD-old-auto-1923, PD-old-auto-1996, PD-old-100 or similar. See Commons:Multi-license copyright tags for more information.)

{{PD-Art|PD-US}}[edit]

For use when the original work of art is public domain under {{PD-US}}:

This is a faithful photographic reproduction of a two-dimensional, public domain work of art. The work of art itself is in the public domain for the following reason:
Public domain
This media file is in the public domain in the United States. This applies to U.S. works where the copyright has expired, often because its first publication occurred prior to January 1, 1923. See this page for further explanation.
United States
Dialog-warning.svg
This image might not be in the public domain outside of the United States; this especially applies in the countries and areas that do not apply the rule of the shorter term for US works, such as Canada, Mainland China (not Hong Kong or Macao), Germany, Mexico, and Switzerland. The creator and year of publication are essential information and must be provided. See Wikipedia:Public domain and Wikipedia:Copyrights for more details.
The official position taken by the Wikimedia Foundation is that "faithful reproductions of two-dimensional public domain works of art are public domain".
This photographic reproduction is therefore also considered to be in the public domain in the United States. In other jurisdictions, re-use of this content may be restricted; see Reuse of PD-Art photographs for details.