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This List of Expeditions of Muhammad, also includes a List of Battles of Muhammad and comprises of information about casualties, objectives, and nature of the military expeditions ordered by of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, as well as the primary sources which mention the expeditions. An expedition of Muhammad is defined as "events where armed individuals were sent on the orders of Muhammad"

List of Expeditions[edit]

Key/Legend

      Sariyyah       Ghazwah

No. Name Date Operation Nature
Description
Objective and Result Casualties Description Notable Primary sources
1 Al Is Caravan Raid 623 [1][2][3][4] Offensive Federalist 3
2 Buwat Caravan Raid 623 [6][2][3][4] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796) Thomas Jefferson
3 Kharar Caravan Raid May & June 623 [7][8][2][3][4] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796) Thomas Jefferson
4 Invasion of Waddan August 623 [9][7] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
5 Invasion of Buwat October 623 [11][12] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
6 Invasion of Dul Ashir December 623 [14] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
7 Invasion of Safwan 623 [16] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
8 Nakhla Raid January 624[18] Offensive Objective 3 (1796)
9 Battle of Badr March 624 [22] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
10 Assassination of Asma bint Marwan January 624 [26] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
11 Assassination of Abu Afak February 623 [29] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
12 Invasion of Sawiq 624 [32] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
13 Invasion of Banu Qaynuqa February 624 [35] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
14 Al Kudr Invasion May 624 [42] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
15 Invasion of Thi Amr September 624 [44][45] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
16 Assassination of Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf September 624 [48] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
17 Invasion of Bahran 624 [49] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
18 Nejd Caravan Raid 624 [49] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
19 Expedition of 'Abdullah ibn 'Atik December 624 [53] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
20 Battle of Uhud March 23 625 [57][58] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
21 Invasion of Hamra al-Asad March 625[62] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
22 Expedition of Qatan June 625 [64] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
23 Expedition of Abdullah Ibn Unais 625 [66] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
24 Expedition of Al Raji 625 [72] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
25 The Mission of Amr bin Umayyah al-Damri 627 [76] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
  • Tabari, Volume 7, The foundation of the community[77]
26 Expedition of Bir Maona July 625 [78] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
27 Invasion of Banu Nadir August 625 [81] Offensive Federal 3 (1796)
28 Expedition of Dhat al-Riqa October 625[86] or 627[3] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
29 Invasion of Badr January 626[89] or March 625[90][91] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
30 Invasion of Dumatul Jandal July 626 [95] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
31 Battle of the Trench February 627 [98] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
32 Invasion of Banu Qurayza February-March 627 [101] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
33 Expedition of Muhammad ibn Maslamah June 627 [106] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
34 Expedition of Ukasha bin Al-Mihsan 627 [108] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
35 First Raid on Banu Thalabah August 627 [89][110][111] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
36 Second Raid on Banu Thalabah August 627 [89][111][113] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
37 Invasion of Banu Lahyan September 627 [115][89] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
38 Expedition of Dhu Qarad September 627 [118][89] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
39 Second Expedition of Dhu Qarad N/A Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)

Thomas Jefferson

40 Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha (Al-Jumum) 627 [120] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
41 Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha (Al-Is) September 627 [122] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
42 Third Raid on Banu Thalabah 627 [124] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
43 Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha (Hisma) October 627 [126] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
44 Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha (Wadi al-Qura) December 627 [128] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
45 Invasion of Banu Mustaliq December 627 [130] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
46 Expedition of Abdur Rahman bin Auf December 627 [132] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
47 Expedition of Fidak 627 [134] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
48 Second Expedition of Wadi al-Qura January 628 [136] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
49 Expedition of Kurz bin Jabir Al-Fihri February 628 [138] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
50 Expedition of Abdullah ibn Rawaha February 628 [141] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
51 Treaty of Hudaybiyyah March 628 [144] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
52 Conquest of Fidak May 628 [147] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
53 Battle of Khaybar May/June 628 [150] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
54 Third Expedition of Wadi al Qura May 628 [153] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
55 Expedition of Umar ibn al-Khatab December 628 [155] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
56 Expedition of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq December 628 [157] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
