User:Xiaomingyan/3

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维基共享资源是一个向所有人提供公共领域的和自由授权的教育性媒体内容(图像、声音和视频片断)的媒体文件库。它担当着维基传媒基金会各个项目的公共媒体文件库,但是你不必成为这些项目的用户便可使用这里的媒体文件。

维基共享资源目标[edit]

维基共享资源的目标是成为一个

  • 向所有人提供公共领域的和自由授权的教育性媒体内容,
  • 担当维基传媒基金会各个项目的公共媒体文件库

的媒体文件库。

词语“教育性”应理解为其广义含义“提供知识、指导或信息的”。

共享资源范围[edit]

在维基共享资源存放的文件必须符合共享资源项目范围。超出项目范围的文件将会被删除。

被排除的教育性内容[edit]

一些有教育性的内容(包括文字和媒体文件)并不应在共享资源存储,因为这些内教育性容更适合于维基媒体基金会的其他项目。

这些内容包括:

但是维基共享资源可存储维基媒体计划所共用的材料处于项目范围中,例如来自可靠来源并可供查证的文字的扫描件。超出文本原始意义的材料也属于项目范围。例如版权过期的图书或报纸的扫描件、类似的纪录原始版式、字体、插图的材料。

范围第一部分:文件[edit]

只有满足以下所有条件,上传的文件才符合范围。任何文件:

  • 必须是媒体文件;
  • 必须是允许的自由文件格式;
  • 必须自由授权或属于公有领域;
  • 必教育性;
  • 必须不只含有被排除的教育性内容

下面是详细解释。

必须是媒体文件[edit]

维基共享资源仅存储例如照片、扫描图像、图表、动画、音频(例如音乐、对话)和视频剪辑并带有元数据的文件。符合维基共享资源目的且不在被教育性教育意义内容范围内的文字获准存放于维基共享资源。广告和宣传性内容不符合维基共享资源项目目的。

下列文件不可存放至维基共享资源:

  • 任何形式的计算机程序,包括二进制可执行文件或源码。(源码仅能出现于文件描述或元数据中,例如图片文件可包含创作软件的信息。)
  • 仅含纯文本的文件(例如ASCII文件、上述程序源码等)

必须是接受的自由文件格式[edit]

维基共享资源仅允许自由文件格式。不得使用私有格式例如微软WordExcel文档、MP3AAC、、MPEGAVIFlash Video和类似的格式。简单来说,禁止使用任何需要非自由软件(或受专利保护编码)而读取的文件。

目前接受的文件格式可在Commons:项目范围/接受的文件格式中找到。

必须有自由许可证授权或属于公有领域[edit]

维基共享资源仅接受自由内容,换而言之仅接受带有自由许可证授权或来自公有领域的内容。文件在版权过期后或由版权所有者决定不可逆地释放所有版权后进入公有领域。不受版权保护的文件也属于公有领域。

任何在此存放的文件都带有自由许可证或根据美国版权法及其来源国家的版权法属于公有领域。若有不同则请参考Commons:授权协议

要求授权项目[edit]

版权所有者完成一下两项不可逆授权可被视是自由许可证授权:

  • 准许以任何目的使用(包括商业使用)。
  • 准许创作演绎作品。

不接受的授权条款[edit]

以下是不接受的授权项目:

  • 仅能以非商业或教育使用。
  • Copyleft外对创作演绎作品的限制。
  • 要求付款或要求使用时通知 (要求却未执行)
  • 限制使用地点(例如仅允许维基百科使用)。

带有多许可的文件若至少一个许可证没有上述限制即可使用。

不接受仅授权以合理使用的文件。(合理使用并不是版权所有者可以给予的授权,而且不可能被维基共享资源接受)。

接受的授权条款[edit]

以下是接受的授权条款:

  • 要求表明版权所有者姓名(“署名”)。
  • 要求演绎作品采用与原作品相同的授权条款(“相同方式共享”/“Copyleft”)

授权政策的详细内容在Commons:授权协议中。

证据[edit]

In all cases the uploader must provide appropriate evidence to demonstrate either that the file is in the public domain or that the copyright owner has released it under a suitable licence. Typically that requires at least that the source of the file be specified,[1] along with the original source where the file is a derivative work. Also, the creator or copyright owner should be identified, if known or reasonably ascertainable. If there is any question, evidence may need to be supplied that the copyright owner has indeed released the file under the given licence.

Where the file is a photograph which shows an identifiable person, the subject's consent may be required as described at Commons:Photographs of identifiable people.

