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English: Gu Yanwu , was a Chinese philologist and geographer. He spent his youth in anti-Manchu activities at a time when the Ming Dynasty had been overthrown. He never served the Qing Dynasty. Instead, he traveled throughout the country and devoted himself to studies.
中文: 顾炎武（），原名绛， 字忠清。明亡后，以慕文天祥學生王炎午為人，改名炎武，字宁人，亦自署蒋山傭。学者尊为亭林先生。南直隶（清改江南省）苏州府昆山县（今江苏苏州昆山）人，明末清初著名的思想家、史学家、语言学家。知識淵博，與黃宗羲、王夫之並為明末清初三大儒。