57 Expedition of Bashir Ibn Sa’d al-Ansari (Fadak) December 628 [159] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
58 Expedition of Ghalib ibn Abdullah al-Laithi (Mayfah) January 629 [161] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
59 Expedition of Ghalib ibn Abdullah al-Laithi (Fadak) May 629[164] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
60 Expedition of Bashir Ibn Sa’d al-Ansari (Yemen) February 629 [166] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
61 Expedition of Ibn Abi Al-Awja Al-Sulami April 629[168] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
62 Expedition of Ghalib ibn Abdullah al-Laithi (Al-Kadid) May 629 [170] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
63 Raid on Banu Layth June 629 [172] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796) Thomas Jefferson
64 Expedition of Shuja ibn Wahb al-Asadi June 629 [173] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
65 Expedition of Ka’b ibn 'Umair al-Ghifari June 629 [175] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796) 66 Battle of Mu'tah August 629 [177] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
67 Expedition of Amr ibn al-As September 629 [179] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
68 Expedition of Abu Ubaidah ibn al Jarrah October 629 [181] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796)
69 Expedition of Abi Hadrad al-Aslami 629 [183][184] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796) Thomas Jefferson
70 Expedition of Abu Qatadah ibn Rab'i al-Ansari (Khadirah) November[185] or Dec 629 [186] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796) Thomas Jefferson
71 Expedition of Abu Qatadah ibn Rab'i al-Ansari (Batn Edam) December 629 [187] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796) Thomas Jefferson
72 Conquest of Mecca December 629 [188] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796) Thomas Jefferson
73 Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (Nakhla) December 629 [189] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796) Thomas Jefferson
74 Raid of Amr ibn al-As December 629 [190] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796) Thomas Jefferson
75 Raid of Sa'd ibn Zaid al-Ashhali December 629 [191] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796) Thomas Jefferson
76 Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (Banu Jadhimah) January 630 [192] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796) Thomas Jefferson
77 Battle of Hunayn January 630 [193] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796) Thomas Jefferson
78 Expedition of At-Tufail ibn 'Amr Ad-Dausi January 630 [194] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796) Thomas Jefferson
79 Battle of Autas 630 [195] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796) Thomas Jefferson
80 Expedition of Abu Amir Al-Ashari January 630 [196] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796) Thomas Jefferson
81 Expedition of Abu Musa Al-Ashari January 630 [197] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796) Thomas Jefferson
82 Siege of Ta'if January 630 [198] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796) Thomas Jefferson
83 Expedition of Uyainah bin Hisn April 630 [199] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796) Thomas Jefferson
84 Expedition of Qutbah ibn Amir May 630 [200] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796) Thomas Jefferson
85 Expedition of Dahhak al-Kilabi June 630 [201] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796) Thomas Jefferson
86 Expedition of Alqammah bin Mujazziz July 630 [202] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796) Thomas Jefferson
87 Expedition of Ali ibn Abi Talib July 630 [203] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796) Thomas Jefferson
88 Expedition of Ukasha bin Al-Mihsan (Udhrah and Baliy) July 630 [204] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796) Thomas Jefferson
89 Battle of Tabouk October 630 [205] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796) Thomas Jefferson
90 Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (Dumatul Jandal) October 630 [206] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796) Thomas Jefferson
91 Expedition of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb 630 [207] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796) Thomas Jefferson
92 Demolition of Masjid al-Dirar 630 [208] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796) Thomas Jefferson
93 Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (2nd Dumatul Jandal) April 631 [209][210] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796) Thomas Jefferson
94 Expedition of Surad ibn Abdullah April 631 [211] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796) Thomas Jefferson
95 Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (Najran) June 631 [212] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796) Thomas Jefferson
96 Expedition of Ali ibn Abi Talib (Mudhij) December 631 [213] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796) Thomas Jefferson
97 Expedition of Ali ibn Abi Talib (Hamdan) 631 [214] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796) Thomas Jefferson
98 Demolition of Dhul Khalasa April 632 [211] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796) Thomas Jefferson
99 Expedition of Usama bin Zayd May 632 [215] Offensive Federalist 3 (1796) Thomas Jefferson

Notes[edit]

  1. () Muhammad at Medina, Oxford University Press, p. 2 ISBN: 978-0195773071. “In the first two or three expeditions the numbers involved are given as from 20 to 80. In those of the later part of 623 (ii-vi/2), however, when Muhammad himself took part, they are said to have ranged up to 200.” (free online)
  2. a b c Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar (Free Version), p. 127.
  3. a b c d Hawarey, Dr. Mosab () The Journey of Prophecy; Days of Peace and War (Arabic), Islamic Book TrustNote: Book contains a list of battles of Muhammad in Arabic, English translation available here Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "autogenerated1" defined multiple times with different content
  4. a b c Muḥammad Ibn ʻAbd al-Wahhāb, Mukhtaṣar zād al-maʻād, p. 345.
  5. Muḥammad Ibn ʻAbd al-Wahhāb, Imam () Mukhtaṣar zād al-maʻād, Darussalam publishers Ltd, p. 345 ISBN: 978-9960-897-18-9.