In all cases, the burden of proof lies on the uploader or other person arguing for the file to be retained to demonstrate that as far as can reasonably be determined:

  • the file is in the public domain or is properly licensed, and
  • that any required consent has been obtained.
Notes[edit]
  1. Note that in the case of files found on the Web, this should not be the URL of the file, but the URL of the page containing the file, so that Commons editors can find background information when required.

预防原则[edit]

维基共享资源用户致力以善意建立一个自由媒体资源库。预防原则指当文件的使用自由受到高度质疑时,该文件应当被删除。

另外如下的论据与维基共享资源目的背道而驰:

  1. "版权所有者不会费力起诉或无法承担起诉费用。"
  2. "版权所有者不会发现这件事。"
  3. "版权所有者不会介意我们散布其作品。"
  4. "没人知道谁是版权所有者,因此无所谓。"
  5. "这个文件明显是公有财产:整个因特网上都可以找到而且没人抱怨。"


必教育性[edit]

“教育性”在此指广义的提供知识、指导和信息的

在下列章节中不包括非善意的使用,例如仅用于装饰讨论页的图片。

在其他维基媒体计划中使用的图片[edit]

被一个维基媒体计划所使用的媒体文件通常自教育性教育意义的,包括由于一些操作原因而在模板或类似页面使用的文件。这些文件不能简单以低质量而被删除,如果有项目使用该文件,这就足够了。

另外仅用于装饰其他项目用户页("User:"名字空间)的图教育性教育意义。但是允许上传少量图片在用户页中使用。

应当指出共享资源并不对其他计划发表评价,在非讨论页/用户页上使用的文件在项目范围内。

仅在共享资源上使用的图片[edit]

仅用于装饰共享资源用户页("User:"名字空间)、讨论页、图库的图教育性教育意义。但是允许上传少量图片在用户页中使用。允许上传与维基媒体基金会项目或实践有关的图片(例如用户聚会照片)。

不合适的文件[edit]

不符合以下条件的文件在维基共享资源项目范围之外: 教育性教育意义,或

  • 不符合上文讨论标准。

在此强调在维基媒体计划上或其他教育用途上的确切实用性。并不是所有图片都有助于教育目,简单主张“该图可用于装饰维基百科条目X”是不能教育性教育意义的。

例如未使用的模糊照片可是“摄影中的常见错误”条目提供例证,但这不意味着我们将保留所有模糊照片。未使用的你的朋友的图片可用于条目“人物摄影”中,但这不意味着我们回保留所有无名人士的照片。未使用的色情图片可以用于色情条目中,但这也不意味着我们将保留所有色情图片(参见审查

举例[edit]

下列例子中的文件不具教育性教育意义:

  • 私人图片收藏,例如私人聚会照片、你和你的朋友的照片、你的节日照片等。这些图片更应该存放于互联网上其他站点,例如Flickr。即便在共享资源或其他维基媒体计划中以画廊展示这些图片教育性教育意义。

教育性教育意义的个人创作艺术品。

  • 明显因人身攻击或破坏而制作或上传的图片。与当今民族、信仰、种族相关的已有设计或符号不会仅因有冒犯性而此于项目范围外。若能证明其在维基百科或其他项目中被妥善使用则符合维基共享资源项目范围。
  • 广告和自我宣传。
  • 与现有文件重复却质量较差的文件。

讨论[edit]

当我们拥有高质量并已进行物种鉴定的鸟类图像时,尺寸小、模糊质量差的未知鸟类照教育性教育意义。当然

We hold many high quality images of species-identified birds, and there is no realistic educational use for a small, blurry, poorly composed snapshot of an unidentified and unidentifiable bird. Of course, there is always room for another educationally distinct image, for example illustrating some aspect of bird behaviour that we do not currently cover, even if the image is perhaps not of the highest quality.

There may sometimes be an argument for retaining multiple images that are (from an educational point of view) quite similar, for the sake of variety and availability of choice, but there is no purpose in our hosting many essentially identical poor quality images that have no realistic educational value.

New educational files of exceptional quality are always welcome, and the later uploading of such files may in principle render earlier unused poor quality files educationally redundant. However, as indicated above, a file that is used in good faith on a Wikimedia project is always considered educational, so a poor quality file that remains in use is not liable to deletion even if a better-quality file covering the same subject later becomes available.

New and existing files of poor or mediocre quality may or may not be realistically useful for an educational purpose depending on what they illustrate and what other files we have of the same subject. Where a subject is rare and/or difficult to capture, even a poor quality file may be of significant educational value, especially if Commons has very few or no similar files already. On the other hand, poor or mediocre files of common and easy to capture subjects may have no realistic educational value, especially if Commons already hosts many similar or better quality examples.

