He studied in Besancon, and later at the École Supérieure de Pharmacie in Paris, where in 1884 he earned a diploma with a doctoral thesis on the structure and taxonomy of Hymenomycetes called Essai taxonomique sur les familles et les genres des Hyménomycètes. Patouillard was a practicing pharmacist for more than forty years, first in Poligny (1881-84), and later in Fontenay-sous-Bois (1884-85), Paris (1886-1898) and Neuilly-sur-Seine (beginning in 1898). From 1893 to 1900 he was préparateur at the chair of Cryptogamie de l'école supérieure de pharmacie in Paris. In 1920 he became an honorary member of the British Mycological Society.
Patouillard is highly regarded for his taxonomical work in mycology, and during his career described many species of fungi. He published nearly 250 works, and was a leading authority on tropical mycology. Over 100 of his publications involved studies of mushrooms from diverse locales such as Brazil, Congo, Guadeloupe, Mexico, New Caledonia, Tunisia, et al. A mycological species called Inocybe patouillardii (brick-red tear mushroom) is named after him. Template:Botanist
- This article is based on a translation of an article from the French Wikipedia.