  6. () Muhammad at Medina, Oxford University Press, p. 2 ISBN: 978-0195773071. “In the first two or three expeditions the numbers involved are given as from 20 to 80. In those of the later part of 623 (ii-vi/2), however, when Muhammad himself took part, they are said to have ranged up to 200.” (free online)
  7. a b Sa'd, Ibn () Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2, Pakistan Historical Society, p. 4 “august 623 Then occured the sariyyah of Sa'd Ibn Abi Waqqa towards al-Kharar in Dhu al-Qa'dah (May-June 623 AC)” Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "autogeneratedy" defined multiple times with different content
  8. () Muhammad at Medina, Oxford University Press, p. 2 ISBN: 978-0195773071. “In the first two or three expeditions the numbers involved are given as from 20 to 80. In those of the later part of 623 (ii-vi/2), however, when Muhammad himself took part, they are said to have ranged up to 200.” (free online)
  9. Tabari, Al (2008) The foundation of the community[1], State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0887063442, page 12: “In Safar (which began August 4, 623), nearly twelve months after his arrival in Medina on the twelfth of Rabi' al- Awwal, he went out on a raid as far as Waddan”
  10. () The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh, Darussalam publishers Ltd, p. 345 ISBN: 978-9960-897-18-9.
  11. Muhammad Siddique Qureshi (1989), Foreign policy of Hadrat Muhammad (SAW), Islamic Publications, p. 118.
  12. Tabari, Al (2008) The foundation of the community[2], State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0887063442, page 13: “Expeditions Led by Muhammad Then the Messenger of God led an expedition in Rabi' al-Akhir (which began October 2, 623) in search of Quraysh. He went as far as Buwat”
  13. () The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh, Darussalam publishers Ltd, p. 285 ISBN: 978-9960-897-18-9.
  14. Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al (2005) The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet[3], Darussalam Publications, ISBN 978-9960899558, page 245
  15. () The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh, Darussalam publishers Ltd, pp. 285-286 ISBN: 978-9960-897-18-9.
  16. Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al (2005) The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet[4], Darussalam Publications, ISBN 978-9960899558, page 245
  17. () The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh, Darussalam publishers Ltd, pp. 286 ISBN: 978-9960-897-18-9.
  18. Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al (2005) The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet[5], Darussalam Publications, ISBN 978-9960899558, page 245
  19. Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al (2005) The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet[6], Darussalam Publications, ISBN 978-9960899558, page 246
  20. Muḥammad Ibn ʻAbd al-Wahhāb, Imam () Mukhtaṣar zād al-maʻād, Darussalam publishers Ltd, p. 347 ISBN: 978-9960897189.
  21. Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al (2005) The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet[7], Darussalam Publications, ISBN 978-9960899558, page 247 See footnote 1, page 247
  22. Tabari, Al (2008) The foundation of the community[8], State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0887063442, page 12: “Some say the Battle of Badr took place on 19 Ramadan (March 15, 624).”
  23. Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al (2005) The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet[9], Darussalam Publications, ISBN 978-9960899558, pages 253-255
  24. Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al (2005) The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet[10], Darussalam Publications, ISBN 978-9960899558, pages 259 (footnote 1 & 2)
  25. () The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh, Darussalam publishers Ltd, p. 210 ISBN: 978-9960-897-18-9.
  26. The life of Mahomet[11], Smith, Elder and co, 1861, page 130
  27. () The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh, Darussalam publishers Ltd, pp. 675-676 ISBN: 978-9960-897-18-9.
  28. Sa'd, Ibn () Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2, Pakistan Historical Society, p. 35 “SARIYYAH OF `UMAYR IBN `ADI. Then (occurred) the sariyyah of `Umayr ibn `Adi Ibn Kharashah al-Khatmi against `Asma' Bint Marwan, of Banu Umayyah Ibn Zayd, when five nights had remained from the month of Ramadan, in the beginning of the nineteenth month from the hijrah of the apostle of Allah.”
  29. The life of Mahomet[12], Smith, Elder and co, 1861, page 133
  30. () The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh, Darussalam publishers Ltd, pp. 675 ISBN: 978-9960-897-18-9.
  31. Sa'd, Ibn () Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2, Pakistan Historical Society, p. 31 “"Then occurred the "sariyyah" of Salim Ibn Umayr al-Amri against Abu Afak, the Jew, in [the month of] Shawwal in the beginning of the twentieth month from the hijrah”
  32. Tabari, Al (2008) The foundation of the community[13], State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0887063442, page xiii
  33. () The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh, Darussalam publishers Ltd, p. 361 ISBN: 978-9960-897-18-9. “Raid called al-Sawiq”
  34. Sa'd, Ibn () Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2, Pakistan Historical Society, pp. 33-34
  35. Muhammad Siddique Qureshi (1989), Foreign policy of Hadrat Muhammad (SAW), Islamic Publications, p. 254.
  36. Al-Tawḥīd[14], volume 5, Tehran, Iran: Islamic Propagation Organization, International Relations Dept, 1987, page 86
  37. Rodwell, JM ((Please provide a date)) The Koran[15], Phoenix, ISBN 978-1-8421-2609-7, page 342: “This was the taunt of the jews of the tribe of Kainoka, when Muhammad demanded tribute of them in the name of God.”