Image quality is just one of the factors that may limit the educational usefulness of a file. Other limiting factors may include low-resolution and hard-to-remove watermarks.

PDF and DjVu formats[edit]

Although PDF and DjVu file formats are permitted, they are expected to be used only in appropriate cases. There should be some reason for the choice of format that is in line with Commons' aims. All of the above rules apply as well, of course.

An admin considering whether to delete a PDF or DjVu file may have to exercise judgement as to whether the chosen format is in line with Commons' aims, and the context and intent (if known) may be relevant. For example, while a published University thesis in PDF format may be OK, a user-created original-research article that is making use of Commons as a free web-host may not be.

Files that might realistically be useful to one or more other Wikimedia projects, e.g. Wikisource or Wikibooks, should be kept; deletions should not be based on the sole ground that the file would be better hosted on one of those other projects. Any media file that is realistically useful to or is within the scope of even one other Wikimedia Foundation project can be hosted here.

Remember that Wikisource may use PDF or DjVu files in order to proofread or create source texts: Therefore, scans of suitable editions of notable public domain works are almost always within scope for this reason. That said, remember that editorial decisions involved in preparing a text from several sources may allow a new copyright, so the editions used must be out of copyright themselves.


Allowable reasons for PDF and DjVu formats[edit]

  • The format has been selected for convenience of printing.
  • The format has been selected to allow viewing or printing of special fonts (e.g. documents in advanced mathematics or linguistics).
  • The file would be within the scope of another project of the Wikimedia Foundation if it were to be uploaded in the same format to that project, for example:
    • A PDF or DjVu file of a published and peer-reviewed work would be in scope on Wikisource and is therefore also in scope on Commons. Examples of in-scope documents include published books (but not vanity-publishing), peer-reviewed academic papers etc., university theses and dissertations.
    • The file is a scan of a document of historic or other external significance (e.g. scans of existing copyright-free or licensed books, reports, newspapers etc.).
    • The file is usable as a fixed, verifiable source document, for e.g. Wikisource or Wikibooks (appropriate fixation of content).
    • The format selected provides technical advantages to at least one other Wikimedia Foundation project.

Non-allowable reasons for PDF and DjVu formats[edit]

  • The format has apparently been selected by the author or uploader to prevent or to discourage the creation of derivative works contrary to Commons' aims. Such inappropriate fixation of content would include a self-published vanity article or a self-created image that the author has uploaded in PDF format in an effort to discourage others from creating derivatives.
  • The content is essentially raw text (such files are not considered media files). Note that scans of existing books, reports, newspapers etc of historic or other external significance are not excluded on this ground, even if they contain no images.
  • The content would be prohibited under another section (for example, promotional material is outside Commons' scope regardless of the file format).

范围第二部分:页面、图库及分类[edit]

See Commons:Project scope/Pages, galleries and categories.

A word on some areas of particular concern[edit]

Censorship[edit]

Shortcuts
COM:CENSOR
COM:CENSORSHIP

Files and other materials which are not lawful for Commons to host on its servers in Florida will be deleted immediately upon being identified as illegal (this includes copyright violations), even if the material otherwise falls within Commons scope, as set out above. However, Commons is not censored, and does quite legitimately include content which some users may consider objectionable or offensive. The policy of "Commons is not censored" means that a lawfully-hosted file, which falls within Commons' definitions of scope, will not be deleted solely on the grounds that it may not be "child-friendly" or that it may cause offense to you or others, for moral, personal, religious, social, or other reasons.

The counterpoint to this, is that the statement "Commons is not censored" is not a valid argument for keeping a file that falls outside Commons' defined scope, as set out above. Photographs of nudity including male and female genitalia are sometimes uploaded for non-educational motives, and such images are not exempt from the requirement to comply with the rules of Commons' scope. If the images are of demonstrably inferior quality, or add nothing educationally distinct to the stock of such images we hold already, they may fail the test of being realistically useful for an educational purpose.

A balance has to be struck between accepting useful media files with legitimate educational content that some may find offensive, and not allowing Commons to be used as a general-purpose media-hosting service (like Flickr, Photobucket, YouTube, etc.), without regard for the project's stated goals. The purpose of Commons is to serve as a media repository, a reliable resource of useful, open source media content; organized and comprehensive in coverage (with accurate file descriptions/information), educational, and intended both for use by Wikimedia projects, and as a public service freely accessible to everyone.

“中立的观点”[edit]

请见Commons:Project scope/Neutral point of view

另见[edit]