User:Yug/Stroke order according to national rules

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Stroke order serie Stroke order according to national rules - Stroke order - CJK shapes and Stroke order

While the majority of characters are written in exactly the same stroke order everywhere because their shape clearly dictates a particular order, the "official" stroke order of CJK characters varies from country to country. This is largely because calligraphic styles evolved differently in Imperial China, Modern and Communist China, Japan, and Korea.

  • Traditional stroke order: Imperial China, ROC in China from 1911 to 1949, modern Taiwan and Hong Kong. This system of stroke order follows traditional Chinese calligraphy and Chinese Grass Style.
  • Japanese stroke order: Modern Japan and Korea. This stroke order follows the traditions of Japanese calligraphy and Japanese Grass Style. The occupation of Korea by Japan (1895-1945), and their close intellectual and artistic exchanges meant that they developed similar calligraphies and now follow the same stroke order. Some Japanese kanji were reformed in 1946.
  • Modern stroke order: Modern Mainland China (PRC). The Chinese government reformed the Chinese character set in 1956, and also reformed the number of strokes and the stroke order of some characters. A notable "innovation" of this stroke order reform was the conception of a "horizontal writing" stroke order, to facilitate horizontal writing. Some examples of stroke order simplifications are the radicals 廴,戈,方,母,瓦,癶,禸,舟,辶,阝,骨,and 鬼.

Traditional CJK characters' stroke order[edit]

Background

There were several books about stroke order in the past. In 1615 (Ming Dynasty), the dictionary (字彙 zihui) wrote by Mei Yingzuo (梅膺祚) contains practice/illustrations/rules/examples? of stroke order (運筆先後法) in the first chapter. In Qing Dynasty, the Fushi shanyou fa (『父師善誘法』, '...') by Tang Biao (唐彪) had 50 word Template:Examples (五十字式) in text learning method for children (童子學字法).[1]

In the Republican (ROC) period, we can cite the Qilei yunbi tiaolietu (『七類運筆條例圖』, Graph of seven types of stroke order) by Yin Jingshu (陰景曙); the Guochang keben shengzi bishun jiaoxue zhidao (『國常課本生字筆順教學指導』) by Zhang Xiaoyu (張孝裕); the Bishun zhidao shouce (『筆順指導手冊』, Stroke order leaflet) by Chen Shunqi (陳舜齊) with 11 rules; the Bishun jiaoxue yanjiu (『筆順教學研究』, 'Étude on the teaching of Stroke order') by Lin Yitong (林以通); Bishun zi gui (『筆順字規』, 'Rules of Characters' Stroke order') by Qi Tongqi (戚桐欣); Kaishu bishun tonggui (『楷書筆順通則』, 'General principles of Stroke order for Regular style') by Gu Dawo (顧大我) with 4 categories and 7 articles. [1]

As a matter of fact, those stroke orders are presented as the style of the writers their own, there was no official practice of stroke order until 『常用國字標準字體筆順手冊』 was presented, eventually setting a state encouraged standard.[1]

Current reference

The government of ROC, now controling Taiwan territories, continued the process of modernization, centralization, and standardization associate to state building. In the Educational field too, and for stroke order, the project of an authoritative standard raise up. Accordingly, the 『常用國字標準字體筆順手冊』 by 李鎏 was presented in [1995], in the name of the ROC Ministry of Education. This work setting a state encouraged standard.[1]

Stroke order examples
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Japanese Kanji and Korean Hanja stroke order[edit]

Background

First, in 1958, Japanese Ministry of Education (now Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, or MEXT[2]) published Hitsujun shidō no tebiki 筆順指導の手びき, a handbook on stroke orders of 881 "Kyōiku kanji", which are the kanji listed on the tōyōkanji beppyo 当用漢字別表, published in 1948 by the Cabinet of Japan (ENWP explains as 1946, but this is the year when Tōyō kanji was published).

This handbook was mentioned in the Standards for Textbook Authorization (教科用図書検定規準) as what school textbooks should follow until 1976. However, after the revision of the standards in 1977, this handbook has no longer been mentioned in the official standards.

Current reference

What it reads now is : The MEXT now states:

In principal, the stroke orders of kanji should follow commonsensical orders which are widely accepted in the society. When the stroke order of a character in semi-cursive script differs [from that of regular script], appropriate explanation must be added.

—MEXT, Standards for Authorization of the Textbooks of Compulsory Educational Organizations

漢字の筆順は,原則として一般に通用している常識的なものによっており,行書で筆順が異なる字については,適切な説明を加えていること。

—MEXT, 義務教育諸学校教科用図書検定基準, 1999, 1.

The same sentence appears in the Standards for High Schools [高等学校教科用図書検定基準].

In Japan, along with textbook authorization, Curriculum Guideline (学習指導要領) published by MEXT[2] also sets standards for elementary and secondary education. The guideline for Japanese language education at elementary schools refers to kanji stroke order as :

[Schools must teach students] to write correctly and following stroke orders, pay attention to the length of dots and lines and how they touch and cross each other.

—MEXT, Curriculum Guideline for Elementary Schools

点画の長短,接し方や交わり方などに注意して,筆順に従って文字を正しく書くこと。

—MEXT, 第1節 国語-文部科学省, 1998. 12.

The 1988 edition used to include a similar sentence for guideline of the third school year.
Specific stroke order
What means:

"いくつかメモ書き。 ◎「劇」の筆順(101頁の⑯番)  藤原宏(1990)『新版漢字書き順字典』(第一法規)には二通りの筆順が示されている(179頁)。最初に「筆順指導の手びき」(昭和33年、文部省)に示された筆順が示されており、その下に「☆」が付けられた欄に(「筆順指導の手びき」とは)「異なった筆順が一般に広く行われている漢字」としてその「異なった筆順」の「相違する箇所」を取り上げて示している。"

from here, and

漢字書き順字典 (単行本)
ISBN-13: 978-4474070950
1990/03
本書で取り上げた漢字は、常用漢字表(昭和56年10月1日内閣訓令・告示)に掲げられている1945字の漢字に、人名用漢字の284字を加えたものです

From amazon.com.jp

RPC's simplified stroke order[edit]

Background
Current references
Specific troke order

Korea's stroke order[edit]

Background
Current references
Specific troke order

Note[edit]

  1. a b c d (zh) 標準字體筆順手冊's Introduction.
  2. a b now Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "MEXT" defined multiple times with different content

References[edit]

Other references

Traditional Chinese

Japanese :

Sources[edit]

See in article en:Stroke order and Commons:CJK stroke order:Sources