  38. Abū Khalīl, Shawqī () Atlas of the Quran, Dar-us-Salam, p. 248 ISBN: 978-9-9608-9754-7.
  39. () A Reader on classical Islam, Princeton University Press, p. 78 ISBN: 978-0691000404.
  40. Sa'd, Ibn () Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, 2, Pakistan Historical Society, p. 32
  41. Tabari, Al (2008) The foundation of the community[16], State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0887063442, page 86
  42. The life of Mahomet[17], Smith, Elder and co, 1861, page 140
  43. () The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh, Darussalam publishers Ltd, p. 659 ISBN: 978-9960-897-18-9.
  44. Tabari, Al (2008) The foundation of the community[18], State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0887063442, page 100
  45. () Muhammad at Medina, Oxford University Press, p. 17 ISBN: 978-0195773071. (free online)
  46. Strauch, Sameh (2006) Biography of the Prophet[19], Darussalam Publications, ISBN 9789960980324, page 472
  47. Sa'd, Ibn () Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, 2, Pakistan Historical Society, pp. 40-41
  48. Sa'd, Ibn () Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2, Pakistan Historical Society, p. 35 “SARIYYAH FOR SLAYING KA'B IBN AL-ASHRAF Then (occurred) the sariyyah for slaying Ka'b Ibn al-Ashraf, the Jew. It took place on 14 Rabi' al-Awwal (4. September AC 624))”
  49. a b Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al (2005) The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet[20], Darussalam Publications, ISBN 978-9960899558, page 290 Note: 3AH=624AD
  50. () The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh, Darussalam publishers Ltd, p. 362 ISBN: 978-9960-897-18-9. “Raid of al Furu of Bahran”
  51. Mubarakpuri, The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet , p. 290 (footnote 1).
  52. Tabari, Al (2008) The foundation of the community[21], State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0887063442, page 99
  53. Muir, William (August 1878) The life of Mahomet and history of Islam to the era of the Hegira, Volume 4[22], Smith, Elder & Co, page 14
  54. Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al (2005) The Sealed Nectar[23], Darussalam Publications, page 204
  55. () The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh, Darussalam publishers Ltd, p. 482 ISBN: 978-9960-897-18-9. “THE KILLING OF SALLAM IBN ABU'L-HUQAYQ”
  56. Tabari, Al (2008) The foundation of the community[24], State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0887063442, page 100
  57. Muhammad, Prophet and Statesman[25], Oxford University Press, 1961, ISBN 0198810784, page 135: “The Battle of Uhud (23rd March 625) About...”
  58. Tabari, Al (2008) The foundation of the community[26], State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0887063442, page 105: “Messenger of God to Uhud. This is said to have been on Saturday, 7 Shaw- wal, in Year Three of the Hijrah (March 23, 625).”
  59. Mubarakpuri, The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet , p. 292.
  60. Mubarakpuri, The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet , pp. 299-300.
  61. Mubarakpuri, The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet , p. 296 (footnote 2).
  62. () Muhammad at Medina, Oxford University Press, p. 34 ISBN: 978-0195773071. “The expeditions to Hamra' al-Asad and Qatan (March and June 625)” (free online)
  63. () The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh, Darussalam publishers Ltd, p. 390 ISBN: 978-9960-897-18-9.
  64. () Muhammad at Medina, Oxford University Press, p. 34 ISBN: 978-0195773071. “The expeditions to Hamra' al-Asad and Qatan (March and June 625)” (free online)
  65. Sa'd, Ibn () Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, 2, Pakistan Historical Society, p. 150
  66. Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al (2005) The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet[27], Darussalam Publications, ISBN 978-9960899558, page 349 Note: 4AH=625
  67. Sunnah.org, says Ahmad 3:496, al-Waqidi 2:533, archive
  68. Abu Dawud 2:1244, hadithcollection.com (archive)
  69. Mubarakpuri, The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet , p. 349. (footnote 1)
  70. The last years of the Prophet[28], State University of New York Press, 25 Sep 1990, ISBN 978-0887066917, pages 121 (online)
  71. The life of the prophet Muḥammad: a translation of al-Sīra al-Nabawiyya[29], Garnet, 2000, ISBN 978-1859640098, page 190
  72. Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al (2005) The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet[30], Darussalam Publications, ISBN 978-9960899558, pages 350-351 Note: 4AH=625
  73. The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet, p. 351. (footnote 1)
  74. The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet, p. 351. (footnote 1)
  75. Sa'd, Ibn () Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, 2, Pakistan Historical Society, p. 66
  76. Abū Khalīl, Shawqī () Atlas of the Quran, Dar-us-Salam, p. 242 ISBN: 978-9960897547. See #no. 28 (6AH=627)
  77. Tabari, Al (2008) The foundation of the community[31], State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0887063442, page 147
  78. Tabari, Al (2008) The foundation of the community[32], State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0887063442, page 151: “Then in Safar (which began July 13, 625), four months after Uhud, he sent out the men of Bi'r Ma'unah”
  79. Mubarakpuri, The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet , p. 352.
  80. Mubarakpuri, The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet , p. 352 (footnote 1).
  81. Tabari, Al (2008) The foundation of the community[33], State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0887063442, page 161: “The Messenger of God remained in Medina after the expedition against the Banu al-Nadir for the two months of Rabi' and part of the month of Jumada (from August 1 1 to late October, 625)”
  82. Rahman al-Mubarakpuri, Saifur (2005) The Sealed Nectar[34], Darussalam Publications, page 189 (online)
  83. () World religions and norms of war, United Nations University Press, p. 296 ISBN: 9789280811636.
  84. Rahman al-Mubarakpuri, Saifur (2005) The Sealed Nectar[35], Darussalam Publications, page 192. See red text
  85. Tabari, Al (25 Sep 1990) The last years of the Prophet (translated by Isma’il Qurban Husayn)[36], State University of New York Press
  86. Tabari, Al (2008) The foundation of the community[37], State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0887063442, page 161
  87. Muir, William (1861) The life of Mahomet[38], Smith, Elder & Co, page 224
  88. Tabari, Al (2008) The foundation of the community[39], State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0887063442, page 161
  89. a b c d e Hawarey, Dr. Mosab () The Journey of Prophecy; Days of Peace and War (Arabic), Islamic Book TrustNote: Book contains a list of battles of Muhammad in Arabic, English translation available here
  90. Muir, William (1861) The life of Mahomet[40], Smith, Elder & Co, pages 220-222
  91. Abū Khalīl, Shawqī () Atlas of the Quran, Dar-us-Salam, p. 242 ISBN: 978-9960897547.
  92. Muir, William (1861) The life of Mahomet[41], Smith, Elder & Co, pages 222 See footnote
  93. Ibn Abbas, Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs on 3:173, altafsir.com (archive)
  94. Rahman al-Mubarakpuri, Saifur (2005) The Sealed Nectar[42], Darussalam Publications, page 193 (red text)
  95. Muir, William (1861) The life of Mahomet[43], Smith, Elder & Co, pages 225-226
  96. () The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh, Darussalam publishers Ltd, p. 657 ISBN: 978-9960-897-18-9.
  97. Sa'd, Ibn () Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, 2, Pakistan Historical Society, p. 76 “Ghazwah of the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him, to Dumat Al-Jandal”
  98. Muhammad Siddique Qureshi (1989), Foreign policy of Hadrat Muhammad (SAW), Islamic Publications, p. 216.
  99. Rahman al-Mubarakpuri, Saifur (2005) The Sealed Nectar[44], Darussalam Publications, pages 196-198 (see red & blue text)
  100. Rahman al-Mubarakpuri, Saifur (2005) The Sealed Nectar[45], Darussalam Publications, pages 196-198 (see red & blue text)
  101. The life of Mahomet[46], Kessinger Publishing, 2003, ISBN 9780766177413, page 317
  102. Tafsir Ibn Kathir Juz'21[47], MSA Publication Limited, 2009, ISBN 9781861796110, pages 213(online)
  103. Tafsir Ibn Kathir Juz'21[48], MSA Publication Limited, 2009, ISBN 9781861796110, pages 213(online)
  104. Haykal, Husayn (1976) The Life of Muhammad[49], Islamic Book Trust, ISBN 978-983-9154-17-7, page 338
  105. Volume 8, Victory of Islam[50], State University of New York Press, 1997, ISBN 9780791431504, pages 35–36
  106. Muhammad Yasin Mahzar Siddiqi, Role of Booty in the economy during the prophets time, Vol. 1, King Abdul Aziz University , p.11. (archive), "In the sixth year of the hijrah (June, 627-May, 628A.D.) there were three ghazawa t but no booty was obtained from them. Of the 18 saraya, during this year only seven yielded any monetary or material benefits to the Muslims The very first expedition of the year i.e. Muhammad b. Maslamah's expedition..."
  107. Sa'd, Ibn () Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2, Pakistan Historical Society, p. 96 “SARIYYAH OF MUHAMMAD IBN MASLAMAH AGAINST AL-QURATA”
  108. Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al (2005) The Sealed Nectar[51], Darussalam Publications, page 205 Note: 6AH=627
  109. Sa'd, Ibn () Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2, Pakistan Historical Society, p. 104 “Then occurred the sariyyah of 'Ukkashah Ibn Mihsan al-Asadl on al-Ghamr.”
  110. Abū Khalīl, Shawqī () Atlas of the Quran, Dar-us-Salam, p. 242 ISBN: 978-9960897547.
  111. a b Tabari, Al (2008) The foundation of the community[52], State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0887063442, page 119
  112. Sa'd, Ibn () Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2, Pakistan Historical Society, p. 105 “despatched Muhammad Ibn Maslamah with ten men towards Bana Tha'labah and Bana 'Uwal, a branch of Bana Tia'labah who were...”
  113. Abū Khalīl, Shawqī () Atlas of the Quran, Dar-us-Salam, p. 242 ISBN: 978-9960897547.
  114. The last years of the Prophet[53], State University of New York Press, 25 Sep 1990, ISBN 978-0887066917, page 123 (online)
  115. Abū Khalīl, Shawqī () Atlas of the Quran, Dar-us-Salam, p. 242 ISBN: 978-9960897547.
  116. Riyad-us Saliheen[54], Islamic Books, 2005 See no. 1309
  117. Sa'd, Ibn () Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2, Pakistan Historical Society, p. 97
  118. Abū Khalīl, Shawqī () Atlas of the Quran, Dar-us-Salam, p. 242 ISBN: 978-9960897547.
  119. Sa'd, Ibn () Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2, Pakistan Historical Society, p. 100
  120. Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al (2005) The Sealed Nectar[55], Darussalam Publications, page 205 Note: 6AH=627
  121. Sa'd, Ibn () Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2, Pakistan Historical Society, p. 106
  122. () Muhammad at Medina, Oxford University Press, p. 96 ISBN: 978-0195773071. “One was a little-known expedition about September 627” (free online)
  123. Sa'd, Ibn () Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2, Pakistan Historical Society, p. 107
  124. Abū Khalīl, Shawqī () Atlas of the Quran, Dar-us-Salam, p. 242 ISBN: 978-9960897547. See #no. 17 (6AH=627)
  125. Sa'd, Ibn () Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2, Pakistan Historical Society, p. 107 “Sariyyah of Zayd ibn Haritha towards al-Taraf”
  126. Abū Khalīl, Shawqī () Atlas of the Quran, Dar-us-Salam, p. 242 ISBN: 978-9960897547.
  127. Sa'd, Ibn () Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2, Pakistan Historical Society, p. 108 “Sariyyah of Zayd ibn Haritha against Hisma”
  128. Muir, William (1861) The life of Mahomet and history of Islam to the era of the Hegira, Volume 4[56], Smith, Elder & Co, pages 12-13
  129. Sa'd, Ibn () Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2, Pakistan Historical Society, p. 109 “Sariyyah of Zayd ibn Haritha towards Wadi al-Qura”
  130. Abū Khalīl, Shawqī () Atlas of the Quran, Dar-us-Salam, p. 242 ISBN: 978-9960897547.
  131. () The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh, Darussalam publishers Ltd, p. 490 ISBN: 978-9960-897-18-9.
  132. Abū Khalīl, Shawqī () Atlas of the Quran, Dar-us-Salam, p. 242 ISBN: 978-9960897547.
  133. () The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh, Darussalam publishers Ltd, p. 672 ISBN: 978-9960-897-18-9.
  134. Abū Khalīl, Shawqī () Atlas of the Quran, Dar-us-Salam, p. 242 ISBN: 978-9960897547.
  135. Sa'd, Ibn () Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2, Pakistan Historical Society, p. 110 “SARIYYAH OF 'ALI IBN ABl TALIB AGAINST BANU SA'D IBN BAKR AT FADAK”
  136. Abū Khalīl, Shawqī () Atlas of the Quran, Dar-us-Salam, p. 242 ISBN: 978-9960897547.
  137. Volume 8, Victory of Islam[57], State University of New York Press, 1997, ISBN 9780791431504, pages 95–97
  138. Abū Khalīl, Shawqī () Atlas of the Quran, Dar-us-Salam, p. 242 ISBN: 978-9960897547.
  139. The life of Mahomet: with introductory chapters on the original ..., Volume 4, By Sir William Muir, Pg 18-19
  140. Tafsir ibn Kathir, Surai Madiah 5:39, "The Punishment of those who cause mischief in the Land", and Tafsir ibn Kathir, 5:39, Text version
  141. Abū Khalīl, Shawqī () Atlas of the Quran, Dar-us-Salam, p. 242 ISBN: 978-9960897547.
  142. Tirmidhi (Partial translation), see no. 3923, p. 182.
  143. () The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh, Darussalam publishers Ltd, p. 665 ISBN: 978-9960-897-18-9. “Abdullah b. Rawaha's raid to kill al-Yusayr b. Rizam”
  144. Emory C. Bogle (1998), Islam: origin and belief, University of Texas Press, p. 19.
  145. Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al (2005) The Sealed Nectar[58], Darussalam Publications, pages 214-215
  146. Sa'd, Ibn () Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2, Pakistan Historical Society, p. 211
  147. Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004) Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks, Dar-us-Salam, p. 180 ISBN: 978-9960897714.
  148. Tafsir ibn Kathir (abridged), Pg 554, By Ibn Kathir, Translation by Saifur Rahman al Mubarakpuri, also see Tafsir ibn Kathir 59:7, Text Version
  149. Ibn Kathir, Saifur Rahman al-Mubarakpuri (translator), Tafsir ibn Kathir (abridged), p. 555 (footnote 1 & 2).
  150. () Muhammad at Medina, Oxford University Press, p. 2 ISBN: 978-0195773071. “Muhammad had thus a straightforward reason for attacking Khaybar. The moment he chose for the attack May /June 628.” (free online)
  151. Mubarakpuri, The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet , p. 432.
  152. Mubarakpuri, The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet , pp. 433-434.
  153. Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004) Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks, Dar-us-Salam, p. 180 ISBN: 978-9960897714.
  154. Tabari, Al (25 Sep 1990) The last years of the Prophet (translated by Isma’il Qurban Husayn)[59], State University of New York Press: “enumerating with them the expedition of Wadi al-Qura. He stated that he fought there with his slave Mid'am”
  155. Abū Khalīl, Shawqī () Atlas of the Quran, Dar-us-Salam, p. 242 ISBN: 978-9960897547.
  156. Sa'd, Ibn () Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2, Pakistan Historical Society, pp. 146 “The Sariyyah of 'Umar Ibn al-Khattab, may Allah show him mercy, on Turabah”
  157. Abū Khalīl, Shawqī () Atlas of the Quran, Dar-us-Salam, p. 242 ISBN: 978-9960897547.
  158. Sa'd, Ibn () Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2, Pakistan Historical Society, pp. 146 “The Sariyyah of Abu Bakr al-Siddiq, may Allah be pleased with him, on Banu Kilab at Najd”
  159. Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004) Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks, Dar-us-Salam, p. 205 ISBN: 978-9960897714.
  160. Sa'd, Ibn () Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2, Pakistan Historical Society, pp. 148
  161. Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004) Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks, Dar-us-Salam, p. 205 ISBN: 978-9960897714.
  162. Sa'd, Ibn () Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2, Pakistan Historical Society, pp. 149
  163. Volume 8, Victory of Islam[60], State University of New York Press, 1997, ISBN 9780791431504, page 132
  164. Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004) Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks, Dar-us-Salam, p. 212 ISBN: 978-9960897714.
  165. Sa'd, Ibn () Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2, Pakistan Historical Society, pp. 156
  166. Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004) Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks, Dar-us-Salam, p. 205 ISBN: 978-9960897714.
  167. Sa'd, Ibn () Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2, Pakistan Historical Society, pp. 149 “THE SARIYYAH OF BASHIR IBN SA'D AL-ANSARI TOWARDS YAMAN AND JAMAR”
  168. Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004) Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks, Dar-us-Salam, p. 212 ISBN: 978-9960897714.
  169. Sa'd, Ibn () Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2, Pakistan Historical Society, pp. 153 “THE SARIYYAH OF IBN ABI AL-'AWJA AL-SULAMI AGAINST BAND SULAYM”
  170. Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004) Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks, Dar-us-Salam, p. 212 ISBN: 978-9960897714.
  171. Sa'd, Ibn () Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2, Pakistan Historical Society, pp. 156
  172. The life of Mahomet[61], Kessinger Publishing, 2003, ISBN 9780766177413, page 317
  173. Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004) Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks, Dar-us-Salam, p. 212 ISBN: 978-9960897714.
  174. Sa'd, Ibn () Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2, Pakistan Historical Society, pp. 157 “THE SARIYYAH OF SHUJA' IBN WAHB AL-ASADl AGAINST BANU AMIR AT AL-SIYYI”
  175. Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004) Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks, Dar-us-Salam, p. 212 ISBN: 978-9960897714.
  176. Sa'd, Ibn () Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2, Pakistan Historical Society, pp. 158 “THE SARIYYAH OF KA'B IBN 'UMAYR AL-GHIFARl TOWARDS DHAT ATLAH BEYOND WADI AL-QURA. Then (occurred) the sariyyah of Ka'b Ibn 'Umayr al-Ghifar? towards Dhat Atlah which lies beyond Wadi al-Qura in the month of Rabi' al-Awwal of the eighth...”
  177. Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004) Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks, Dar-us-Salam, p. 212 ISBN: 978-9960897714.
  178. Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al (2005) The Sealed Nectar[62], Darussalam Publications, page 245
  179. Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004) Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks, Dar-us-Salam, p. 218 ISBN: 978-9960897714. Note: 6th Month, 8AH = September 629
  180. Sa'd, Ibn () Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2, Pakistan Historical Society, pp. 162 “The Sariyyah of 'Amr Ibn al-'As towards DMt al-Salasil which is beyond Wadi al-Qura”
  181. Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004) Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks, Dar-us-Salam, p. 218 ISBN: 978-9960897714. Note: Rajab, 8AH = October 629
  182. Sa'd, Ibn () Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2, Pakistan Historical Society, pp. 163
  183. The last years of the Prophet[63], State University of New York Press, 25 Sep 1990, ISBN 978-0887066917, pages 123 (online)
  184. Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al (2005) The Sealed Nectar[64], Darussalam Publications, page 205
  185. Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004) Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks, Dar-us-Salam, p. 218 ISBN: 978-9960897714.
  186. Muir, William (1861) The life of Mahomet and history of Islam to the era of the Hegira, Volume 4[65], Smith, Elder & Co, page 106
  187. Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004) Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks, Dar-us-Salam, p. 218 ISBN: 978-9960897714.
  188. Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004) Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks, Dar-us-Salam, p. 218 ISBN: 978-9960897714.
  189. Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004) Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks, Dar-us-Salam, p. 226 ISBN: 978-9960897714.
  190. Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004) Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks, Dar-us-Salam, p. 226 ISBN: 978-9960897714.
  191. Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004) Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks, Dar-us-Salam, p. 226 ISBN: 978-9960897714.
  192. Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004) Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks, Dar-us-Salam, p. 226 ISBN: 978-9960897714.
  193. Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004) Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks, Dar-us-Salam, p. 226 ISBN: 978-9960897714.
  194. Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004) Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks, Dar-us-Salam, p. 226 ISBN: 978-9960897714.
  195. Biographies of the Prophet's companions and their successorsTabari, Ella Landau-Tasseron (translator), State University of New York (SUNY) Press, 1998, ISBN 0791428192, page 101: “Part of the events of Hunayn in the year 8/630”
  196. Hawarey, Dr. Mosab () The Journey of Prophecy; Days of Peace and War (Arabic), Islamic Book TrustNote: Book contains a list of battles of Muhammad in Arabic, English translation available here
  197. Hawarey, Dr. Mosab () The Journey of Prophecy; Days of Peace and War (Arabic), Islamic Book TrustNote: Book contains a list of battles of Muhammad in Arabic, English translation available here
  198. Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al (2005) The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet[66], Darussalam Publications, ISBN 978-9960899558, page 481 Note: Shawwal 8AH is January 630AD
  199. Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004) Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks, Dar-us-Salam, p. 228 ISBN: 978-9960897714.
  200. Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004) Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks, Dar-us-Salam, p. 229 ISBN: 978-9960897714.
  201. Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004) Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks, Dar-us-Salam, p. 230 ISBN: 978-9960897714.
  202. Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004) Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks, Dar-us-Salam, p. 231 ISBN: 978-9960897714.
  203. Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004) Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks, Dar-us-Salam, p. 233 ISBN: 978-9960897714.
  204. Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004) Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks, Dar-us-Salam, p. 239 ISBN: 978-9960897714.
  205. Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004) Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks, Dar-us-Salam, p. 239 ISBN: 978-9960897714.
  206. Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004) Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks, Dar-us-Salam, p. 239 ISBN: 978-9960897714.
  207. Tabari, Al (25 Sep 1990) The last years of the Prophet (translated by Isma'il Qurban Husayn)[67], State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0887066917, page 46 Note: Source says this happened in the same year as the Battle of Tabuk which occurred in October 630
  208. () The Meaning and Explanation of the Glorious Qur'an (Vol 4) 2nd Edition, MSA Publication Limited, p. 176 Retrieved on 29 June 2011. ISBN: 1861796501. Note: source says it was destroyed when Muhammad returned from the Battle of Tabuk (which occurred in October 630)
  209. William Pickthall, Marmaduke () Islamic culture, Volume 9, Islamic Culture Board, p. 191 ISBN: 978-1142491741. Original is from the University of Virginia
  210. ibn al Kalbi, Hisham () The book of idols: being a translation from the Arabic of the Kitāb al-asnām, Princeton University Press, p. 48
  211. a b Muir, William (August 1878) The life of Mahomet[68], Smith, Elder and co, page 219: “Beginning of A.H. X” Note: Muharram is the beginning of the year, then Muharram 10AH= April 631 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Muir_August_1878_219" defined multiple times with different content
  212. Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004) Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks, Dar-us-Salam, p. 239 ISBN: 978-9960897714.
  213. Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004) Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks, Dar-us-Salam, p. 239 ISBN: 978-9960897714.
  214. Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004) Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks, Dar-us-Salam, p. 239 ISBN: 978-9960897714.
  215. Gil, Moshe (1997) A history of Palestine, 634-1099[69], Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521599849, page 31